Ion accelerator with magnetic isolation

FIELD: technical physics, in particular, accelerators of light ions, possible use as generator of neutrons.

SUBSTANCE: accelerator of ions with magnetic isolation contains vacuumized cylindrical cover, made of dielectric material, provided with vacuum pump, magnetic coils positioned outside the cover, connected to impulse electric power source and creating axial magnetic field, anode and cathode, made in form of coaxial tubes, connected to high voltage source. Accelerator is provided with gas tank, adjustable by gas inlet valve and means for controlling gas pressure, accelerating inducers and additional magnetic coils, which are positioned on external surface of vacuum cover between inducers and are connected to impulse electric power sources. Device is also provided with inverse coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each magnetron is connected to accelerator space via through slit, made in cathode of magnetron and lying in plane, passing through appropriate cover diameter in parallel to its generating line. Anode tube is made in form of part of cover, on vacuum surface of which axially-symmetrically and with provision of electric contact by their cathodes magnetrons are mounted, while their anodes are connected to impulse electric power sources.

EFFECT: decreased instability of ion current.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of technical physics, in particular to ucitelem light ions, and can be used as a neutron generator.

Known neutron generators using both cyclical and linear accelerators, light ions [1] Radiation Sources, edited by A.Carlesby., Pergamon Press, 1964. However, their considerable dimensions limit the scope of their application.

Known neutron generators using direct action accelerators - neutron tube (NT). Along their axes are: a source of ions of hydrogen isotopes, the system of electrodes of the focusing and acceleration of the target. On the target substrate coated with the layer of metal having good adsorption of hydrogen and saturated its isotopes [2] Heireann. Generators of fast neutrons. Energoatomizdat, M., 1990. Based on the NT created the most compact neutron generators. However, NT have fundamental drawbacks. The durability of these targets does not exceed two hundred hours, and during this time the neutron yield decreases several times. The increase of the neutron yield in NT by increasing the intensity of the ion beam encounters difficulties drainage prominent target of heat, and increase the target area increases the size of NT. Overcoming these difficulties is possible in the coaxial placement of the cathode and anode in the NT.

Most near them the present invention is a technical solution, adopted as a prototype [3] S.Humphries, Jr., R.N.Sudan, and L.Wiley. Extraction and focusing of intense ion beams from a magnetically insulated diode. Journal of Applied Physics, vol.47, No. 6, June 1976, p.2382-2390. The accelerator comprises a cylindrical vacuum casing of dielectric material, muffled by the flanges. One of the flanges is made of insulator and provided with an electric input in a vacuum. On the vacuum side to this input strengthened the anode is a cylindrical metal pipe. On the opposite flange of the vacuum casing strengthened the cathode is a cylindrical metal tube, the radius of which is less than that of the anode of the tube. The cathode tube is grounded at the site of attachment to the flange. The axis of the cathode and anode tubes are the same, and partly cathode tube is coaxially aligned in the anode tube. Over the place of the coaxial crossing pipes on the outside of the vacuum casing placed two coils of insulated wire. When applying to electric voltage from the capacitive storage coil electric current flows between them creates a magnetic field. When applying to the anode of the accelerator from the high voltage source of electrical voltage magnetic field created by the coils prevents the exchange between the anode and the cathode, electrons, preventing develop electrical breakdown during the time of propagation of the plasma formed between the electrodes along their length perpendicular to the direction the electric and magnetic fields. The authors were able to accelerate paticularly proton current up to the energy of two hundred kilovolts pulse duration hundred nanoseconds, but the prototype is not without disadvantages. The presence of dielectric flange, through which the input high voltage, leads to the need to increase the size of the device, since the electrical insulation of the dielectric surface in vacuum is significantly lower insulation vacuum gap between the metal surfaces, specially trained to work under high voltage [4] Englishv. Isolation and discharge in vacuum. M: Atomizdat, 1972. In the accelerator there is no independent source of ions, which is also its disadvantage. Ions in the accelerator are formed by applying a high voltage between the anode and the cathode, and in this case, as in any source that uses spark and arc discharge in vacuum, ion current, there is more instability from one pulse to both the amplitude and time of occurrence [2 pagination 126]. The absence of an independent source of ions narrows the scope of application of the accelerator, taken as a prototype.

