Method and device for ejecting electrons and photons from gaseous environment

FIELD: physics, possible use in laboratory research, and also during development of new devices for medicine and engineering, where it is needed to eject electron or laser beams in impulse mode.

SUBSTANCE: the essence of method is in using the difference of spreading speeds of gas and electrons. Ejection channel is opened for the time, sufficient for flight of electrons, but insufficient for passage of gas molecules. This allows ejection of short electron beams of any power without loss of their energy with minimal flow of gas in direction of lesser pressure. Claimed device, which realizes the method, does not exhaust all of its capabilities. It is engineered for ejection of electrons from radioactive gas environment with pressure of 1Pa order into vacuum with pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa. Special feature of the method is that on its basis devices may be created for ejection of electron and laser beams without limitation of energy and distortion of their spectrum.

EFFECT: possible creation of devices, which, depending on conditions of operations in conjunction with various methods and means of vacuum and compressor engineering will ensure ejection of electron and laser beams of any energy into space with any pressure.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of laboratory equipment and can be used when creating new devices in industry and medicine.

There are ways to withdraw electrons from the gas medium in the vacuum [Kondratiev, V.I., Krainev G.S., Kolmogorov CENTURIES the release Device of the electron beam in the atmosphere. Patent No. 2109416 MCI NN 5/02 from 20.04.98. - next [1]], in the atmosphere or in a volume with a different pressure and gas composition [Whichelement and other electron Accelerators series ELV: status, applications, development. The poison. physical t. No. 12. 1997 - next [2]], [Abdullin E.N., Bazhenov GL, Savonenko E.F., Kunz SE Obtaining high-current electron beams in explosive-emission diode when the gas pressure ˜10-2-10-1Torr. Technical physics letters, 1998, T. 24, No. 2 next [3]], which allows to withdraw electrons, thus precluding the penetration of gas from the volume of the source of electrons in the volume of the receiver and back.

In [1] and [2] describes the devices division of the volumes of the source and sink of electrons solid wall transparent to electrons, but opaque to gases. The disadvantage of this method and device is the presence of electron interaction with the material of the septum, leading to change their energy state, i.e. distorted spectrum of the output beam, which is unacceptable in the spectrum analysis. Another disadvantage of this method is: if high-energy electron beams - overheating solid walls, limiting the energy of the output beam [3]. These defects are manifested and at the conclusion of photons through a solid wall.

There is a method and device that does not use solid wall (aerodynamic or hydrodynamic window). The principle of operation of the aerodynamic window is to create a specially organized heterogeneous supersonic gas stream with a gradient of static pressure in the direction of radiation propagation. Conclusion electrons or photons through the holes in the diaphragm, which is created and maintained by continuous pumping of the critical pressure drop, preventing the penetration of gas into the vessel, a source of electrons or laser beam.

In the device [Lunarlike, Niloloko. Ways to improve the efficiency of the output electron beam through the gas window, instruments and experimental TECHNIQUES, Number 6, 2002. GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES] aperture in the initial state does not have holes. Holes for the passage of the beam burned by electron beam at the beginning of the work that requires frequent changes of the diaphragms. Industry produces devices with apertures, with the flaps overlapping holes on the absence of output electrons [www.sonbi.ru/research/CONV/CONV_4.htm (14 To whom) 08.04.2004 Information material of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors named Pieramova].

These devices have inherent disadvantages caused by the way:

the inability of output electrons in high vacuum;

- influence of process output range output electrons is not completely excluded [Lunarlike, Niloloko. The influence of the electron beam produced from the gas window in the gas, created by the differential pressure. PITT, 2000, T. 26, issue 24].

The proposed method is free from the above disadvantages. Its application will allow you to display electron and laser beams any energy in the form of pulses without losing energy without distortion and restriction of their range.

The essence of the method is to limit the time of opening of the channel electrons or photons, taking into account the difference of the velocities of the electrons and gas molecules. In the further description will consider only electrons, remembering that the photons speed is extremely large and the application of the method to them easier. The opening of the channel is chosen sufficient for the passage of electrons, but not sufficient for the passage of gas molecules, i.e. within

where t is the time of the opening of the channel, L is the channel length, v is the electron velocity; V is the velocity of the gas molecules.

The electron velocity v at low energies is determined by the electron energy E and rest mass m by the formula (2)

The speed of the gas molecules, V is determined through T - the absolute temperature of the gas, M is the molecule mass and Boltzmann constant k=1.38·10-23by the formula (3)

At an electron energy of about 1 eV (1 eV=1.6·10-19J) the mass of the electron is equal to its rest mass (9·10'31kg), speed, calculated by the formula (2), equal to 5.5·105m/s the speed of the molecules of the light gas (hydrogen M=3.32·10"27kg) at a temperature of 300K is 1700 m/s (all other gases less: air 460 m/s). When the channel length of 0.15 m to implement the method t should be chosen according to the formula (1) in the range from 1 to 100 μs, while the smaller t is, the smaller molecules of the gas will fall into the channel. In the example selected extreme values V and v, in almost all other cases, limits the wider application of the method. To reduce the penetration of gas molecules in the vacuum it is advisable to use a channel that consists of multiple diaphragms with holes, overlapping flaps, each of the gaps between the diaphragm pump to remove penetrated the gas molecules by the methods of vacuum equipment corresponding to the pressure in the interval [Rozanov, D., Vacuum technology. M.: Higher school. 1990. S].

