Way of reception of uranium-230 radionuclide for therapy of oncologic diseases
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns radionuclide reception 230U for therapy of oncologic diseases. The invention allows simplifying process of manufacture of a radio drug on the basis of short-living α-nuclides due to a natural radionuclide 230Th. The way includes irradiation of the target containing a natural isotope of thorium - 230Th in a proton beam of a cyclotron. A target radioactive isotope 230Th is accumulated in a target in the course of threshold nuclear reaction 230Th (p, n) 230Pa→230U. As a target material bonds of 230ThF4 or 230ThO2 or metal 230Th are used. The irradiated target is taken from the accelerator, held and exposed to radiochemical clearing for radioactive isotope reception 230U of standard quality. The chain of natural disintegration of an isotope 230U leads to an output of the α-particles used in a nuclear medicine for therapy of oncologic diseases.
EFFECT: simplification of process of manufacture of a radio drug on the basis of short-living α-nuclides due to a natural radionuclide 230Th.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to a technology for production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine on the accelerator.
In the diagnosis and treatment of oncological diseases becoming more widely used are α-emitting radionuclides. This is due, primarily, nuclear-physical properties of these nuclides large initial energy of α-particles (5-8 MeV), short run of these particles in biological tissues (tens of microns) and a high level of energy in the field of localization decaying nuclides. The native α-emitting radionuclides (monoclonal antibodies, peptides with high specificity can deliver them right into the tumor site or metastatic lesion. Possible selective irradiation of pathological objects with minimal radiation exposure to surrounding benign tissue.
The present invention can be used to obtain α-emitter uranium-230 (230U)used for radioimmunotherapy of cancer.
Recently for the treatment of malignant neoplasms intensively developed radiopharmaceuticals, basic elements of which are α-emitting radionuclides, fixed in the design of chelating (mounting) component" + "address component is" (antibodies or fragments thereof, specific to antigens of tumor cells, and the ligands of receptors located on their surface).
This molecular design (bioconjugate with radionuclide) is injected to the patient. As these molecular structures have a specific ability to bind only to the surface of a cancer cell, then the process directed delivery of α-emitting radionuclide to a malignant cell. Irradiation of malignant cells α-particles leads to their destruction and death.
α-Emitters are best suited to treat micrometastases and showed high efficiency in the treatment of such a type of blood cancer, as myeloid leukemia. It was also demonstrated their potential application in the treatment of other malignant tumors of melanoma, breast cancer, prostate and lung.
After the death of tumor cells radiopharmaceutical drug products must be safe for normal cells, do not induce side effects (in particular, immunological reactions and actively excreted from the body.
Among the promising α-emitters consider radionuclides212Bi (T1/2=60 min),213Bi (T1/2=45,6 min),225AU (T1/2=10,0 d) (Wahlbin and other Radionuclides for radiotherapy. Radiochemistry, 1997, t, No. 6, str-490).
When radioimmunotherapy, especially in the initial stevepavlina malignant cells, effectively using radionuclide230U - α-emitter with a high linear energy transfer (let (~80 Kev/µm) and short run of particles in biological tissue (50-90 μm) with a half-life of T1/2=20.8 days. Together with daughter decay products in total, 5 is emitted α-particles with a total energy of 33.5 MeV.
A prototype of the selected method of obtaining230U on the accelerator of protons due to the reaction232Th(p,3n)230→230U (A.Morgenstem, C.Apoistolidis, F.Bruchertseifer et al. Cross-sections of the 232Th (p,3n)230Pa for production of 230U for targeted alpha therapy". Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol.66, 2008, Articles in press, the application of the same authors WO No. 2006003123, op).
However, this method has significant drawbacks:
- cross section for the reaction232Th(p,3n) has a high threshold, therefore, the implementation process requires the use of high-energy proton accelerator;
- when exposed232Th protons with initial energy of 30-40 MeV in the target occurs mainly fission, which produce large quantities of fission products, significantly complicating radiochemical stage of preparation of a medicinal product on the basis of the230U.
DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS
The task of the invention is to simplify the process of obtaining230U, the lower output of the impurity radionuclides and use for the production of the target radionuclide is isoenergetically accelerators of protons with the energy of 10-15 MeV, widely available, easy to use and found a mass application for the production of radionuclides for medical purposes directly in hospitals.
