Method and device for impact compression of material and plasma cathode for such device

FIELD: nuclear engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.

EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.

22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The technical field

The invention relates:

to technology shock compression of condensed (liquid or preferably solid) of the substance to a superdense state, which can be of Picea gender processes and inertial fusion (hereinafter ETS), and

for the design of devices for its implementation on the basis of the relativistic vacuum diode (hereinafter WFD), including plasma cathodes for them.

This technology is designed primarily for the transmutation of atomic nuclei of some chemical elements in the kernel of other chemical elements to:

experimental receive mostly stable isotopes of chemical elements, including the synthesis of stable transuranic, and

processing of radioactive waste containing long-lived isotopes in materials containing short-lived and/or stable isotopes, which is especially important for the decontamination of waste sources of gamma radiation, for example based on radioactive isotopes of cobalt, which are widely used in industry and medicine.

In the future this technology can be used to generate energy by ETS using preferably a solid target.

In relation to the invention hereinafter indicated:

the term "target" - once used for shock compression dose for men is our least one arbitrary isotope of at least one chemical element, which serves as a raw material for producing products of nuclear transformations and, optionally, the primary energy source for energy production;

the term "shock compression is isentropic pulse action zamorochuyusya converging wave density for at least part of the target;

the term "super-dense state" - a state of at least part of the target after the shock compression, in which a significant portion of its substance is converted into electron-nuclear and electron-nucleon plasma;

the term "pinkadilly process" (particularly "cold") recombination interaction between the components of the electron-nuclear and electron-nucleon plasma compressed to a superdense state of a target substance, in which there is at least a change in the elemental composition of the target;

the term "plasma cathode" - this replaced as wear axisymmetric part of the negative electrode of the WFD, which is able at the beginning of the bit pulse generating material of the surface layer of the plasma membrane with close to zero work function of electrons,

the term "anode hub" - this reusable removable axisymmetric part of the anode of the WFD, which in the simplest demonstration experiments entirely made of preferably electroconductive what about in the bulk material and directly serves as a target, and when this device is used for industrial purposes has the appearance of at least a single-layer shell made of hard durable material, inside which is also asymmetrically with providing acoustic coupling attached to the selected target; and

the term "focus space" - this part of the space of the vacuum chamber of the WFD, which volume covers a certain period of common geometric axis of symmetry of the electrodes of the WFD and in which in the absence of obstacles and the values area of emitting surface of the plasma cathode electron energy and current density due to collective focusing of relativistic electrons possible pinch electron beam.

The level of technology

Theoretically, it is well known (see, for example, US Patent 4401618)that for controlled nuclear reactions is necessary and sufficient:

first, to make the target microscopic volume, weight is typically from a few micrograms to a few milligrams,

secondly, to fix the generated target in space,

thirdly, how can a more uniform shock compression of the target in its entirety to transfer the substance to a superdense state and,

fourth, to keep the target substance in this state long enough for transmutation and/or fusion of nuclei ATO is s, that may be accompanied by the release or absorption of energy.

It should be noted that these restrictions target mass is important mainly for its, for 1 mg of deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium on the energy content equivalent to about 20-30 kg of trinitrotoluene.

Theoretically it is well known that transmutation and/or fusion occurs almost simultaneously with the achievement of super-dense state. Therefore, the efforts of specialists in the field of nuclear physics have so far been focused on creating the most effective ways and means of impact compression of a substance.

Finally, it is also theoretically clear:

what compression is only possible when generating powerful mechanical pulse durations of the order of several tens of nanoseconds and the focus of this pulse to a substantial part (and in the limit all over) the surface of the target, located in securely isolated from the environment volume

the need for such means of time-space compression of the flow of energy as the primary energy source, at least one energy storage device, at least one Converter of the accumulated energy in the shock mechanical momentum and mechanical drummer for almost isentropic transmission of this pulse at the target, and

what adequate is abore of such funds, and the relationship between them can be solved in different ways depending on the purpose of the experiments on shock compression of matter with the caveat, when connecting to a Fieldbus power supply first, but not the only energy storage is usually a device based on the LC-circuit (see, for example: the collection of articles "ENERGY STORAGE, COMPRESSION AND SWITCHING," edited by W.H. Bostick, V. Nardy and O.S.F. Zucker, Plenum Press, New York and London, or its English translation "the ACCUMULATION AND SWITCHING LARGE ENERGY DENSITIES".-Moscow: MIR, 1979).

Attempts to implement these theoretical assumptions in practice for many years focused on ETS, industrial development which seemed sufficient condition for humanity's transition into the "energy Paradise."

Therefore, as the active substance originally used only gaseous deuterium or deuterium and tritium, and the target produced in the form of sealed hollow spheres filled with microscopic (about 0.1 mg) portions of these isotopes of hydrogen. Further, each such target synchronously and uniformly with many of the parties were directed beams of electromagnetic radiation of the laser driver. Heating of the shell caused ablation (partial evaporation) its external parts. The expansion of the evaporated material generated reactive power, which caused the implosion, i.e. uniform compression of the inner part of the membrane and the active substance of the target toward the center of the sphere (see, for example: 1. US Patent 4401618; 2. J. Lindl, Phys. of Plasmas, 1995; 3. K. Mima et al., Fusion nergy, 1996, IAEA, Vienna, v.3, p.13, 1996).

This scheme ETS seemed perfect. Indeed, the pulse duration of the laser radiation can be increased to values of about 1 NS. This provides effective temporary compression of the flow of energy, and a sharp reduction of the area of the target surface is a prerequisite for spatial compression of this thread.

Unfortunately, the efficiency of the lasers does not exceed 5%of that from the very beginning have questioned the effectiveness of laser driver with regard to criterion Lawson (J.D. Lawson, Proc. Phys. Soc., V, 1957). Next, enable synchronization of lasers requires a complex system of automatic control. Finally, ablation accompanied by a significant loss of energy to heat the shell and the target as a whole. So still no one had brought a gaseous target substance to a superdense state and has not received a positive output energy exceeding the cost of the initiation of the fence.