The technical problem of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the ion accelerator with magnetic insulation containing vacuum cylindrical casing made of diele the electric material, equipped with a vacuum pump, located outside the casing of the magnetic coil connected to a pulsed power source and generating an axial magnetic field, the anode and the cathode, made in the form of coaxial tubes connected to the high voltage source, characterized in that the accelerator is equipped with a gas storage, adjustable gas leak and controls the gas pressure, accelerating inductors and additional magnetic coils, which are placed on the outer surface of the vacuum enclosure between the inductors and connected to a pulsed power source and includes an inverted coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each of the magnetrons is in communication with the displacement of the accelerator through the through slits made the cathode of the magnetron and lying in the plane passing through the corresponding diameter of the casing parallel to its generatrix, anode tube made in the form of the housing, the vacuum surfaces of which are axially symmetrical and ensuring electrical contact their cathodes installed magnetrons, and their anodes connected to a pulsed power sources.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a longitudinal section of the accelerator, and the 2 - his-section with the plane perpendicular to the axis of the casing acceleration is Italia in the layout area of the magnetrons.

The accelerator anode contains a metal pipe 1, which is part of the vacuum casing. The remainder of the casing is made of a dielectric material, which is on the vacuum side caused, for example, by the method of cathode sputtering, the metal layer having high conductivity, thickness much smaller than the skin-layer for electromagnetic oscillations with a period equal to twice the pulse duration of the voltage across the inductors. The purpose not indicated on the drawings metal layer, a thickness of a few tens of microns in order to prevent charge accumulation on the dielectric surface of the housing. The accelerator is equipped with the storage of the corresponding gas-regulated gas leak, controls the gas pressure is 2, converts coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes installed on the vacuum side surface of the anode of tube 1, with providing electrical contact between it and the cathode of the magnetron 3. Each cathode of the magnetron is made through a longitudinal slot - 4, which lies in the plane passing through the corresponding diameter of the accelerator parallel to its generatrix. The anode magnetrons - 5 is made smooth.

Magnetic induction created by magnetic coils - 6, located in place of the magnetrons, the anodes mA is Neronov - 5 are connected to a pulsed power supply - 7. The top portion of the casing of the accelerator, which is made of dielectric material, posted by accelerating the inductors 8, between which there is a magnetic coil - 9. The inductors are connected with the sources of their pulsed power - 10 switches /on the drawings are not marked/. Inside the cathode ray tube of the accelerator 11 posted by piping the cooling system 12. The accelerator is equipped with a vacuum pump 13.

In order to minimize the cost of energy spent on the magnetic isolation of the accelerator, the power source voltage Q-th coil refers to the voltage coil placed on all of the coils from the anode of the tube, as the Q of degree one second, where Q is the number of the coil, starting from the far to the anode tube. Indeed, the potential of the cathode ray tube increases the speed with each successive inductor, starting from the grounded end of the pipe, so the voltage applied to the coil also increases the speed as it approaches the coil to the anode of the tube.

The accelerator operates as follows.

The magnetic coil 6 and 9 receives a voltage from a pulse source of supply, not shown in the drawings. In the space between the coils, the magnetic field, fluent in penetrating amount of the accelerator, the details of which is, except for the vacuum pump made of non-magnetic material. On the anode magnetrons 5 from block their pulse power supply 7 receives a voltage of positive polarity under the influence of which the ionization of the corresponding gas that fills the vacuum volume of the casing of the accelerator with the required pressure is provided by node 2. The resulting free electrons under the influence of intersecting magnetic fields of the coils and electric fields inverted magnetrons make movements trochoidal, not getting, except for a small number, on the anode magnetrons, and enhance the ionization of the gas. After magnetron discharge in the gas will develop on accelerating the inductors 8 through the switch from the switching power supply 10 receives the voltage at the cathode of the accelerator is induced by a high-voltage pulse of negative polarity, is equal to the total voltage across the inductors, and the ions are accelerated to the cathode.