The problem is solved by the fact that in the method of producing a radionuclide230U for cancer treatment, including radiation on the accelerator of charged particles to the target, as the target material using natural isotope of thorium -230Th, the target is irradiated with the proton beam accelerator, and the resulting threshold nuclear reactions230Th(p,n)230Pa→230U accumulate in target targeted radionuclides230U.
As the target material can be used compounds of thorium - 230230ThF4or230ThO2or metal230Th.
The drawing shows the decay scheme of the radionuclide230U.
In the proposed method of production of a radionuclide230U used the existence of natural radionuclide230Th - product of the natural decay of238U. it is Known that radioactive decay of238U in the chain of child products in addition to isotope234U are formed long-lived α-emitters: isotope230Th, and isotope226Ra with half-lives respectively 7,5·104and 1.59·103years. The content of these isotopes in natural uranium is estimated following qi is Rami: radium-226 - 352 mg/t of uranium and thorium-230 and 17.9 g/t of uranium. When uranium ore processing described above, α-radioactive isotopes emit as a by-product in the production of uranium (Webscience, Benadryl. The technology of uranium. - M.: gosatomizdat, 1961).
The enriched uranium hexafluoride UF6thorium-230 is separated and remains in the "stubs" when fluoridation (Matveev L.V. and other Problem of accumulation of232U and236Pu in a nuclear reactor. Nuclear technology abroad. 1980, No. 4, p.10-17). However, the main source of230Th, available for use at present, are waste dump UF6in the separation plant during long-term storage is its accumulation (Smirnov J.V. and other Treatment, destruction and disposal of wastes of mining and metallurgical production. Nuclear technology abroad. 1981, No. 3, p.15-20).
The irradiation of targets containing thorium-230, on the proton accelerator in the nuclear reactions230Th(p,n)230Pa→230U accumulate the target radionuclide230U.
The resulting nuclear reactions230Th(p,n) radionuclide uranium-230 separated from irradiated targets traditional radiochemical method, widely used in the nuclear industry. Separation of radionuclides230Th,230Pa and230U done with the use of ion exchange resins.
Received radio is uclid uranium-230 used for making medicines, used in the treatment of cancer.
The proposed method of obtaining α-emitting radionuclide uranium-230 has significant advantages in comparison with the described prototype:
- targeted radionuclide230U get in the reaction (p,n), with a low energy threshold and allowing the use of accelerators with the energy of the protons 10-15 MeV, which is widely used for the production of radionuclides for medical purposes;
- due to the low initial proton energy of impurity related radionuclides minimized;
- targeted radionuclide230U get, using as starting material a by-product in the processing of uranium ore -230Th.
An EXAMPLE of carrying out the INVENTION
The target containing230Th, place on the proton accelerator-cyclotron-type Cyclone 18/9. During irradiation of the target in the threshold of nuclear reactions230Th(p,n)230→230U accumulate radionuclide230U, which is the target radionuclide and used to prepare therapeutic drug.
After irradiation target with the accumulated therein radionuclide230U is extracted from the accelerator and kept in a month. At the time that the target is in the β-decay of the intermediate radionuclide230P is accumulated 230U. during radiochemical processing of the target material in strongly acidic solutions starting radionuclide230Th adsorb to the anion exchange resin. When the sorption of radionuclides230RA and230U is separated in the form of a solution of the raffinate.
The raffinate, containing a large number of230RA and230U, are used for accumulation and excretion230U.
To obtain230U high radionuclide purity consistently spend two cycles of sorption separation of the raffinate using ion-exchange columns with different geometries.
The proposed method of obtaining230U allows for a comparison with the method chosen for the prototype, to reduce the complexity of the process to use as source material by-product uranium production230Th, to reduce the content of impurity radionuclides.
1. A method of producing a radionuclide uranium-230 for cancer treatment, including the irradiation target with proton beam accelerator, characterized in that as the target material take natural isotope of thorium, thorium-230, the target is placed on the proton beam accelerator, irradiated with protons, and in the process threshold nuclear reactions230Th(p,n)230→230U store it trust radioisotope uranium-230.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the target material take is soedineniya 230ThF4or230ThO2or metal230Th.