Known attempts to create a pressure and temperature sufficient to initiate and flow ETS, sound driver, which should cause cavitation in condensed matter, in particular liquid, target (US Patents 4333796; 5858104 and 5659173). For example, in international publication WO 01/39197 described:

(1) cavitation fusion reactor, which has:

at least one source of mechanical ultrasonic vibrations, prefer the LNO several vukobratovi, able to convey these oscillations in the resonant mode in the closed volume of the target with the increase in the density of energy flow per unit area, and

the tool selection process heat in the form of a suitable heat exchanger; and

(2) this method of use is described of the reactor, which provides:

manufacturer poorly conducting the sound of the targets by pressing the fuel material required for nuclear fusion, in particular of titanium deuteride targets or lithium deuteride targets, or dideuterio gadolinium, etc. in a solid matrix of zvukoprovodnosti refractory metal such as titanium, tungsten, gadolinium, osmium or molybdenum,

the introduction of at least one such matrix with at least one target in acoustic contact with at least one zvukoprovodnost, which is connected to the source of ultrasonic mechanical vibrations,

the impact on such a matrix by a series of ultrasonic pulses in a resonant mode, which, due to the conversion of kinetic energy of mechanical vibrations into heat, causing mechanochemical degradation of deuterides and fluidization targets and, as a result of "evaporation" of deuterium target, almost simultaneously excites in liquid targets cavitation, i.e. the emergence of steam bubbles and their collapse under the pressure of the matrix material, and

head of renie process after passing inside the targets of nuclear fusion reactions with the release of energy.

The use of solid (in original condition) targets and ultrasonic mechanical impulses for their shock compression seems very attractive. Unfortunately, the sources of ultrasound as lasers, have a slight efficiency moreover, unlike lasers, these sources give very low power density per pulse that forces us to introduce a system of "source of ultrasound - Caterina target" in a resonant mode. However, in this mode, the main part of energy is spent on heating of the target and scatters. Therefore, shock compression of matter to super-dense state was not reached even after long-term "pumping" energy into the target.

Accordingly, the problem of creating effective ways and means of shock compression of matter to super-dense state remains relevant.

A promising approach is based on the application of the WFD, which is known from the beginning of the XX century (see, for example: 1. C.D. Child, Phys. Rev., v.32, h.492, 1911; 2. I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev., v.2, p.450, 1913).

Each of the WFD has a vacuum chamber, in which is fixed the cathode and the anode connected to the drive of the electric charge through pulse discharger. If a sufficiently large charge and short-duration discharge such diodes are able to provide an explosive emission of electrons from the cathode and their acceleration to subspecific speeds with K. d more than 90%.

In this capacity generators and accelerators, high-power electron beams of the WFD have been the object of attention of physicists throughout the twentieth century, and numerous improvements to the design of such diodes in General, and especially cathodes for them were focused on the spatio-temporal compression energy in electron beams and giving these bundles of the desired spatial form.

Attempt to create a way of shock compression substances in the WFD, with the aim of its well-known from US Patent 3892970. This method includes:

the production target in the form of a symmetrical grains condensed (in particular, particulate) substance that is frozen fuel for fusion (deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium),

secondly, the flow targets in the interelectrode gap of the WFD, which is open output means generating anode plasma, and

thirdly, almost simultaneous injection of the anode plasma and pulsed (10 NS) shock compression ring target with shortages at her through the anode plasma powerful (about 100 TWh) current carrying energy of about 1 MJ.

However, this method is very difficult to compress the target substance to a superdense state, and hold it there long enough for nuclear fusion of atoms with the release of energy, for the dimensions of the target is clearly less than the length of the path of the electron with energy the Giya about 1.5 MeV. Therefore, the kinetic energy of the electrons almost instantly throughout the target volume is converted into thermal energy and cause the volumetric thermal explosion of nuclear fuel. Further, in the known method it is extremely difficult to synchronize the hit free-flying targets in the centre of the ring cathode of the WFD with the discharge energy source and creating a flat plasma anode. Accordingly, the focusing of the electron beam on the target can be achieved only by accident despite the regulation voltage discharge and density of the anode plasma.

Known from the same source device for impact compression of a substance on the basis of the WFD has a spherical equipped with a heat exchanger vacuum chamber with a channel for delivery of targets, two symmetrically located relative to the Central plane of the vacuum chamber an annular cathode, an additional device for the injection of plasma located between the cathode and forming a flat plasma anode immediately before the discharge of the supply chain.

And, finally, known from the same source, the cathode has a current-carrying part and the focusing tip, which is made in the form of a ring with a sharp edge to the increase of the gradient of the electric field. During the discharge edge of such a cathode is covered with its own layer of plasma.

In such WFD almost now who should send the target a significant fraction of the energy of the annular electron beam, because he's already at the time of formation is on the verge of pinch and unstable (especially in combination with a plasma anode, the parameters of which vary markedly within each pulse, and the pulse to pulse).

Therefore, it is desirable that the anode was solid and either by itself served as the target, or include, the target, and in the process of discharge at the same time avoid pinch in the electrode gap and achieved self-focusing of the electron beam on the surface of the anode.

It is surprising that, according to available data, in search of means of this kind was focused only profiling emitter cathodes of the WFD using almost flat anodes. A striking example of this approach can serve as a pulsed electron source on the basis of the WFD, which plasma cathode has a profiled plate of dielectric material and similarly shaped conductive pad on a portion of the surface of said plate (SU 1545826 A1). Such a composite cathode pulsed discharge can produce not subject to the pinch electron beam with a profile corresponding to the profile of the dielectric plate.

However, for ETS and picloader processes should be more uniform compression of the target, which cannot be achieved by profiling the electron beam. Therefore, the described WFD, as I analogues, practically inapplicable in the processes of shock compression of matter to super-dense state.

The difficulty of suppression pinch in the electrode gap and ensure the focusing of electron beams on the surface of the targets has generated many physicists such pessimism, they concluded that the fundamental unsuitability of the WFD as a driver for transmutation processes and ETS (see, for example: 1. James J. Duderstadt, Gregory Moses, Inertia! confinement fusion. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1982 (J. Duderstadt, , Mosesinhaled.org fusion. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1984, p.18.); 2. ..Velikhov, S.V.Putvinsky. Fusion power. Its status and role in the long-term prospects. In 4.2.2. Drivers for Inertial Controlled Fusion/ http://relcom. website. EN/wfs-moscow. and mn. etc).

However, the search in this direction continued.

So, the closest to the invention to the technical nature of the method and apparatus, which are in principle suitable for impact compression of a substance, were revealed at the international conference on particle accelerators (S. Adamenko, E. Bulyak et al. Effect of Auto-focusing of the Electron Beam in the Relativistic Vacuum Diode. In: Proceedings of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999), and in a later article (V.I.Vysotski, S.V.Adamenko et al. Creating and using of superdense micro-beams of relativistic electrons. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 455, 2000, pp.123-127).