Implementation of the proposed method is difficult due to the complexity of creating Windows with shutters having the time of opening of the order of 10-100 μs. The valve must open and close at the same time.

In this regard, a device to implement the method. Diagram of the device shown in the drawing. The device consists of a sealed housing 1 having a cylindrical shape with two end walls, a valve 2, pipe 3, shaft 4, extracted through the end wall through a vacuum seal, movable (rotating) 5 and 6 fixed drives. Movable disks rigidly fastened to the shaft 4, still attached to the inner cylindrical surface of the housing 1. The housing has a flange 7 for connection with the receiver of electrons (e.g., vacuum chamber, which is an input device, an analyzing device - slit spectrometer). The center of the flange 7 and the axis of the pipe 3 are on the line AB, passing near the side surface of the housing parallel to the axis of the shaft 4. The flange 8 is located near the pipe 3. The disks 5 and 6 have holes and through the slots going from the center to the edges of the disks. The centers of the holes in the stationary disks 6 are located on the line AB, which is a continuation of the axis of the pipe 3 and passing through the center of the flange 7. The centers of the holes in the movable disks are located on a line parallel to the line AB at the same distance from the axis of the shaft and fixed, thus the stationary disks perform the role of diaphragms with holes on the way e is Ucka, and in terms of the role of the flaps. Through the valve 2, the device is connected to the electron source (S), for example with a reservoir containing tritium.

The shaft 4 is connected with a high speed motor (in the drawing, the motor is not shown).

The device works in the following way: through the flange 8 is pumping out of the housing 1 to a pressure of about 1 PA. The shaft 4 disk 5 is driven. After reaching the disks 5 peripheral speed of 300 m/s opens the valve 2, the electrons and the gas molecules through the pipe 3 to the disk 5. The coincidence of holes moving and stationary disks electrons freely pass into the receiving vacuum chamber. Gas molecules which have much lower speed, will face the disk and will be pumped out through the slots in the disks and the flange 8. The size of the holes in the disks are selected in accordance with formula 1. For example: if the diameter of holes 5 mm time coincidence of the holes of the movable and fixed disks will be about 10 μs (condition formula 1). During this time, the electrons having a velocity of about approximately 550 000 m/s, time to fly up to the entrance to the reception room and the vacuum chamber. Gas molecules with a speed of about 1700 m/s, will be held during this time the path is about 1.7 cm and after collision with the disks will be removed by pumping through the slots in the disks and the flange 8. Thus, the device implements the proposed method.

The nalitch the e in the device of alternating stationary and rotating at high speed drives can be used to further reduce the ingress of gas into the intake chamber, why should grooves of the movable disk to perform to their normal surface made with the vector of the peripheral speed of the disk acute angle. The calculation of the optimal values of this angle depending on the atmospheric parameters is calculated according to the calculation method of the impellers turbomolecular pumps. If this still drives should be of the grooves, which is a mirror image of the slots of the movable disk.

With this design, the system disk is for gas turbo-molecular pump [Frolov Y.S. Turbomolecular vacuum pumps. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1980, pp.109 - next [8]]and for electrons periodically opening channel. This channel electrons pass without any collisions and fall in a vacuum chamber (R) and to the input of the analyzing device including the energy state in which they arise (for example, when radioactive decay of gas).

The disadvantages of the method and device is that when the output of electrons from the environment continuously radiating (for example, from a container of radioactive gas in the vacuum chamber of the analyzing device comes only a portion of the electrons in the form of periodically following beams. To increase the output of the electrons is necessary to multiply the number of holes in the movable disks or increase the size of the holes, this may increase the flow of gas into the vacuum ka is ERU. This disadvantage does not occur when the output of the high-energy electron beams, having a duration substantially less than the opening time of the channel (in [3] used electron beams with a duration of only 10-8since, in this case will be all the electrons).

The feasibility of the proposed method and device proved by the fact that task-rings, pendants, output shaft, the centering system drives at high speed, calculate the surface of the groove, and others have different ways of successful technical solutions in the construction of turbomolecular vacuum pumps [8]. These solutions can be used in the proposed device.

1. The output electrons and photons from the gas environment of vessel-source in the vessel receiver, limiting the flow of gas in a vessel with less pressure by passing electrons through the holes of the row of apertures and pumping gas from the volume between the diaphragms, wherein simultaneously open the Windows of all apertures at an interval shorter than the travel time of the gas in the vessel receiver, but sufficient for the passage of electrons, the rest of the time keep the hole closed.

2. The output device of electrons and photons from the gas environment of vessel-source in the vessel receiver containing a diaphragm located in the path of the electron beam on which the holes and flaps, characterized in that the flap is made in the form of rotating discs with grooves and holes located at the same distance from the axis of rotation, and that the holes of the diaphragm.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the surface normal of the slots in the discs flap forms an acute angle with the vector of the peripheral speed of the disk and the aperture made in the form of fixed disks that are mirrored drive doors.



 

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