Data carrier, having free area for controlling damages

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in position, following noted data area of user. Said free area is distributed in backward order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used from last elements of said free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 7 dwg

 

Prior art

The present invention relates to optical recording media, and more particularly to a disk having a spare area to control the damage, and to method of distribution mentioned free regions.

To control the damage on a recordable and/or rewritable drive common form of damage (primary damage)produced during the initialization of the disk by using a sliding replacement for unhandled damage that does not involve a logical unit number sector for the damage, and damage (secondary damage)arising during use of the disk, we use linear replacement to replace blocks of code with error correction (CRO) erroneous zones normal blocks in the free area.

So to minimize the loss of speed playback or arising from damage, use a sliding replacement, in which the logical sector number provided for the sector, which while checking for damage during initialization of the disk is determined as invalid, provided the following for the damaged sector, thus, data is recorded or reproduced by shifting sector, where during recording or playback produced damage. Taco is a "shift in the reverse direction is carried out using sectors in the amount of damage provided in the free area, located in the end part of the corresponding recording area (or group of zones). According to the spec position of a defective sector is replaced with a sliding replacement must be recorded in the list of primary lesions (SPP) in the management of injuries (PMO) on disk.

Moving the replacement may not be used for damage that occurs during use of the disk. When the damaged part is not considered or is omitted, the logical numbering of sectors occurs discontinuity, which means that moving the replacement violates the rules of the file system. Thus, for damages that occur during use of the drive applies a linear replacement, in which the block SIH containing the defective sector is replaced by a block KIO in a free field. Information about the location of the damaged unit is replaced using linear replacement must be recorded in the list of secondary damage (SVP) in the management of injuries on the disk. When using the linear change interrupt does not occur in logical numbering of sectors. However, the positions of the sectors on the disk if it is damaged "broken", and the actual data for the damaged unit CROS are located in free space.

Meanwhile, digital multipurpose the e disk RAM multipurpose digital disc (DVD R) in accordance with the version 1.0 standard DVD R composed of multiple groups, each of which has a domain user and free region, which are constant in each zone. On figa illustrated half the disk image, which shows the user, the protection area and the spare area, and figv presents a one-dimensional structure of individual zones on the disk. Each zone is composed of the protection area, the user area, free area and the protection area, which are placed sequentially.

The disk is segmented into zones to solve inaccurate records due to a change speed drive during recording and to use the method zoned constant linear velocity (SPLS) to increase the speed of the search according to the method of constant linear velocity.

That is, when the damage is controlled by the linear replacement, the linear replacement inside the damaged area as possible increases the speed of search, because it does not change the linear speed of the disk. Thus, the DVD-R, as shown in figv, distributes some spare area in each zone for the implementation of linear replacement.

This existing method of controlling the damage each zone functioning as a group, and the free area is placed in to the goals of each group. Each group is managed as a management area of the damage. Also, since the number of the first sector of each group is pre-defined, it is assumed that the block KIO begins in the initial position of the zone, which is the unit for physical segmentation of the region.

The logical number of the first sector of each group is determined as described above. Thus, when the damage is controlled by a sliding replacement, sliding replacement should be performed only within the corresponding group. To replace the damage occurring in the group, using a sliding replacement, the number of bad sectors, which shift should be less than the number of sectors used the free area of the respective group. Accordingly, the constraint expressed that much of the damage occurring in one group must be processed within the above mentioned groups, limits the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by using the sliding replacement.

If the amount of damage that must be replaced by a sliding replacement, more the size of the free area in the appropriate group, then the linear replacement should be used in a free area in the other group. However, when using linear replacement, damage UE is alauda not in units of sectors, and in the modules KIO, i.e. in blocks of 16 sectors. Thus, to process a single bad sector, the required free area of 16 sectors, which reduces the effectiveness of damage control.

Also, the standard size of a free area for the control of damage is determined in advance, so spare area of the same size should be placed in application programs, record type, in real time, which cannot be applied to the management of injuries, using linear replacement. Therefore, decreases the efficiency of disk space.

The invention

The present invention is to solve the above problems, the optical recording media data containing the user data area that stores user data, and at least one spare area data for replacement of damaged elements in the data area of the user, with at least one spare area is allocated in the location following the specified data area of the user, with the specified at least one spare data region is allocated in reverse order from the last element in the specified field.

Specified spare area data used is carried out to replace the damaged elements of the user data with the most recent items specified free-field data.

Brief description of drawings

The above-mentioned objectives and advantages of the present invention are explained in the detailed description of the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention according to the appended drawings:

Figa is half the disk image with the user, the protection area and the spare area, and figv presents a one-dimensional structure of individual zones DVD-R;

Figa and 2B are views according to the present invention, illustrating the distribution of free areas during initialization, and figs depicts a view explaining the distribution of free areas during use after initialization;

Figa and 3B depict views illustrating the discontinuity bloc KIO damaged sectors within zones when moving the replacement.