Method of impact compression of a substance that is easily perceived by the experts from these sources of information include:

production targets as such is nesimmetrichnoi parts of condensed matter, which serves as at least part of the anode of the WFD (namely in the form of a hemispherical tip of the needle anode of the hub diameter of the order of several micrometers),

the install target in the WFD, it is also equipped with an axisymmetric plasma cathode, which is located practically on the same geometric axis with the specified anode hub and separated from it by a few millimeters, and

pulse discharge power source to the WFD in the mode of self-focusing of the electron beam on the surface of the anode hub.

Device for impact compression of a substance in this way is made on the basis of the WFD. It has:

strong gas-tight casing, part of which is made of electrically conductive material, made axisymmetric and limits the vacuum chamber, and

enshrined in this camera practically on the same geometric axis of an axisymmetric plasma cathode and an axisymmetric anode-hub, of which at least a plasma cathode is connected to a pulsed high-voltage power source.

The cathode was performed according to the classical scheme "conductive tapering in the direction towards the anode (usually metal) rod - end of the dielectric element, the perimeter and the area of the working end of which do not exceed, respectively, the perimeter and the area of cross-Sich is of the specified terminal.

Giving both electrodes of the specific geometric forms has enabled us to put a pinch in the electrode gap of the WFD, to focus the electron beam and to provide self-focusing on a small portion of the surface of the anode hub.

However, this is essentially a point impact on the anode hub is suitable only for demonstrating the applicability of the WFD for impact compression of a substance, but not able to guarantee the compression of the substance to a superdense state in a substantial part of the target volume during each of the next pulse discharge.

Plasma cathode was made under the scheme "conductive (metal) element intended for connection to a high-voltage pulse power source - end of the dielectric element, with which the rear end is in contact with the conductive element and the front face of which serves as a means of organizing the emission of electrons (each month should text month G.A. Cathode Phenomena in a Vacuum Discharge: The Breakdown, the Spark and the Arc. - Moskow: Nauka Publishers, 2000, p.60).

Summary of the invention

In connection with the above the basis of the invention is:

first, the change of the conditions of operations to create a way of shock compression, which could guarantee the compression of a substantial portion of a target substance to a superdense state in each of the next impul the sleep of the discharge on the WFD,

secondly, the change in the shape and configuration of the electrodes in the WFD to create such a device for impact compression of a substance that would provide a practical implementation of the method, and,

thirdly, the change in the shape and aspect ratio of conductive and dielectric parts to create such an axisymmetric plasma cathode, which would provide the most cost-effective practical implementation of the method.

The task in the first part solved by the fact that in the way of shock compression of matter using the WFD with axisymmetric vacuum chamber with electrically conductive walls, axisymmetric plasma cathode and an axisymmetric anode-hub, including:

the production target in the form of the axisymmetric part of the condensed substance, which serves as at least part of the anode hub

the installation of the anode hub in the WFD with a gap relative to the plasma cathode is practically on the same geometric axis and

pulse discharge power source to the WFD in the mode of self-focusing of the electron beam on the surface of the anode hub

according to the invention

use an axisymmetric plasma cathode in the form of a conductive rod and rigidly associated end of the dielectric element, in which the working end is not what increases the cross-sectional area of conductive rod and the maximum cross-sectional area of the anode hub

the anode hub set with such a gap relative to the plasma cathode, at which the center of curvature of the working surface of the anode hub is located inside the focal space collectively samofokusirowkoj. electron beam,

and impinges on the anode hub electron beam with electron energy not less than 0.2 MeV, a current density of not less than 106A/cm2and duration of no more than 100 NS.

The results of the implementation of this method came as quite a surprise even for the inventor who wanted him more than 10 years. So, when using the simplest monometallic targets high-purity copper, tantalum and other materials has managed to establish experimentally the following:

a significant part of the mass of each target after the shock compression scattered and form clusters transmutation products were deposited on the walls of the vacuum chamber of the WFD and/or the following screen.

individual concentrations were fairly uniform elemental composition;

the clusters were reliably identified not only stable isotopes now known chemical elements that were not present in the target substance as an impurity, but also relatively stable isotopes now unknown and not yet identified transuranium;

the isotopic composition of the products of the TRANS is utali substances targets differed significantly from the reference data on the isotopic composition of these elements in the earth's crust,

the positive output of thermal energy from the transmutation was not documented.

This differs transmutation according to the invention from traditional transmutation bombardment of solid targets (for example, from the same copper or molybdenum) ions (usually deuterons), which are derived from sources with magnetic held of the anode plasma and dispersed on a difficult and dangerous operation of a pulsed accelerators to obtain the flow rate of the order of 1 kW ions at an energy of more than 5 MeV (see, for example, US Patent 5848110). Indeed, such processes can only get known mostly radioactive isotopes known chemical elements, for example: Zn65Mo99I123About15and so, while the method according to the invention is practically usable, at least for the synthesis of transuranium sufficient for chemical research quantities.

Mentioned above and described in detail hereinafter, the results of the method according to the invention suggests that the electron beam collectively samofokusirovka on a substantial part of the surface of the anode hub and excites in its surface layer mechanical soliton-like pulse density converging to the axis of symmetry of the target. This impulse isotropically transmits energy is received from the electron beam, on the part of the target material near the axis of its symmetry. The leading edge of the specified pulse seeks to acquire a spherical shape. Therefore, the closer soliton-like pulse to a certain small volume centered on the axis of symmetry of the target is ukrashenie its leading edge and increase energy density up to values sufficient to achieve the super-dense state of matter and the flow of picloader processes. Therefore, the simplest (and, importantly, almost safe in operation) the electron accelerator of the type of the WFD with minimum energy consumption possible, as will be shown in detail below, to provide transmutation nuclear reactions with obtaining a wide range of isotopes.

The first additional difference is that in the composition of the WFD using a plasma cathode, in which the conductive rod is pointed and end of the dielectric element has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole. This allows at least partially regulate the interelectrode gap in the WFD and to stabilize the plasma cathode, which is especially important for experimental optimization of the process of shock compression.

A second difference is that the target groups is comfort in the form of an insert in the Central part of the anode hub of the WFD, the diameter of which is chosen in the range from 0.05 to 0.2, the maximum lateral dimension of the anode hub. This allows you to use the object, which is compressed up to the super-dense state, any material, regardless of their conductivity and to apply them both in the solid and in the liquid state. Naturally, the liquid pre-capsulebuy either directly in the hard shell of the anode hub, or in a separate shell, after which the seal is inserted into the anode hub by providing a tight acoustic coupling.

The third additional difference is that at least the portion of the anode hub, which is converted to the plasma cathode, give a spheroidal shape. This allows to reduce mechanical soliton-like pulse density in microscopically small volume and even with minimal (on the order of 300-1000 j) the flow of energy within the WFD in one "shot" to provide shock compression of matter each of the next target before the super-dense state with 1017-1018atoms as products of transmutation.

