Method and device for recording information

FIELD: technology for recording information onto data carrier, having shape of disc, like those of optical or magnetic disc.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to recording method, onto disc, having multiple recording tracks, separated on blocks, recording area of which has addressed user area with free access, serial data packets are recorded in different blocks of addressed user area with free access, prior to recording session, given portion of addressed user area with free access is cached as replacement zone, if damaged block is detected, replacing record for appropriate data packet is performed in aforementioned area for replacements of addressed user area with free access, in accordance to which during recording session size of aforementioned replacement zone is altered dynamically in accordance to requirements for replacement zone.

EFFECT: decreased number of leaps of recording head during recording, higher efficiency of disc capacity use.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention in General relates to recording information, particularly digital information on a recording medium having a disk shape, such as an optical disk or magnetic disk, which is hereinafter called a "disc". As is well known, this disc has many concentric essentially round track record. Such track record can take the form of individual circular tracks or a single continuous spiral track. Each track is divided into logical blocks, and each block has a data area for recording data. In addition, each block typically has an area reserved for record control number or "checksum".

The amount of information recorded at the recording session, usually more than one block. The logged information, also called "file", then is divided into successive data packets having a size of one block, and sequential packets of the data file recorded in a different disk blocks. For fast data transfer additionally require that the serial data packets were recorded in sequential blocks. Then, the recording process can be continued almost continuously. Similarly, during subsequent read (playback) information recorded on the disc, the read process may Ave galatica continuously.

In practice, the disk may have bad blocks, i.e. blocks, where it is no longer possible to produce accurate recording of information, or where you can no longer fix any small errors that occurred during recording. This block is no longer suitable for further recording. On the drive to write is usually reserved spare area, to which may not appeal to the user and which are intended to replace any damaged blocks. When it detects a corrupted block during recording, recording is performed in the backup unit recording area, and not in a bad block.

After writing a packet of data in the backup unit recording area to record the following data packets continues in the block next to the damaged unit. Therefore, for such replacement requires two twists of the recording head and two jump of the read head is required for reading information.

These jumps are reading or recording head from the normal recording area in the redundant area write back and take a relatively long time and reduce the average rate of information transfer. This is particularly undesirable in situations that require very high speed, as for example, when recording real-time audio and/or video signals.

For such applications it is not recommended to do jumps in servoy the recorded area and back for each individual damaged unit, but when it detects a corrupted block is recommended to record the portion of the file that contains numerous blocks in the backup area. Jumps not occur directly after each other in time, but the time between them increases. The transmission rate, averaged on a time interval which does not include jumps, becomes higher. However, the backup recording area fill up quickly, while a significant number of data packets recorded in the backup part of the record, the wrong way to occupy space in the backup recording area, as the blocks corresponding to these data packets in normal areas records are not damaged. Thus, reducing the number of jumps is accompanied by a relatively inefficient use of the backup recording area, and backup the recorded area is filled more quickly, and after completing the backup area of the recording disk can no longer be used for another account. On the other hand, this means that the number of parts of the file for which the replacement recording is performed in a reserved area becomes relatively small.

The present invention is to find a solution for the above problems.

According to an important aspect of the present invention the replacement recording is performed in its the same part of the record, that is, in the addressable area with free access, which has not yet been used. This area is large enough to record parts of the file having a length of hundreds of blocks arranged in series one after the other. Before you write to the administrator the allocation of reserves some portion of the free area of the recording in the form of the replacement. This redundancy implies, on the other hand, that the administrator the allocation will not use the addresses in this reserved portion of a free recording area for recording. If during recording detected a bad block, the recording head jumps to the appropriate address in the reserved area of the substitution, in a free recording area, for example, the first free address in the area of replacement, and the replacement recording is performed in the above-mentioned substitution zone. After the recording of the file in this zone, the replacement of the recording head returns to the normal region for normal recording.

After completion of the recording session, the administrator selection informs what addresses in the substitution zone were used to replace and which addresses the replacement with the original address. Administrator selection then know what the address of a free area is no longer free and which of the initially selected addresses were used and, therefore, remain is essentially still free.