FIELD: physics, nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to the field of nuclear technology and radio chemistry and is intended for preparation and extraction of radioactive isotopes for medical purpose. Method for preparation of radiostrontium includes radiation of target with flow of accelerated charged particles. Inside target shell there is metal rubidium. After target radiation rubidium is melted inside target shell. Extraction of radiostrontium from liquid rubidium is done by surface sorption of different materials that contact with liquid rubidium. Sorption is carried out at the temperature of sorbing surface of 275-350°C. Sorbing surface is internal surface of radiated target shell. After performance of sorption rubidium is removed from target shell. Then radiostrontium is washed from internal surface of target shell by dissolvents.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of radiostrontium preparation and simplification of technology in case of its extraction from large mass of liquid metal rubidium by sorption directly on internal target shell.
8 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: metal cadmium is used as target substance and irradiated by high-energy protons. Target substance is separated by distillation in hydrogen atmosphere. Nuclear reaction and transformation products are collected on quartz sand surface. Obtained radioactive sample is placed into start zone of quartz thermochromatographic column. The sample undergoes high-temperature chemical processing in the presence of reagent, with transfer of obtained volatile compounds. Volatile compounds are precipitated on the column walls at certain temperatures. Phosphor or arsenic vapours are used as reagent.
EFFECT: enhanced radiochemical purity of silver radioisotopes.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining radionuclide palladium-103 on cyclotron using beam of charged particles. Method of production of carrier-free radionuclide palladium-103 includes irradiation of metal rhodium target on accelerator, electrochemical dissolving of irradiated target in hydrochloric acid and isolation of radionuclide palladium-103 from obtained solution. Isolation of radionuclide palladium-103 is performed by sorption on strong-base anionite with further elution of palladium-103 with ammonia solution. Before performing sorption oxidiser is added to solution of palladium-103 in hydrochloric acid.
EFFECT: reduction of number of organic reagents; reduction of contact time of organic reagents with radioactive substances; increase of stability and substance output.
7 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for impact compression of material involves use of relativistic vacuum diode that has axisymmetrical vacuum chamber with electricity conducting walls, plasma cathode, and concentrating anode. Target in the form of axisymmetrical part is produced from condensed material and is used at least as part of concentrating anode. The latter is installed in relativistic vacuum diode in a spaced relation to plasma cathode and pulse discharge is applied from power supply to relativistic vacuum diode as electron beam is self-focused on concentrating anode surface. For the purpose use is made of axisymmetrical plasma cathode in the form of conducting rod and butt-end dielectric member coupled to the latter; surface area of conducting rod in dielectric member is larger than maximal cross-sectional area of concentrating anode. Concentrating anode is installed in a spaced relation to plasma cathode so that center of curvature of concentrating anode working surface is disposed within focal length of collectively self-focusing electron beam.
EFFECT: ability of compressing material to superdense condition.
22 cl, 17 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed method for production of the actinium-225 and its daughter isotopes is based on the interaction of electron beams with the converting substance. As a result of this interaction photon production takes place. The produced photons are directed on the liquid target from radium-226. These photons interacts with radium-226 and as a result radium-225 is produced. The actinium-225 is produced after radium-225 decay. In conformity with these processes the target for the electron beam from an electron accelerator includes a metal plate, coated with electrolythically deposited radium-226. Then the produced photons interact with the liquid target also from the radium-226.
EFFECT: safety and reliability of production of actinium-225 and its daughter isotopes.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes leaching of uranium concentrate by solution of nitric acid, uranium extraction by tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon solvent. Uranium extraction is implemented up to 85-92% saturation of extragent by uranium. Then it is implemented washing of extract by part of evapoarted reextract, containing 450-500 g/l of uranium, which is implemented in the mode of ultimate (up to 119-120 g/l of uranium) of saturation of extragent by uranium. After washing it is implemented uranium re-extraction. Washing solution, received after washing of uranium extraction is combined with uranium solution from concentrates leaching and after correction by content of nitric acid and uranium mixed solution is directed to extraction. Extract washing is implemented at correlation of flows O:B=(15-20):1. Content of nitric acid in uranium solutions directed to extraction is 0.5-0.8 mole/l.
EFFECT: increasing of uranium purification efficiency from molybdenum.
4 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of extraction reprocessing of restored uranium includes recovery of technetium (VII) in water solution of uranyl- nitrate by nitro-acid solution of diamide at presence of uranium (IV), uranium (VI) extraction by tributyl phosphate in organic vehicle. Additionally technetium (VII) recovery is implemented no more then during 20 minutes at value of excess nitrate-ion relative to its amount in uranyl-nitrate 0.15-0.94 mole/l.