Fourth difference is that the target shape in the form of a spheroidal body, which is tightly fixed inside the anode of the hub so that the centers of the inner and outer spheroids are almost the same. T the m most able to significantly increase the output of the transmuted material.

Fifth difference is that on the anode hub impact of the electron beam with electron energy up to 1, 5 MeV, a current density of not more than 108A/cm2and the maximum duration of 50 NS. These modes are sufficient for the occurrence picloader processes in targets consisting of the most stable atoms of chemical elements from the "middle part" of the periodic table.

The sixth additional difference is that the current density in the electron beam is not more than 107A/cm2that is enough for effective shock compression of most condensed targets.

Seventh additional difference is that the residual pressure in the vacuum chamber of the WFD supported at the level of not more than 0.1 PA, which is sufficient to exclude the gas discharge between the electrodes of the WFD.

The task in the second part solved by the fact that the device for impact compression of a substance on the basis of the WFD, which includes:

strong gas-tight casing, part of which is made of electrically conductive material, made axisymmetric and limits the vacuum chamber, and

installed in a vacuum chamber with a gap practically on the same geometric axis of an axisymmetric plasma cathode and the anode, the hub, of which at least the cathode is connected to pulse the resultant high-voltage power source,

according to the invention

plasma cathode is made in the form of a conductive rod and rigidly associated end of the dielectric element, in which the working end exceeds the cross-sectional area of conductive rod and the maximum cross-sectional area of the anode hub

at least one of the electrodes of the WFD provided with means for regulating the interelectrode gap, and

the distance from the common geometric axis of these plasma cathode and anode of the hub to the inner side of the conductive wall of the vacuum chamber exceeds 50dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub.

RVD with a set of features is at least suitable for transmutation of nuclei of some chemical elements in the kernel of other chemical elements, as indicated above in the comments to the essence of the method according to the invention.

The first additional difference is that the conductive core of the plasma cathode is pointed, and the end of the dielectric element has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole. With this design by moving the dielectric element with respect to the conductive rod can one hundred in order to riservati operation of the plasma cathode and at least partially regulate the interelectrode gap in the WFD.

A second difference is that the anode hub has a circular cross-sectional shape and is made of electrically conductive in the bulk of the material to be transmutation. This allows for the simplest samples of pure metals or metal alloys to demonstrate the effect of transmutation and, in particular, to obtain transuranic.

The third additional difference is that the anode hub is made of a composite and includes at least a single-layer hard shell and densely covered by this shell of a false target in the form of a body of rotation, which is made of a solid or liquid material and has a diameter in the range of 0.05 to 0.2)·dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub. This allows the shock compression of matter not only for the transmutation of atomic nuclei, but also for energy in the zone of flow picloader processes with significant (at least on the order) exceeded the criterion of Lawson.

Fourth difference is that at the tail end of the anode hub has at least one screen of the preferred electrically conductive material. He can catch some food picloader processes obtained under shock compression up to a superdense state of the underlying Misha and, and to serve as an additional target for internuclear interactions in the scattering of particles of the anode hub.

The fifth additional difference is that the screen is made in the form of a thin-walled body of revolution, the diameter of which is at least 5dmaxand which was removed from the nearest to the plasma cathode end of the anode at a distance of 20dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub. Under these conditions, an electrically conductive screen contributes to the self-focusing of the electron beam over a larger part of the surface of the anode hub and picks up a significant part of products picloader processes.

The sixth additional difference consists in the fact that the thin-walled body of revolution on the anode side of the hub has a flat or concave surface. This significantly slows down the overgrown walls of the vacuum chamber of the WFD precipitation, which contain products picloader processes.

The task in the third, the auxiliary part is solved by the fact that in the axisymmetric plasma cathode for the WFD, having an electrically conductive element for connecting the cathode to a pulsed high-voltage power source and the end of the dielectric element, which is at the rear end put in contact with the specified conductive element and the front face to the th serves as a means of organizing the emission of electrons, according to the invention the conductive element is made in the form of a rod, and the end of the dielectric element is rigidly connected with the rod and serves as an emitter of electrons across its surface.

The dielectric element of the cathode in the breakdown on the surface almost instantly covered with a plasma. The work function of the electrons from her close to zero. Therefore, the current in the interelectrode gap of the WFD and, respectively, the total energy of electrons in the electron beam coincide with physically permissible maximum values for these parameters. Therefore, the plasma cathode according to the invention is preferably used in devices for impact compression of a substance on the basis of the WFD.

The first additional difference is that the conductive core of the plasma cathode is pointed, and the end of the dielectric element has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole. As mentioned above, this allows the use of a plasma cathode at least one of the control devices interelectrode gap in the WFD.

A second difference is that the end of the dielectric element has a blind hole, which is preferable for the regulation of the interelectrode gap in the WFD.

Tert is e additional difference is that end of the dielectric element has a through hole, which is preferably in the regulation of plasma clouds in the breakdown and stabilize operation of the WFD.

Fourth difference is that the end of the dielectric element made of a material selected from the group consisting of chain polymers with single carbon-carbon bonds, composite materials with an organic binder of the type getinsa or textolite, ebony wood, natural or synthetic mica, pure oxides of metals of III-VII groups of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, inorganic glasses, glass-ceramics, ceramic dielectrics and felt made of basalt fiber.

This preferred list allows you to choose the dielectric materials according to different requirements. For example, these organic materials and felt from the basalt fiber is desirable for reasons of ease of manufacture mechanical dielectric elements and manipulate them when regulating electrode gap in the WFD and other specified inorganic materials desirable from the standpoint of resistance to wear and minimize the impact on the residual pressure in the vacuum chamber of the WFD after each "shot."

Fifth difference is that torsemidepurchase element has a developed surface, that facilitates the formation of a plasma cloud in the breakdown.

The sixth additional difference is that the minimum transverse size of the specified dielectric element c∂e min=(5-10)·Ces maxand the length of this item I∂e=(10-20)·Ces maxwherees max- the maximum transverse size of the conductive rod. When such relative dimensions of the parts of the plasma cathode is completely eliminated pinch in the electrode gap of the WFD and guaranteed self-focusing of the electron beam on a substantial portion of the anode hub.

It should be clear,

when selecting that specific embodiments of the invention any combination of these additional differences from the basic inventive concept,

what this plan within the limits defined by the claims, may be supplemented and/or updated using the usual knowledge of the specialists and

as described hereinafter, preferred examples of embodiment of the inventive concept does not in any way limit the scope of rights based on inventions.