This information can optionally be transmitted to the administrator the allocation during the recording session, which, if necessary, the administrator selection can reserve additional space in the normally available space during the recording process, for example, when there is a very large number of errors.

Brief description of drawings

These and other aspects, features and advantages of the present invention is further illustrated by the subsequent description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 presents the block diagram, which shows a portion of the recording device.

Figure 2 schematically presents the logical structure of the disk for recording in order to depict the known recording method.

Figure 3 schematically shows the logical structure of the disk entries in order to portray the recording method according to the present invention.

1 shows a block diagram of part of the recording device 1 suitable for recording video or audio S in real-time to disk 2 to record.

Qualified specialists in the art it will be obvious that the scope of patent claims of the present invention is not limited to the examples described above but various changes and modifications are possible without deviating from the scope of patent claims of the present invention, which is defined in the attached claims. For example, the present invention is useful, if only specified test paths are checked in the test procedure, even if the test procedure is not based on the use of signal tracking, although this is preferred. The disc 2 may be a magnetic disk, but the present invention is intended, in particular, for optical recording. Disc 2 has many mutually concentric tracks 3 entries, which will be hereinafter separate all the tracks, but it is also possible that the tracks 3 are one continuous spiral track. As is known in itself, the device 1 has an optical recording/reading head 10 and the rotary table, which is not shown for simplicity, and which is facing to the head 10, which can be positioned disk 2, and through which the disk 2 can be set in rotational motion relative to the cylinder 10, thus allowing you to scan the track 3 with the head 10. The recording device 1 further comprises a means that is known in itself and which is not shown to simplify, to move in the radial direction of the disk 2, thus that provides access to the head 10 to the track 3 of disc 2. Kakaroto know, information is recorded in the track 3 by means of the laser beam 11 incident from the head 10.

The recording process is controlled using the function block 20, which is referred to hereinafter as the control unit of account. This unit 20 controls the recording is known in itself and therefore not further described. It should only be noted that the block 20 of the control record is adapted to control the positioning of the head 10 relative to the disk 2 in such a way that the recording process took place in a desired location on the disk 2 by controlling the rotary table to disk 2, and means for positioning the recording head 10. In addition, the block 20 control entry controls the intensity of the laser beam 11 depending on the input signal S, which must be recorded. This function of the control unit 20 controls the recording schematically represented in the form of a link 22 in figure 1.

The recording device 1 additionally has a functional block 30, which is hereinafter called the administrator of the selection. This administrator 30 allocation is known in itself and therefore not further described. It should only be noted that the administrator 30 allocation is adapted to determine the portion of the disk 2 will be a specific session recording or recording. When the user machinae the record, the administrator 30 selection determines whether there is enough space to write on the corresponding disk 2, and if so, where space is available. The administrator 30 informs the selection unit 20 controls the recording of the initial location of the available space, which is schematically represented in the form of a communication signal 31.

Figure 2 schematically presents the logical structure of the disk. Track 3 recording together define a recordable region 40 of the disk 2, which is shown in the form of a continuous strip and which will be referred to hereinafter as part of the record.

Region 40 of the recording disk 2 is divided into logical blocks 45, each of which has an individual predefined address. The value of the corresponding address block 45 was recorded in the specified field of the address block 45. Thus, information can be directly written to the specified location that corresponds to the specified address on the disk 2, and you can also read information directly from a given location that corresponds to the specified address. The blocks 45 are of a size, which should be the same for all blocks. The amount of data that can be recorded in one unit, called a data packet.

Region 40 of the record is for a significant part of the so-called Adra is been created space 41, which may be available to the user in order to record information and, in this example, digital video signals. Therefore, it is an addressable space 41 will also be called hereinafter as a custom field.

Region 40 disc 2 additionally includes a back region 42, which is not addressable and which is used as the replacement. The relative storage capacity of the user area 41 and the backup area 42 is not shown to scale in figure 2; in General, the size of the backup area 42 is only a few percent of the size of the user area 41.

Disc 2 additionally has a predefined region 43 in which is stored information related to the content of the disc. This information may include, for example, to the number of files on disk 2, the initial locations of the files, the lengths of the files, file names and so on. This area 43 will also be called hereinafter as an administrative area.