Consider using the accelerator as a neutron generator. According to the dependencies shown in [1] on Fig, s, bombarded by accelerated to an energy of 1 MeV ions of deuterium, beryllium target stands about 5·107neutron one microcolony rapid current, which is twice less than the yield obtained in the traditional H the reaction deuteronom with tritium target [2]. The energy cost of obtaining one neutron in the above-mentioned reactions become approximately the same, if you accelerate deuteron beam with energy up to two megavolt, however, the proposed device when that becomes too cumbersome.

According to [3, s] to provide magnetic isolation gap between the cathode and anode must perform equality:=3,4 (KV0,5)/d, where the magnetic induction In the gap in kilogauss, the K - factor is approximately equal to 2, the voltage between the anode and cathode - V - megavolt, the gap d is in centimeters. From the above formula it follows that to provide magnetic isolation gap, equal to 0.01 meter, when the potential difference on it, equal to one megavolt, you will need a magnetic field, equal to about 0.7 Tesla. The resonant frequency of the magnetron F is determined from the relation: L·B=1,2, where L=C/F and C is the speed of light in vacuum, and equal in our case to 1.7·1010Hz. The cyclotron frequency of the plasma is determined by the ratio Fc=8980N0,5. In case of equality of the operating frequency of the magnetron, as defined above, the cyclotron frequency of the plasma, its concentration N is equal to about 1014that corresponds to the pressure existing in the gas-filled NT that uses high-frequency sources. The characteristic density of the ion current of deuteronom thus lie in the range [2 s]: 1÷ 3 ampere per square centimeter. Evaluate the neutron yield at lower density value of the ion current within the specified range for the case when the cathode tube of the accelerator has a floor made of beryllium. When the pulse duration of the accelerating voltage equal to one microsecond, and the total area emissions (square holes in the cathode magnetrons), equal to one thousand square centimeters, we obtain: Yn=5·107·1000·106·10-6=5·1010neutron. Rate if now the geometrical parameters of the proposed accelerator for neutron generator. Assuming the width of the slit in the cathode magnetrons, equal to two millimeters, considering that it occupies half of the total length of the inner circumference of the anode pipe by selecting the source length, equal to one meter, we find that the inner diameter of the anode of the tube is approximately equal to: 1000/(3,14·0,2·100), one hundred and seventy millimeters. The outer diameter of the cathode ray tube will be at the same time - one hundred and fifty millimeters. In induction accelerators can obtain the acceleration rate of about one megavolt on the meter. Placing in our accelerator inductors with the same density, the voltage at the cathode of the tube is equal to one megavolt be able to get on the length of about two meters. Given the need for accommodation between the inductors coils magnetic isolation, this ve is ichino it is necessary to increase not less than twice. The above estimates show that the dimensions of the device are: the diameter is about 0.3 meters (including coils and inductors) and a length of about three meters. When the above estimates of the neutron yield in a single pulse, the average thermal power dissipated in the target accelerator, amounted to one kilowatt. In the known induction accelerators frequency of repetition of pulses per second reaches fifty and above. If you work with an average frequency - twenty Hertz, you can increase the neutron yield up to 1012in second. The beam capacity will increase to twenty kilowatts. Heat it on a water-cooled cathode surface area of 0.45×1=0.45 m2no problem.

The ion accelerator with magnetic insulation containing vacuum cylindrical casing made of a dielectric material, equipped with a vacuum pump, located outside the casing of the magnetic coil connected to a pulsed power source and generating an axial magnetic field, the anode and the cathode, made in the form of coaxial tubes connected to the high voltage source, characterized in that the accelerator is equipped with a gas storage, adjustable gas leak and controls the gas pressure, accelerating inductors and additional magnetic coil is AMI, which are placed on the outer surface of the vacuum enclosure between the inductors and connected to a pulsed power source and includes an inverted coaxial magnetrons with smooth anodes, each of the magnetrons is in communication with the displacement of the accelerator through the through slits made in the cathode of the magnetron and lying in the plane passing through the corresponding diameter of the casing parallel to its generatrix, anode tube made in the form of the housing, the vacuum surfaces of which are axially symmetrical and ensuring electrical contact their cathodes installed magnetrons, and their anodes connected to a pulsed power sources.



 

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