Description of the preferred embodiments

According to the present invention available management damage on the disk containing the primary spare area, a secondary spare area and a supplementary spare area.

The primary spare area is first distributed to replace damaged when the disk is initialized, and first used for the sliding replacement. Spare area remaining after sliding replacement may be used as a secondary free region is here for linear replacement. Secondary spare area for linear replacement of damages occurring during use of the disk, determines the area remaining after the primary spare area is used during initialization to a sliding replacement. Secondary spare area may also be defined separately distributed free area. Additional spare area for linear replacement of damage produced during use of the disk defines a free area, advanced distributed during use of the disk after the initialization.

That is, according figa in the present invention are many areas on the disk forms a group, and at first, during the initialization of the spare area (the primary spare area for slipping replacement is distributed at the end of each group. Sliding replacement performs replacement in units of sectors, thus increasing the efficiency of a free area. However, when moving the swap area of damage is simply not used, and the data start in the next normal sector so that the area of damage could not be used after initialization.

During the initialization of the distributed maximum possible free area in the form of a primary spare area for slipping replacement, but the primary Svobodnoye, remaining after slipping replacement, can be used as a secondary spare area for linear replacement. When it is detected that the linear replacement cannot be sufficiently carried out using only the secondary spare area allocated upon completion of the sliding replacement when initializing the disk inside the primary spare area, in units of zones for areas of advanced distributed secondary spare area for linear replacement, as shown in figv. The secondary spare area is not the logical number of a sector, and information on the distribution of the secondary spare area is stored in the management of injuries (PMO), as well as managed mentioned PMO. Secondary spare area allocated during initialization, essentially, is located in the end zone, while the secondary spare area is not always distributed in each zone. As spare area for linear replacement is located in the end zone, it is easily manageable. Also, because the administration of the free area is in units of area, then you can easily find a free area in the zone closest to the area that was damaged. Moreover, it is possible to minimize a change in the existing information of the PMO.

Secondary spare area may be located per the d region protection which is the last part of the zone. When the secondary spare area is located in each zone, its size can be determined in advance as a relative or absolute amount determined according to numerical expression (for example, 3% of the size of each zone).

When using the disk after the initialization, if the spare area for linear replacement, distributed in blocks of zones is insufficient, according pigs, starting from the upper part of the logical file area, the file system is allocated a predetermined number of additional spare area for linear replacement. During the linear replacement supplementary spare area is used in reverse order, starting from the end of the logical file area, thus solving the problem of heterogeneity of the logical file area.

Linear replacement is performed in units of blocks KIO to use all spare area of block KIO, even when damaged is one sector. When the linear replacement of the damaged unit is replaced with a physically-isolated free area, so when you search the damaged area search speed is reduced. However, linear replacement can react to the damage produced during use of the disk, so it is used in relation to a secondary the damage arising during use of the disk.

Supplementary spare area is allocated in the amount of all empty contiguous area is available at the end of the logical file area. The maximum size of the free area should be smaller than the area of the end zone. Here the logical file area defines the logical area in the total area used in the file system, where it can be recorded/reproduced data file user.

On a disk with a diameter of 80 mm, the radius of the area of user data should be a maximum of 38 mm, because, starting approximately with the radius of 38 mm, a disk with a diameter of 80 mm is the effect of high speed double refraction resulting from the input disk.

According to the present invention, when the spare area for slipping replacement is distributed at the end of the disk by forming groups in many areas, a free area having a size corresponding to its processing in the group is distributed, mainly for 7679 points (fifteen sectors), which is the maximum number of damage that is processed using the list of primary lesions (SPP). In this case, the spare area (spare area used to control the positions of the block must be allocated additionally to prevent possible is here the beginning of the block KIO is not in the initial position of the area by reason caused by the slipping replacement shift in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector on the border between zones.

For example, if you apply the present invention to drive 1,46 GB (Gigabyte) DVD R, the primary spare area can be processed with WBS elements for the eight sectors and 64 elements SVP, thus preventing immediately after the formation of the generation of warnings due to failure of the primary spare area. Here the warning level occurs when the size of the free area is less than 32 blocks KIO. Accordingly, more than 3% each zone is allocated as the primary spare area based on the number of damage generated in free space, and the size of the free area to prevent discontinuity bloc KIO in each zone.

The WBS element that can be processed by the primary spare area corresponds to from one to eight sectors, and the element SVP is defined for one of the eight sectors. Free area for processing WBS element (SDSSand the free area of the processing element SVP (SSVP) can be expressed by the following inequality 1:

1≤ SDSS8 1≤ SSVP8 ... (1)

Further, according figa and 3B will be considered as due to moving swap to shift in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector, which can occur at the boundary between zones.