Figure 2 files f1, f2, f3 and so on. Files in General take a lot of blocks 45 to ensure that the file contained multiple data packets. The part of the user area 41, which has already been used to store files that will be called user busy area 46 or busy space. Neopolitan the I part of the user area 41 is still free: this part will be called hereinafter as a free user area or space 47. Blocks used by the file are not necessarily adjacent to each other directly addressable region 41. The file may contain multiple segments, each of which can contain multiple blocks, where the segments can be spread within the addressable region 41. Therefore, the free space consists of many segments with blocks that have not yet been used. These addresses are stored in the administrative space 43. To simplify the files are presented as one continuous area.

When loading of the disc 2 in the recording device administrator 30 allocation issues a command to the block 20 management account through a link 31 to read administrative region 43 and the transfer of information thus read, the administrator 30 allocation through the connection 31. The administrator 30 selection stores the read information in associative memory 32. The administrator 30 selection at that time know which part of the user area 41 disc 2 take the previous record of files f1, f2 and so on and, therefore, the user area 46 or occupied space. As a result, the administrator 30 allocation also know which part of the user area 41 is still free and, therefore, has a free user area or space 47.

p> When the administrator 30 allocation receives a new write command, the administrator 30 allocation checks in associative memory 32 which part of the user area 41 has a free space, and sends the start address and end address in the free space in the block 20 controls the recording through the line 31 connection. The administrator 30 allocation also stores this data in memory 32 in the form of indication that the part of the user area 41, which is specified by a start address and an end address, no longer belongs to the free user area 47, but belongs to a busy user area 46. Unit 20 controls recording controls the recording process for the input signal S, which will be written, which is performed in the usual way, and begins with a start address that is received from the administrator 30 selection. After completion of the recording process unit 20 controls the recording conveys a message to the administrator 30 secretions through line 31 connection, after which the administrator 30 allocation issues a command to the block 20 entries to update data in the administrative field 43 of the disk 2.

The user area 41 may contain bad blocks 45*. It is then possible that the presence of some damaged blocks 45* unknown in advance to the administrator 30 allocation, the result is it these bad blocks 45* normally used for allocation. However, it is also possible that before recording, the administrator 30 highlight knows which blocks are not used in the result of the presence of defects. In the known method, these blocks 45* still used for allocation. Unit 20 of the recording controls, you can choose an alternate location. If during the recording process of the recording head 10 then reaches the damaged unit 45*, then the control unit 20 controls the recording must move the recording head 10 in an alternative unit, and a data packet, which must be recorded in the corresponding bad block 45*, is recorded in the above-mentioned alternative block. After recording the data packet in the alternative unit 20 controls the entry refers to the recording head back to the user area 41 in a known manner.

Such an alternative block is also called replacement unit 45', and the write data packet in the replacement unit 45' is called the replacement entry.

Usually the alternative unit 45' is selected in the backup area 42.

Much time is lost due to the reciprocating motion of the recording head 10, resulting in a famous recording process is not very suitable for processing video signals in real time. In the present invention it is proposed to reduce the number of intermittent movements of the recording head 10 is to increase the time between successive stepwise movements due to when the recording head 10 reaches the damaged unit 45* and, therefore, should go jump in the replacement block 45', the replacement recording is performed not only for a single data packet, which will be recorded in the bad block, but also the fact that before you jump back a large number of subsequent data packets is recorded in the replacement blocks 45*. The number of subsequent data packets, thus recorded in the replacement blocks 45'may be 100 or more. In fact, errors often occur in clusters. When selecting a large number of data packets reduces the number of jumps. This sequence of subsequent packets of the data recorded in the replacement blocks 45', is also part of the file.