Brief description of drawings

Further, the invention (examples transmutation of nuclei in picloader processes) is illustrated by a detailed description of the structure of the device and method of shock compression of matter from the links above the mi to the accompanying drawings, where shown on:

figure 1 - structural diagram of a configuration of electrodes in the WFD indicating the adjustable geometric parameters;

figure 2 - structural diagram of the pulsed high voltage power supply;

figure 3 - preferred design of an axisymmetric plasma cathode (in the longitudinal section along the axis of symmetry);

4 is a view of the rear end of an axisymmetric plasma cathode in the plane IV-IV cross-section of conductive rod);

figure 5 - integral axisymmetric anode-hub directly used as the target for the demonstration of the shock compression of matter to super-dense state (in the longitudinal section along the axis of symmetry);

6 is a hollow axisymmetric anode-hub with plug-spheroidal target, for example, for at least partial transmutation of long-lived radioactive isotopes selected chemical elements in stable isotopes mainly other chemical elements (in the longitudinal section along the axis of symmetry);

7 is a graph of voltage and current in the discharge pulse of the WFD;

Fig - graph absolute (% by mass) distribution of chemical elements in the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure copper;

Fig.9 is a graph of the relative distribution of the same x the chemical elements according to the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure copper;

figure 10 - graph of the absolute (percentage by mass) distribution of chemical elements in the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure tantalum;

11 is a graph of the relative distribution of the same chemical elements according to the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure tantalum;

Fig - graph absolute (% by mass) distribution of chemical elements in the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure lead;

Fig is a graph of the relative distribution of the same chemical elements according to the mass of atomic nuclei in products of transmutation of chemically pure lead;

Fig - reference mass spectrum of isotopes of Nickel, obtained by testing samples of natural Nickel and coinciding with the natural prevalence of such isotopes in the earth's crust;

Fig - mass spectrum of the relative distribution of isotopes of Nickel in one of the clusters on the copper screen, the resulting picloader processes in solid copper target (sample No. 1);

Fig the same mass spectrum as Fig obtained in the study of other clusters of Nickel atoms on the same screen;

Fig - micrograph of the product of the shock compression of matter to super-dense state in the form of "hammered" into the copper screen and partially etched by an ion beam iron Paulus is a career with a spherical recess.

The best ways of carrying out the invention

The device according to the invention (see figure 1) is made on the basis of the WFD. Its essential parts are:

strong gas-tight housing 1, a part of which is made of electrically conductive material (such as copper or stainless steel), made axisymmetric and limits the vacuum chamber, closed in the operating position of the end of the dielectric cover 2 and connected as needed through at least one non-designated especially fitting to a vacuum pump;

prashadhey axisymmetric conductive rod 3 is preferably round in cross section and preferably conical in longitudinal section of a form that is fixed and sealed in the cover 2 and connects to the WFD are described below high-voltage pulse power source;

replaceable (as depreciation) axisymmetric plasma cathode with:

- electrically conductive rod 4, the shank of which is secured in the rod 3, and

- end of the dielectric element 5, which from its rear end rigidly connected with the rod 4 and has an area of working end, exceeding the cross-sectional area of the rod 4 and below the anode hub;

axisymmetric anode-hub 6, which may be integral or on the th target 7 and of which the maximum cross-sectional area smaller than the area of emitting surface face of the dielectric element 5;

optionally, the screen 8 of the preferred electrically conductive material, which is installed in the rear of the anode hub 6;

at least one (not shown specifically tentatively identified only in pairs of arrows under the image of the plasma cathode 4, 5 and anode hub 6) the control device electrode gap, i.e. the gap between lying practically on the same geometric axis point of intersection of the end surface of the dielectric element 5 of the plasma cathode with its axis of symmetry and the same point on the end face of the anode hub 6.

Pulsed high voltage power supply of the WFD (see figure 2) in the simplest case can be made in the form of well-known specialists in a system including at least one capacitive or inductive energy storage device with at least two plasma (or other) short circuit current. However, the preferred such "hybrid" power sources (see, for example: 1. P.F. Ottinger, J.Appl.Phys., 56, No.3, 1984; 2. Dolgachev, I. and other plasma Physics, 24, No. 12, s, 1984), which have consistently enabled (see figure 2):

the input transformer 9 with means for connection to industrial electrical network and the high-voltage output winding,

cumulative LC circuit 10 containing not shown particularly appropriate capacitors and the elements of inductive the STI, and

unit 11 plasma interrupt the discharge current in the LC-circuit containing multiple symmetrical in one plane are well known in the art plasma cannons, the number of which (in particular up to 12 pieces) usually equal to the number of capacitors in the composition of the LC-circuit.

Naturally, along with these "power" blocks in the pulsed high voltage power WFD usually include not shown particularly by means of measurement of impulse currents and voltages, as at least one Rogowski belt and at least one capacitive voltage divider.

The source of this type was used to power the WFD in the following experiments on shock compression of matter to super-dense state. This source could provide the following limit values of controlled parameters:

the average energy of the electrons in the beamfrom 0.2 to 1.6 MeV;
duration
electron beamto 100 NS;
power electron beam2·109to 0.75·1012W;
current high-voltage dischargefrom 10 kA to 500 kA.

For the effective implementation of method shock SG is of the substance in the manufacture of parts and targets of the WFD, it is recommended to comply with a number of additional conditions.

So, it is important that the distance from the common geometric axis of the plasma cathode 4, 5 and anode of the hub 6 to the inner side of the conductive wall of the housing 1 exceeded 50dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub 6.

It is advisable to plasma cathode (see figure 3) had pointed conductive rod 4 and the end of the dielectric element 5 with a blind or through hole. This element 5 should be planted on the rod 4 with a slight interference fit so that the boarding part of the rod 4 with tip was inside of said hole. The shape of such openings and cross-section of the rod 4 (subject to conditions osesimmetrichnoi) in the cross-section may be non-circular (e.g. oval, elliptical, star-shaped, as shown in figure 4, and so on).

Also it is advisable that at least the rear end of the dielectric element 5 (see figure 4) in the plane perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the plasma cathode is continuously and densely covered conductive rod 4. It is clear that this condition exists when the different shape of the contours of cross-sections of the rod 4 and item 5.

It is highly desirable that the face of the dielectric element 5 of the plasma cathode was developed outer surface, for example, the original rough, as shown is as figure 4, or intentionally corrugated in at least one arbitrary direction. In particular, can be used elements 5, which in cross section have the shape of an axisymmetric multibeam stars.

It is desirable that the minimum lateral dimension of c∂e minface of the dielectric element 5 was chosen in the range (5-10)·ces maxand the length of I∂ethis item is in the interval (10-20)·ces maxwhere ces max- the maximum transverse size of the conductive rod 4.