EFFECT: method totally excludes formation of sediments of hydrolised uranium, provoking of renewal process shutdown of technetium, and extraction purification of uranium from technetium, requires less consumption of uranium and provides peak value of technetium reduction value.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of processing uranium-gadolinium-containing scraps of fuel production from UO2 includes dissolving scrap in mineral acid, filtration of solution, extraction of uranium with tributylphosphate. In order to purify from admixtures, extragent in zone of extraction, mainly uranium-free, is taken to additional step of washing with solution of complexon or ammonium fluoride, after which it is returned to next in turn level of extraction.
EFFECT: smaller corrosion stress on equipment and reduced consumption of reagents.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacturing of radionuclides for industry, science, nuclear medicine, especially radioimmunotherapy. Particularly it concerns method of receiving actinium -227 and thorium -228 from treated by neutrons in reactor radium-226. Method includes irradiation of target containing of metallic capsule in which there is located reaction vessel, containing radium-226 in the form of compound. Then it is implemented unsealing of target's metallic capsule, dissolving of received radium. From solution it is separated by means of precipitation, and then it is implemented regeneration, preparation to new irradiation and extraction of actinium-227 and thorium-228 from solution. At that irradiation, dissolving, radium separation, its regeneration and preparation to new irradiation are implemented in the form of its united chemical form - radium bromide, in the same reaction vessel made of platinum. Method provides reusing of the same platinum vessel for receiving of actinium-227 and thorium-228 from one portion of radium by recycling of irradiation and extraction in the same vessel. Separation of metallic capsule by means of dissolving provides saving of mechanical integrity of platinum reaction vessel for each new irradiation cycle and extraction.
EFFECT: increasing of radiationally-environmental safety of process, excluding operations of increased radiation hazard.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves co-sedimentation of admixture-containing solution of americium oxalate on a carrier represented by calcium oxalate, followed by obtaining nitrate americium-containing solution and americium oxalate, with its further calcination to dioxideo. Americium-containing carrier sediment is also calcinated to oxides. Nitrate solution is obtained by dissolving oxides formed during calcination in nitric acid. Americium is extracted from nitrate solution with the help of solid extragent based on diisooctylmethylphosphonate, with further re-extraction. Americium oxalate is obtained by sedimentation from condensed re-extract.
EFFECT: extended range of methods of obtaining dioxide.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to extraction and concentration of thorium out of process waste of loparit concentrates treatment - spent melt of saline sprinkler filter (SSF) of loparit concentrate chlorination process. The method includes preparation of suspension by means of discharge of spent melt of saline sprinkler filter (SSF) into water, incorporation of high molecular flocculant, of holding, filtering, separation of sediment, obtaining of chloride solution, and of treatment with steel scrap and metal magnesium. Prior to obtaining chloride solution the source suspension is heated to 60-90°C and treated with solution of sodium hydroxide to pH 1.5-2.0 and to 0.1-0.3% solution of high molecular flocculant at amount of 3-5% from the source volume of suspension; then suspension is held for 2-4 hrs. Chloride solution is received by means of filtration of spent suspension obtaining sediment of rare metals; chloride solution is then treated with steel scrap and metal magnesium; at that the solution is successively treated first with the steel scrap at amount of 3-5 mass fractions of iron per 1 fraction of iron ions (III) in chloride solution at 80-100°C for 1-3 hrs till achieving the value of pH in a pulp equal to 3.0-3.5. Then the pulp is separated from the non-reacted portion of the steel scrap and is treated with metal magnesium to pH 3.5-4.5, and further with 0.1-0.3% solution of high molecular flocculant taken at amount of 5-20% from the volume of chloride solution. Thus produced pulp is held without mixing for 1-4 hrs and filtered producing thorium containing sediment; the said sediment is washed at filter first with solution containing 1-5 g/dcm3 of sodium sulphite, then with water. Washed out sediment is repulped in solution of sodium hydroxide with concentration of 50-150g/dcm3 at a ratio of "Ж:Т"=3-5 at 60-90°C for 2-3 hrs, after what the pulp is filtered with separation of alkaline filtrate. Thorium containing sediment at the filter is washed with water, pressed at the filter and dried; the alkaline filtrate and process water are merged and mixed, then heated to 80-90°C, and treated with solution of sodium hydroxide to pH 11-13 with production of hydroxide pulp. Hydroxide pulp is filtered and then radioactive sediment is produced at the filter; it is washed out with water and transferred to a special wastes depositary, while filtrate is mixed with 10-20 volumes of shop flush water, heated to 80-90°C and again treated with solution of sodium hydroxide to pH 11-13. Obtained pulp is held and filtered thus producing sediment of rare metals and deactivated chloride solution which is discharged to drainage. Sediment of rare metals is unloaded from the filter, merged with sediment of rare metals extracted from the source suspension, dried, washed out and then transferred for preparation of charge for its further chlorination together with the loparit concentrate.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of thorium extraction and simultaneously solving problem of neutralisation and utilisation of process waste.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of rare and radioactive elements; solves the problem of decomposing monazite. The method of decomposing monazite involves its treatment in molten salts at temperature ranging from 400°C to 900°C and phosphorous removal. The salts used during treatment are nitrates of alkaline metals (MeNO3), and phosphorous removal is done by separation of the clear phase of the smelt and/or lightening the phosphate of alkaline metal (Na or K) in a water solution.