Predefined backup region 42 is relatively small. In particular, this back region 42 was performed for a capacity of approximately 3% of the full capacity of the disc, thus providing an alternative way to account for all bad block 45* if damaged not more than 3% of the units. In a known process of writing this is enough in practice, since in this case there is only one replacement block 45' in the backup area 42 for each damaged unit 45* in the user area 41. However, if parts of the file have a size of 100 or is more data packets, written to the backup area 42 at the same time, it is inevitable that a large number of the replacement blocks 45' back region 42 is required as an alternate recording area to the undamaged blocks 45 user area 41. This means that the backup region 42 is filled quickly and may already be full even when the number of corrupted blocks 45* in the user area 41 is much less than 3%. When the back region 42 is full, the disk 2 can not be more than used for further recording.

The present invention also allows you to find the solution for this problem.

To this end, according to the present invention, the administrator 30 allocation is adapted to reserve two different areas in the free user area for recording, and the first area is reserved for the normal recording and the second area is reserved for replacement account. The administrator 30 informs the selection unit 20 controls the record about these areas. Unit 20 of the control record is adapted to perform normal recording in the first area, and when it detects a corrupted blocks 45*to complete the replacement account for part of the file in the second field.

As shown in figure 3, the administrator 30 selection may be to this end is adapted to determine the exact address of the beginning of the C which pisi WSA and addresses of end-of-record WEA in the free user area 47, and address of the reserved area NW for normal recording, and also to determine the exact address to begin the replacement of RSA and address of the end of the replacement REA in the free user area 47, and the address of the reserved area RW for replacement account. Figure 3 shows that the NW region reserved for normal recording, is located at the beginning of the free user area 47, and the region RW reserved for replacement account, located at the end of the free user area 47. In fact, free custom field will contain many are not adjacent to other areas, scattered around adisoemarto space. Therefore, it is also possible that the region RW reserved for replacement account, adjacent to the area of NW reserved for normal recording.

The administrator 30 allocation is adapted to link these addresses with the block 20 management account, which, in turn, is adapted to ensure that a record of the information flow in the area of NW reserved for normal recording inside the free user area 47, continues in a known manner. However, the unit 20 controls the recording is adapted so that when it detects a corrupted sector 45* the recording head 10 has jumped to a location in the zone RW replacement is the ow inside the free user area 47, performing a replacement recording of the file in the above location, and, subsequently, causing the recording head 10 to jump back in the NW region reserved for the normal recording inside the free user area 47. Obviously, in this method, the replacement recording is performed without the disadvantages described above. Thus, in particular, the back region 42 is not used.

Unit 20 controls the recording usually transmits the message to the administrator 30 allocation in the case where the recording process is complete, then the administrator 30 selection starts in block 20 of the control record to update data in the administrative field 43 of the disk 2. The administrator 30 selection adds the addresses in the region RW reserved to substitute records to administrative data administrative region 43. Unused addresses with defects remain in the free user area. These addresses can be added to the list of untrusted addresses. During the follow-up to the administrator account 30 allocation can then decide not to use these addresses to allocate. This prevents loss of time for re-allocation.

Thus, the occupied space 46 user area 41 in this moment of time contains part 46W occupied normal recording, the blocks that are already used in esults in the area of NW, and blocks that are already being used in the field of RW. The administrator 30 allocation writes it in the memory 32, and after the recording session, it writes the information in the table of contents in the administrative area 43 on the disk.

When the disk 2 is loaded into the device 1, in the next moment of time is similar to the procedure: the administrator 30 allocation recognize addresses that were used. From this information, the administrator 30 allocation learns that remains free custom scope. Part of this area is reserved for replacement account. It should be the same as during the previous recording.

Usually the size of the zone RW replacement in the free user area 47 more than the back region 42, and is large enough to handle the number of replacement entries that take place in normal conditions.

If during recording the residual free user space becomes small, as the disk becomes full, although there is still a place in space replacement, the administrator 30 allocation can reduce the space replacement by passing this information to the device 20 of the control record. Thus, the entire disk can be used for storage. It is possible that during the session, the recording unit 20 controls the recording also provides the flow of information in and is ministrator 30 allocation relative to the size of the residual unused part of the zone RW drive replacement, as a result, if the number of replacement records remains relatively large, and the substitution zone becomes so relatively full, even before the completion of the recording session, the administrator 30 allocation may expand the area of RW replacement.

After reserving the administrator 30 selection of free custom area 47 administrator 30 allocation is no longer considers this part, as free and available for normal recording.