Element 5 of the plasma cathode can be made of any dielectric material, which is selected by the shape and size are able to breakdown when the selected voltage in the gap between the electrodes of the WFD.

It is desirable that such material was selected from the group consisting of chain polymers with single carbon-carbon bonds (e.g., polyethylene or polypropylene), composite materials with an organic binder of the type getinsa or textolite, ebony wood, natural or synthetic mica, pure oxides of metals of III-VII groups of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, inorganic glasses, glass-ceramics, felt made of basalt fiber and ceramic dielectrics.

Axisymmetric anode-hub 6, as mentioned in the above, can be:

either whole (see figure 5) and consist of solid normally conductive in the mass of preferably metallic material (including both pure metals and their alloys, for example of copper, tantalum, lead, etc.;

or have (see Fig.6) at least a single layer of predominantly spheroidal shell 6 is preferably electrically conductive material and tightly secured therein a plug axisymmetric target 7 of the condensed (solid or liquid) substance that is subject to shock compression.

The maximum diameter of the plug axisymmetric target 7 is desirable to select within (0,05-0,2)·dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub 6 in General. Regardless of the geometric shape of the body of the target 7 it should be fixed inside the anode of the hub 6 so that the center of curvature of its surface almost coincides with the center of curvature of the working surface of the anode hub 6. It is very important that the density of dislocations in the material of the anode of the hub 6 and the target material 7 was as little as possible, and that between these parts was provided acoustic contact.

Screen 8, installed in the tail of the anode hub 6, typically made of electrically conductive material and has the form mainly of thin-walled body of revolution. The diameter of the screen is 8 must be at least 5d maxand its removal from the working end of the anode hub 6 - no more than 20dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode of the hub 6. It is desirable that the screen 8 from the side of the working end of the anode hub 6 has a flat or concave surface (see figures 5 and 6).

Method of impact compression of a substance using the described device in General includes:

a) connecting a conductive terminal 4 described above, the plasma cathode to prashadobama conductive terminal 3;

b) the manufacture of stock replacement axisymmetric anode hub 6 with preferably rounded work ends in one of two options, namely:

or as integral parts of the subject shock compression (and transmutation or other nuclear transformation) material

either in the form of a preferably single-layer membranes, which are tightly inserted target 7 (if necessary, pre-capsulated) subject to shock compression (and transmutation or other nuclear transformation) material;

C) optionally, equipping at least some of the anodes of the hub 6 of conductive screens 8 of copper, lead, niobium, tantalum, etc.;

g) the installation of each of the anode hub 6 in the vacuum chamber of the housing 1 of the WFD practically on the same geometric about the and with a plasma cathode 4, 5;

d) regulation of the gap between the working ends of the face of the dielectric element 5 of the plasma cathode and anode of the hub 6 so that the center of curvature of the working surface of the anode hub 6 when the pulse discharge power source for the WFD was inside the focal space collectively samofokusirowkoj. electron beam;

e) locking the vacuum chamber installation of the end cap 2 of a dielectric material on the flange of a solid gas-tight electrically conductive housing 1 of the WFD;

g) evacuating the chamber in the housing 1 of the WFD, which carry out:

before the first "shot" at least twice (first evacuated from the air, and then at least once blowing the camera a clean dry nitrogen and re-evacuated from the to a residual gas pressure of not more than 0.1 PA), and

before each subsequent "shot" at least once, if the residual pressure exceeds the specified value;

C) connecting an external high voltage power supply of the WFD to the power supply through the input transformer 9 and the accumulation of the necessary experiment stock electrical energy in an LC circuit 10;

and discharge LC-circuit 10 through the block 11 plasma interrupt current pulse, prashadhey axisymmetric conductive rod 3, a removable conductive rod 4 and t is Rawai dielectric element 5 to the anode hub 6 of the WFD, which is generated by an electron beam with electron energy not less than 0.2 MeV, a current density of not less than 106A/cm2(and preferably not more than 108A/cm2and particularly preferably not more than 107A/cm2) and a duration of no more than 100 NS (and preferably not more than 50 NS);

K) removing from the vacuum chamber of the housing 1 of the WFD products encountered during the compression portion of a target substance to a superdense state, and the study of these products generally accepted methods and means.

The experimental targets were as follows:

to show the effect of transmutation in shock compression of matter to super-dense state - solid anodes hub 6 according to figure 5; and

to assess the possibility of disposal of radioactive material - hollow anodes hub 6 with plug-in (subject to the conditions of dense acoustic contact and practical coincidence of the centers of curvature of the working surface) targets 7 (see figures 1 and 6).

Solid anodes hub 6 had an average radius of curvature of the working ends, usually in the range from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. They were, in particular made of such chemically pure metals, such as copper, tantalum and lead. Such anodes hub 6 can be stored in air. Emerging on the surface (especially copper and lead) oxide film will not exceed atitvout, according to some observations even promotes their use for the above purpose.

Plug-target 7 were in the form of pellets, which were made available on the market isotope With60and from artificial mixtures of Co56and Co58obtained by irradiation of natural Nickel on the cyclotron U-120) at the Institute for nuclear research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

When using such targets inside the vacuum chambers of the WFD was established not shown particularly shell from polycaprolactam (capron). These shells covered both electrodes of the WFD and significantly reduced the risk of subsidence residues of radioactive cobalt on the walls of the housing 1 and the cover 2 of the WFD.

Source and achieved after transmutation used isotopes of cobalt values of radioactivity was monitored using well-known germanium-lithium gamma-ray detectors.

Before working experiments on shock compression of matter to super-dense state was conducted more than a thousand "warm" experiments. According to their results have been selected and refined the boundaries of the interelectrode gap in the WFD, which guarantees (with respect to the dimensions of the parts of the plasma cathode 4, 5 and anode of the hub 6 and the specific discharge modes) contact centers of curvature of the targets in the focal space of the electron beam of the WFD.

Work is the development of a series of experiments were conducted. Their number in the series was different and ranged from 50 (for transmutation of radioactive cobalt) to a few hundred. The numbering of all experiments end-to-end.

Initial data about the used targets, the discharge parameters and the results obtained under the regular rooms were recorded in laboratory notebooks.

The shape of the pulses of voltage and current in the electrode gap of the WFD and the actual duration of the electron beam controlled by the waveforms of current and voltage. Typical examples of such waveforms is shown in Fig.7. As you can see in these (and many other) waveform, the duration of the electron beam does not exceed 100 NS.