According to this izobreteniya group, formed from a variety of areas, when a bad sector is located in the zone #n, as shown in figa remaining sector, not forming unit KIO, are placed in the slipping replacement in the end zone. If data is written in the remaining sector, not forming unit KIO, arising by reason of the sliding replacement shift in the opposite direction" logical unit number sector occurs at the boundary between zones, so you may discontinuity bloc KIO on the border between zones, as shown in figv. That is, one unit KIO can be divided in two zones. In this case, problems may arise related to the fact that the drive should be excited with different speeds for read or write one block KIO, distributed in two zones, and the user and the protection area should be treated separately, as the number of physical sectors between them continuous. The protection area is an area buffering to prevent instability of the excitation due to the difference in rotation speed between zones.

When in the end zone on the cause of bad sectors remains less sectors than the number required to form a single unit KIO (16 sectors), in accordance with the present invention mentioned sectors are not used throughout the world and are ignored. For free space, used to control the location of the beginning of the block KIO in the initial position of the zone when the shift is in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector, which may arise from the moving of the replacement on the border between zones, required size, the value of which is determined by the following expression 2:

the free area of the control position of the block = (number of zones-1) × (the number of sectors for each block fix-1)... (2)

On the DVD-R block KIO has 16 sectors, thus a maximum of 15 sectors may remain in the end zone, if the block heater does not start at the beginning of the zone. Remaining at the end of each zone sector, which do not form a bloc KIO, you should also skip to negotiate the initial position of the block KIO with the initial position of the zone, so that additional spare area of the same size as the noise sector. The number of boundaries between zones is obtained by subtracting a few areas. That is, where there are two zones, the number of parts connection between zones is one, and where there are three zones, the number of parts connection between zones is equal to two. The free area of the control position of the block, the size of which is equal to the size of one block KIO, can usually be distributed in each zone.

Thus, it is preferable that one disk had only one is to RUPE for sliding replacement. In this case, the spare area for slipping replacement can be distributed at the end of the disc with respect to the number of elements that can be processed using SPP and SAP, and the size of the free region (here, a maximum of 32 blocks CRO) to control the initial position of the block KIO on the border between zones.

Thus, many areas are defined as one group, and a spare area for slipping replacement is distributed at the end of the above mentioned groups. A reduced ability to cope with mistakes, made a big scratch, is constrained due to the small size of the free area, distributed in each group, when there are many groups, each group has multiple zones.

For example, the disk capacity of about 4.7 GB, with one group in each zone, one group contains approximately 1600 tracks and the width of each track on the physical disk is about 1 mm, as shown in figa. When the disk occurs scratch more than 1 mm in the radial direction, become damaged about 1600 sectors. However, if the spare area in each zone forms a group and is distributed in a certain manner, in accordance with the capacity of the disk, it is determined that only about 1100 sectors can be replaced by sliding replacement in the inner part of the circumference of the disk. Consequently remains approximately 400 to 500 sectors, which cannot be replaced by the slipping replacement and are therefore replaced by the linear replacement. In the case of free fields requires approximately 400 to 500 units KIO, and efficiency drive in the zone where the corresponding damage decreases significantly. However, when, as suggested in the present invention, for moving the replacement is distributed in a large open area in relation to the size of the entire disk, moving the replacement can be performed on even such a large damage.

Since the recording and/or reproducing device cannot recognize the contents damaged, processed by the file system or application program when the corresponding disk is initialized again and used for another purpose, the said device may re-initialize the disk, not taking into account the damage that has occurred. Accordingly, there can be performed a quick format, where secondary damage (which is stored in the element SVP) just change the WBS element and processed by a sliding replacement, thereby recording and/or reproducing device must control the damage, even if the secondary injury are managed by the file system or application program. Therefore, the occurrence or navoznikov the e damage shall in all cases be controlled using SVP, regardless of whether or not to perform the linear change and the existence or absence of a free area for linear replacement.

As described above, the present invention eliminates the limit on the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by sliding replacement, without violating the constraint, namely, that even great damage produced in the group must be processed within this group, so you can exercise more effective sliding replacement. Also, may be correspondingly adjusted the size of the free area according to the purpose of the application program so that the disk space could be used more efficiently.

1. Optical recording media data containing the user data area that stores user data, and at least one spare area data for replacement of damaged elements in the data area of the user, with at least one spare area is allocated in the location following the specified data area of the user, with the specified at least one spare data region is allocated in reverse order from the last element in the specified field.

2. Optical recording media data according to claim 1, in which the specified spare area data used in isoamsa to replace the damaged elements of the user data with the most recent items specified free-field data.



 

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

5 cl, 16 dwg

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FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: for protecting optical disk from recording, information concerning protection from recording is read, which is previously recorded in at least one zone of starting or ending area of data carrier, and it is determined, whether the latter is in state of recording protection. In variant, when carrier is placed in cassette body, and body has aperture for forbidding recording protection of data on disk, it is determined, if recording protection state of recording protection data written on disk is matches with state of recording protection of said aperture, and recording of new data is prevented, if said protection data and aperture position forbid recording. In a variant information concerning recording protection is stored in zones of disk identification of at least one of zones of starting and ending area of carrier.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

5 cl, 16 dwg

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