The method proposed with the present invention, has some major advantages. During the recording session or process of recording the size of the area replacement in free space can be changed dynamically. It does not cause any loss in playing time, which is possible thanks to the reserved area replacement. In addition, the drive can still be used even when damaged more than 3% of the recording area. Theoretically, the drive can even be used when damaged approximately 100% of the memory space, but this reduces the residual play time, according to that which damaged a large part of the memory space and requires more space replacement (permanent impairment). This is the main difference from the known method, where the disk is no longer used in the presence of defects of more than 3%.

Thus the m briefly, the present invention in particular provides a method of recording video signals in real-time to disk DVR that has an area of 40 entries, which includes administrative region 43, the back region 42 and the user area 41. Normal recording is performed in blocks 45 in the first pre-reserved area NW spare parts 47 a custom field. If during the recording process encounters a bad block 45*, replaces the entry of the file that has the size of many of the blocks produced in the second, pre-reserved area RW drive spare part 47 user area, and then continues normal recording in the first pre-reserved area NW. On the other hand, it reduces the number of jumps and limits the number of spikes occurring within a short period of time with the aim of replacing the recording and, on the other hand, for very efficient use of the memory capacity of the disk.

Specialists will be clear that the scope of the present invention is not limited to the examples described above, and various changes and modifications without deviating from the scope of the invention as defined in the attached claims.

1. The method of recording information on the disk (2) to record the type of disc that has many con is intricacy, essentially, all of the tracks (3) entries, divided into blocks (45), and track (3) recording together define an area (40) disc (2), region (40) of a record includes, at least, user addressable area (41) with free access, on which information that should be recorded is divided into data packets, which have the size of the unit, the serial write data packets in different blocks (45) user addressable area (41) with free access before the recording session given part (RW) mentioned addressable user area (41) with free access reserves in the form of zones of replacement if it is detected that the block (45*) is damaged, a replacement entry for the respective data packet is performed in the above-mentioned substitution zone addressable user area (41) with free access, and which during the recording session the size of the mentioned zone replacement is changed dynamically in accordance with the need in the exchange area.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which during a recording session, if necessary, an additional part of user addressable area (41) with free access reserves in the form of zone replacement.

3. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 2, in which during a recording session, cancel, if necessary, to reserve a portion of the pre-reserved C the us replacement for to create a part, again available as a free user area (47).

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, whereby if during the recording process encounters a bad block (45*), then produce a replacement account for part of the file containing the set of consecutive data packets.

5. A recording device for recording information on the disc type of the disc, with many concentric essentially all of the track record and track record together define an area on the recording disc, the recording area includes at least user addressable area with free access, while the recording device contains the block (20) of the control record, is adapted to control the recording process, and the administrator (30) selection, adapted for determining the location of the disk (2) must be an entry in which the administrator (30) allocation is adapted to reserve two different areas to write in the free part (47) of the user region, the first region (NW) is reserved for the normal recording and the second region (RW) reserved for replacement account, the administrator (30) highlight adapted for informing unit (20) controls a record of these reserved areas, and the block (20) of the justices who placed the record is adapted to perform normal recording in the first predefined area (NW), and if there are bad blocks (45*), then the second predefined region (RW) is the replacement account for part of the file that has the size of many blocks, and after the replacement recording normal recording continues in the first predefined area (NW), and administrator (30) allocation is adapted to dynamically change the size of the second predefined area (RW) in accordance with the need in the exchange area.

6. The recording device according to claim 5, in which the block (20) of the control record is adapted to inform the administrator (30) selection after completion of the recording process relative addresses used in the second predefined region (RW), and in which the administrator (30) allocation adapted to enter the above address used in the second predefined region (RW) memory (32)associated with the administrator (30) selection, and in the table of contents in the administrative region (43) of the region (40) disc (1).

7. The recording device according to claim 5 or 6, in which the administrator (30) allocation adapted to include the address of the invalid block (45*), which leads to the replacement entry in the list of unreliable blocks, and for prohibiting the use of blocks included in the said list for : the population, when two areas (NW; RW) reserved after subsequent write commands.



 

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