It is important to note that the electron beam current (in spite of a sharp drop in voltage on the plasma cathode 4, 5 of the WFD) is reduced in comparison with a peak value slightly. This indicates the effectiveness of the cathodes according to the invention.

After statistical processing of the results of the adjustment of the experiments with regard to controlled parameters of the process of generation of the electron beam were set indicative standards electrode gap and defined the expected size of the focal area (see table 1).

Table 1

Hung the focusing electrode gap and the focal volume of the space from the rest of the parameters of the process of generating the electron beam
Average energy electro

new in the beam, MeV
The dimensions of the dielectric element of the plasma cathode, mmThe dimensions of the working end of the anode hubNeglect

natural gap, mm
The volume of the focal space, mm3
the radius of curvature, mmsize, mm2
diameterlength
0,24,0-6,05,00,250,752,0-3,00,02
0,516,0-24,08,750,452,47,0-10,50,12
1,045,0-67,09,50,736,736,5-55,00.5
1,580,0-120,015,25about 1.0about 12.3≥59about 1.3

In further work the experiments compliance with these limits interelectrode gap in the WFD guaranteed:

first, hit the centers of curvature of the working surface of the solid anode hub 6 (and the centers of curvature of the surfaces of false targets 7) in the focal space team is about samofokusirowkoj. electron beam and,

secondly, observation of the effect of transmutation each pulse discharge power source to the WFD.

Further, the subject indicated in the Table 1 parameters of the current density on the surface of the working end of the anode hub 6 was achieved in the range from 106A/cm2up to 108A/cm2. In most experiments on shock compression of this parameter was maintained in the range from 106A/cm2up to 107A/cm2.

The results of all work experiments looked the same type, namely:

from part (on average about 30% by weight) starting material there was a transmutation products in a wide range of normally stable isotopes varied (both slight and severe and even heavy transuranic chemical element;

these products and unchanged chemical composition remains solid anodes hub 6 (and false targets 7) scattered from the zone of impact compression of a substance to a superdense state mainly in the opposite direction to the plasma cathode, and was deposited in the form of various shapes and sizes pear-shaped accumulations on the walls of the vacuum chamber of the WFD and/or on the screens 8, if they were used.

These products are collected for research.

For the registration of individual clusters transmutation products and identify the population of their positions on the substrates (in particular, the screens 8) for subsequent studies of the elemental and isotopic composition (and in some cases - for fixing the external shape of such products) used electron microscopes-microanalyser type of SET-102, "Tesla" and "Cameca", and to study the elemental and isotopic composition of these products - Auger spectrometer model "Jamp 10S" Japanese JEOL, time-of-flight laser mass spectrometer pulsed developed at the Kiev national University. Shevchenko (Ukraine), ion microprobe model IMS-4f firm of CAMEC and highly sensitive mass spectrometer model VG9000 company FINNIGAN.

In the end, all working experiments on shock compression up to a superdense state solid anodes of the hub 6 revealed a significant discrepancy between their original composition, which in almost the entire mass of the targets of each series was presented with one chemical element with the elemental and isotopic composition of the products of transmutation.

To see this, consider figure 8-13, where the vertical dashed lines mark the nucleus charge "parent" element.

In order to explain this, note that the presence in products of transmutation of isotopes of chemical elements, not part of the original target material labeled in the figures 8, 10 and 12 twice, namely:

bright and circles - in accordance with their concentration in these products picloader processes, and

black squares according to their concentration in the earth's crust.

The charges of the nuclei of these isotopes and their mass fraction in percent it is easy to determine, based numerical designations respectively the abscissa axis and the ordinate axis.

In figures 9, 11 and 13 are shown with bright triangles and placed near the chemical symbols relative deviation Y of the concentrations of specific chemical elements from the natural norm, calculated by the formula

where

A - the share of a particular isotope of a particular chemical element in products of transmutation (% by weight), and

In - share the same isotope of the same chemical element in the earth's crust (% by weight).

As clearly seen in figures 8, 10 and 12, transmutation source of copper, tantalum and lead results in a wide range of different isotopes of chemical elements with charges Z nuclei, which differ from the charge of nuclei "parent" element as in the smaller and larger parties.

However, the larger the charge of the nuclei of the target material, the higher the likelihood of stable transuranic (including, yet not identified) of the chemical elements with atomic weights of more than 250 Amu (and in some requiring additional Prov the RCTs cases to over 600 Amu).

The presence of atoms with masses, originally discovered by ion mass spectrometry, and then tested well-known experts on nuclear physics methods inverse of the Coulomb scattering of alpha particles and protons.

Moreover, figures 9, 11 and 13 clearly shows that the concentration of a substantial portion of the chemical elements in products of transmutation statistically significantly (more than three times, and some elements in 5-10 times or more) than the normal concentration in the earth's crust (see highlighted in dark gray area in the range of Y values from 0.5 to 1.0). This explicitly indicates the artificial nature of such products picloader processes.

Similar results by changing the elemental and isotopic composition were obtained in experiments with targets of radioactive cobalt. However, in these cases, the main attention was paid to the reduction of radioactivity in the products of scattering targets due to transmutation of radioactive nuclei cobalt in those parts of the targets, which were in the focus space, in a stable non-radioactive isotopes of other chemical elements.

This reduction in different samples significantly differed, which could be explained by differences in the density of the acoustic contact between the inner stink the mi cavities in the anode hub and plug material targets 7 (see table 2 sample data from a laboratory log of the applicant).

Table 2

The decrease in the radioactivity of the products of scattering cobalt targets
Sample numberReduced gamma activity, %Sample numberReduced gamma activity, %Sample numberReduced gamma activity, %
239747,624792,2258846,5
239810,7248122,8260033,3
242521,6253429,5276928,9
2426of 17.0255822,9277036,4

Indeed, in the transmutation of sample No. 2479 was deactivated only by 2.2%, while samples No. 2397 and No. 2588 lost more than 45% of the activity.

Further, it is well established that the distribution of isotopes in clusters of atoms of each of the chemical elements identified in the products picloader processes, significantly different from the distribution of the same isotopes in the earth's crust.

The most striking example of the results of such is the reek of the aspects of the difference between the normal distribution of isotopes of Nickel in natural samples (Fig) and two clusters of Nickel atoms, which were obtained by the transmutation of copper (figures 15 and 16). So, up to 70% by weight of natural Nickel is Ni isotope58and in products of transmutation of copper (with a predominance in the target isotope Cu63) share Ni58barely exceeded 10%. Similarly, significantly (by almost half) decreased the concentration of Ni isotope60while the concentration of Ni62increased sharply.