EFFECT: low treatment temperature and provision for separation of phosphorous as a commercial product.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to hydrometallurgical methods of crude ore processing and may be used for sulphuric-acid agitation, heap, and underground leaching of uranium during uranium recovery from ores. The method involves uranium and iron leaching with sulphuric acid solution using ferric iron contained in the ore as the oxidiser; after that, uranium is recovered from the solution to prepare a solution containing ferrous iron, the ferrous iron is regenerated to ferric iron by oxidising to prepare bypass solution, and it is recirculated to the ore leaching. The uranium recovery from the solution is performed by sorption on an anion-exchange substance; after sorption, the solution containing ferric iron is acidified with sulphuric acid before the ferric iron regeneration to ferrous iron in the solution, and regeneration is performed by irradiating it with an accelerated electron flow at an absorbed dose rate of 2.3-3.5kGy/s during 1- 6 minutes.
EFFECT: increase in cost effectiveness, efficiency, and environmental safety of process.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: production methods.
SUBSTANCE: method of monazite recycling includes the milling of the monazite, processing during the heating by substance of hydroxide of alkaline metal, generating of the salt of phosphor acid, dilution of the filter cake in the mineral acid with the following abstraction of rare earth elements (REE), thorium and uranium. Processing is done by substance of kalium hydroxide = 1:1.0-1.5 with obtaining the substance of triallyl phosphate kalium and precipitation, containing the hydroxide of thorium, uranium, REE, notopened monocyte and empty land, which is processing by azotic acid, extending the nitrate REE in the substance. It is importuned from the substance the carbonates of REE by kalium carbonate. The rest of cake is processing by the substance of kalium carbonate with translating uranium into the substance and following importuning as dihydroxide dioxuranium and the final processing of the cake by the substance of azotic acid with generating thorium into the substance by importuning of thorium by the substance of kalium carbonate. The mother water from the importuning of REE, thorium and uranium and three kalium phosphate is distained to the producing of manuring. The substance of three kalium phosphate and hydroxide kalium is vapored , and it is separated crystal three kalium phosphate, and hydroxide kalium is distained to the head of process. The rest after processing by azotic acid not opened monocyte is distained to the head of process.
EFFECT: simplifying of the process and more effective using of all components of monoyte.
6 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: technology of processing uranium-and fluorine-containing wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of solutions from wastes, concentration of solutions by sedimentation of uranium followed by dissolving of sediments in nitric acid, extraction conversion of concentrated solutions with the use of tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon thinner and sedimentation of ammonium polyuranates from re-extracts thus obtained. Sedimentation of uranium at stage of concentration is performed with the use of sodium hydroxide at pH= 9-10 and temperature of 60-90C. Proposed method enhances purification of uranium from fluorine due to enhanced sedimentation and filtration properties of sediments at concentration stage. Content of admixtures in triuranium octa-oxide powders obtained from re-extracts by sedimentation of ammonium polyuranates and subsequent calcination does not exceed specified norms.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention concerns an agent for treatment of virus infectious diseases, namely hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, retroviruses of group of herpes (herpetic fever, cytomegalovirus) and mainly to a HIV-infection, AIDS, including radon (Rn), differing that in addition silicon (Si), carbon dioxide (CO2) are entered into it at a following parity of components: Rn - 40.0%; Si - 30.0%; CO2 - 30.0%.
EFFECT: working out of a new effective remedy for treatment of virus infectious diseases.