And, finally, a striking proof of the shock compression of matter to super-dense state the method according to the invention serves as a release from the focal space of the WFD is quite large bodies, a form which clearly indicates the existence in this space conditions for short-term appearance of at least the electron-nuclear and, very likely, electron-nucleon plasma.

So, pig on the background of the copper screen is visible essentially iron hemisphere, which contains 93% of Fe by mass, with admixtures of isotopes of silicon and copper.

Obviously, this hemisphere is chip spherical body formed from a substantial part of a solid copper anode hub 6 (sample # 4908 in laboratory journal of the applicant). It has an external diameter of about 95 microns and inner practically concentric spherical cavity with a diameter of about 35 microns. Irregularities in the greater part of the annular end face of the hemisphere associated with the split of the original sphere./p>

It is easy to assume that in the experiment with sample # 4908 center of the focal space of the electron beam practically coincided with the center of curvature of the target. In this case, the soliton-like pulse density semiochemicals in volume, which is described in the product presents a spherical cavity.

Industrial applicability

Device for impact compression of a substance can be implemented using available on the market components, and on the basis of the method can be developed and highly efficient and environmentally safe technological processes:

first, synthesis of stable transuranic chemical element that is extremely important for the expansion of knowledge about nature;

secondly, nuclear transmutation of known chemical elements for the pilot get them stable isotopes and disposal of radioactive materials (including waste from nuclear power), containing long-lived radioactive isotopes; and,

thirdly, inertial fusion using as fuel the widespread nature of the chemical elements and their compositions.

1. The way of shock compression of matter using relativistic vacuum diode, which has an axisymmetric vacuum chamber with electrically conductive walls, a plasma cathode and the anode is concentrator, including the production target in the form of the axisymmetric part of the condensed substance, which serves as at least part of the anode hub, the installation of the anode hub in the relativistic vacuum diode with a gap relative to the plasma cathode is practically on the same geometric axis and pulse discharge power source to the relativistic vacuum diode in the mode of self-focusing of the electron beam on the surface of the anode hub, characterized in that the use of an axisymmetric plasma cathode in the form of a conductive rod and rigidly associated end of the dielectric element, in which the working end exceeds the cross-sectional area of conductive rod and the maximum cross-sectional area the anode of the hub, the anode hub set with such a gap relative to the plasma cathode, at which the center of curvature of the working surface of the anode hub is located inside the focal space collectively samofokusirowkoj. electron beam and impinges on the anode hub electron beam with electron energy not less than 0.2 MeV, a current density of not less than 106A/cm2and duration of no more than 100 NS.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the composition of the relativistic vacuum diode using the axisymmetric plasma cathode, who conductive rod is pointed and end of the dielectric element has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the target shape in the form of an insert in the Central part of the anode hub relativistic vacuum diode, the diameter of which is chosen in the range of 0.05 - 0.2 maximum transverse dimension dmaxthe anode of the hub.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least the portion of the anode hub, which is converted to the plasma cathode, prior to installation in the relativistic vacuum diode give a spheroidal shape.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the target shape in the form of a spheroidal body, which is tightly fixed inside the anode of the hub so that the centers of the inner and outer spheroids are almost the same.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the anode hub impact of the electron beam with electron energy of 1.5 MeV, a current density of not more than 108A/cm2and the maximum duration of 50 NS.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the current density in the electron beam does not exceed 107A/cm2.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the residual pressure in the vacuum chamber of relati itsago vacuum diode is maintained at the level not more than 0.1 PA.

9. Device for impact compression of a substance on the basis of the relativistic vacuum diode with a strong gas-tight casing, part of which is made of electrically conductive material, made axisymmetric and limits the vacuum chamber, and installed in a vacuum chamber with a gap practically on the same geometric axis of an axisymmetric plasma cathode and the anode, the hub, of which at least the cathode is connected to a high-voltage pulse power source, wherein the plasma cathode is made in the form of a conductive rod and rigidly associated end of the dielectric element, in which the working end exceeds the cross-sectional area of conductive rod and the maximum area of the cross cross-section of the anode hub, at least one of the electrodes of the relativistic vacuum diode provided with means for regulating electrode gap, and the distance from the common geometric axis of these plasma cathode and anode of the hub to the inner side of the conductive wall of the vacuum chamber exceeds 50dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the electrically conductive core of the plasma cathode is pointed, and mechanical dielectric is element is provided has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole.

11. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the anode hub has a circular cross-sectional shape and is made of electrically conductive in the bulk of the material to be transmutation.

12. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the anode hub is made of a composite and includes at least a single-layer hard shell and densely covered by this shell of a false target in the form of a body of rotation, which is made of a solid or liquid material and has a diameter that is selected in the range of 0.05÷0,2)dmaxwhere dmax- the maximum transverse dimension of the anode hub.

13. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the tail portion of the anode hub has at least one screen of the preferred electrically conductive material.

14. The device according to item 13, characterized in that the screen is made in the form of a thin-walled body of revolution, the diameter of which is at least 5dmaxand which was removed from the nearest to the plasma cathode end of the anode at a distance of 20dmaxwhere dmax- the specified maximum cross-sectional dimension of the anode hub.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that said thin-walled body of revolution on the anode side of the hub has the flat or concave surface.

16. Axisymmetric plasma cathode for relativistic vacuum diode having an electrically conductive element for connecting the cathode to a pulsed high-voltage power source and the end of the dielectric element, which is at the rear end put in contact with the specified conductive element and the front face of which serves as a means of organizing the emission of electrons, characterized in that the conductive element is made in the form of a rod, and the end of the dielectric element is rigidly connected with the rod and serves as an emitter of electrons across its surface.

17. The cathode according to item 16, characterized in that it is electrically conductive rod is pointed and end of the dielectric element has a hole for the nozzle to the specified terminal, landing a part on which the tip is located inside said hole.

18. The cathode through 17, characterized in that the end of the dielectric element has a blind hole.

19. The cathode through 17, characterized in that the end of the dielectric element has a through hole.

20. The cathode according to item 16, characterized in that the end of the dielectric element made of a material selected from the group consisting of chain polymers with single carbon-carbon bonds, composite materials with an organic binder of the type getinsa or is extalia, ebony wood, natural or synthetic mica, pure oxides of metals of III-VII groups of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, inorganic glasses, glass-ceramics, felt made of basalt fiber and ceramic dielectrics.

21. The cathode according to item 16 or 17, or 18, characterized in that the end of the dielectric element has a developed surface.

22. The cathode according to item 16 or 17, characterized in that the minimum transverse size of the specified dielectric element with a∂Emin=(5÷10)ces maxand the length of this item I∂e=(10÷20)·Ces maxwherees max- the maximum transverse size of the conductive rod.



 

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