Method for distribution of free space for data carrier

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in location, following said user data area. Said free data area is distributed in reverse order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used starting from last elements of noted free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

Prior art

The present invention relates to optical recording media, and more particularly to a method of distribution of free areas of the recording media.

To control the damage on a recordable and/or rewritable drive common form of damage (primary damage)produced during the initialization of the disk by using a sliding replacement for unhandled damage that does not involve a logical unit number sector for the damage, and damage (secondary damage)arising during use of the disk, we use linear replacement to replace blocks of code with error correction (CRO) erroneous zones normal blocks in the free area.

So to minimize the loss of speed playback or arising from damage, use a sliding replacement, in which the logical sector number provided for the sector, which while checking for damage during initialization of the disk is determined as invalid, provided the following for the damaged sector, thus, data is recorded or reproduced by shifting sector, where during recording or playback produced damage. A “shift in the opposite direction” is panostandalone sectors in the amount of damage provided in the free area, located in the end part of the corresponding recording area (or group of zones). According to the specification, the position of a defective sector is replaced with a sliding replacement must be recorded in the list of primary lesions (SPP) in the management of injuries (PMO) on disk.

Moving the replacement may not be used for damage that occurs during use of the disk. When the damaged part is not considered or is omitted, the logical numbering of sectors occurs discontinuity, which means that moving the replacement violates the rules of the file system. Thus, for damages that occur during use of the drive applies a linear replacement, in which the block SIH containing the defective sector is replaced by a block KIO in a free field. Information about the location of the damaged unit is replaced using linear replacement must be recorded in the list of secondary damage (SVP) in the management of injuries on the disk. When using the linear change interrupt does not occur in logical numbering of sectors. However, the positions of the sectors on the disk if it is damaged “broken”, and the actual data for the damaged unit CROS are located in free space.

Meanwhile, the digital estate is Noah RAM disk multipurpose digital disc (DVD-RAM), in accordance with the version 1.0 of the standard DVD-RAM, composed of multiple groups, each of which has a domain user and free region, which are constant in each zone. On figa illustrated half the disk image, which shows the user, the protection area and the spare area, and figv presents a one-dimensional structure of individual zones on the disk. Each zone is composed of the protection area, the user area, free area and the protection area, which are placed sequentially.

The disk is segmented into zones to solve inaccurate records due to a change speed drive during recording and to use the method zoned constant linear velocity (SPLS) to increase the speed of the search according to the method of constant linear velocity.

That is, when the damage is controlled by the linear replacement, the linear replacement inside the damaged area as possible increases the speed of search, because it does not change the linear speed of the disk. Thus, the DVD-RAM disc, as shown in figv, distributes some spare area in each zone for the implementation of linear replacement.

This existing method of controlling the damage each zone functioning as a group, and the spare area is located at the end of each group. Each group panel which is as a management area of the damage. Also, since the number of the first sector of each group is pre-defined, it is assumed that the block KIO begins in the initial position of the zone, which is the unit for physical segmentation of the region.

The logical number of the first sector of each group is determined as described above. Thus, when the damage is controlled by a sliding replacement, sliding replacement should be performed only within the corresponding group. To replace the damage occurring in the group, using a sliding replace the bad sectors, which shift should be less than the number of sectors used the free area of the respective group. Accordingly, the constraint expressed that much of the damage occurring in one group must be processed within the above mentioned groups, limits the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by using the sliding replacement.

If the amount of damage that must be replaced by a sliding replacement, more the size of the free area in the appropriate group, then the linear replacement should be used in a free area in the other group. However, when using linear replacement, damage not managed in units of sectors, and modules KIO, i.e. in BC is under 16 sectors. Thus, to process a single bad sector, the required free area of 16 sectors, which reduces the effectiveness of damage control.

Also the standard size of a free area for the control of damage is determined in advance, so spare area of the same size should be placed in application programs, record type, in real time, which cannot be applied to the management of injuries, using linear replacement. Therefore, decreases the efficiency of disk space.

The invention

The present invention is the provision of efficient and flexible distribution of free regions by generating many zones as one group, distributing the first spare area for slipping replacement and subsequently distributing spare area for linear replacement.

For the above objectives, the present invention provides a method of allocating spare area for recording/reproduction disk, which serves to distribute free management disk damage, while the above-mentioned method includes a step of forming a group in many areas on the disk that has a user data area, and the primary distribution free on the region for moving the replacement in the generated group.

Brief description of drawings

The above-mentioned objectives and advantages of the present invention are explained in the detailed description of the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention according to the appended drawings:

figa and 1B are views according to the present invention, illustrating the distribution of free areas during initialization, and figs depicts a view explaining the distribution of free areas during use after initialization;

figure 2 is a functional diagram illustrating, according to one variant of implementation of the present invention, the method of distribution of free regions during initialization; and

figure 3 is a functional diagram illustrating, according to one variant of implementation of the present invention, the method of distribution of free regions during use after initialization.

Description of the preferred embodiments

According to the present invention available management damage on the disk containing the primary spare area, a secondary spare area and a supplementary spare area.

The primary spare area is first distributed to replace damaged when the disk is initialized, and first used for the sliding replacement. Free area, osteomalacia sliding replacement can be used as a secondary spare area for linear replacement. Secondary spare area for linear replacement of damages occurring during use of the disk, determines the area remaining after the primary spare area is used during initialization to a sliding replacement. Secondary spare area may also be defined separately distributed free area. Additional spare area for linear replacement of damage produced during use of the disk defines a free area, advanced distributed during use of the disk after the initialization.

That is, according figa in the present invention are many areas on the disk forms a group, and at first, during the initialization of the spare area (the primary spare area for slipping replacement is distributed at the end of each group. Sliding replacement performs replacement in units of sectors, thus increasing the efficiency of a free area. However, when moving the swap area of damage is simply not used, and the data start in the next normal sector so that the area of damage could not be used after initialization.

During the initialization of the distributed maximum possible free area in the vie is the primary spare area for slipping replacement, but the primary spare area remaining after slipping replacement, can be used as a secondary spare area for linear replacement. When it is detected that the linear replacement cannot be sufficiently carried out using only the secondary spare area allocated upon completion of the sliding replacement when initializing the disk inside the primary spare area, in units of zones for areas of advanced distributed secondary spare area for linear replacement, as shown in figv. The secondary spare area is not the logical number of a sector, and information on the distribution of the secondary spare area is stored in the management of injuries (PMO), as well as managed mentioned PMO. Secondary spare area allocated during initialization, essentially located in the end zone, while the secondary spare area is not always distributed in each zone. As spare area for linear replacement is located in the end zone, it is easily manageable. Also, because the administration of the free area is in units of area, then you can easily find a free area in the zone closest to the area that was damaged. Moreover, it is possible to minimize a change in the existing information of the PMO.

Secondary free blast can be located before the security realm, which is the last part of the zone. When the secondary spare area is located in each zone, its size can be determined provisionally, as a relative or absolute amount determined according to numerical expression (for example, 3% of the size of each zone).

When using the disk after the initialization, if the spare area for linear replacement, distributed in blocks of zones is insufficient, according pigs, starting from the upper part of the logical file area, the file system is allocated a predetermined number of additional spare area for linear replacement. During the linear replacement supplementary spare area is used in reverse order, starting from the end of the logical file area, thus solving the problem of heterogeneity of the logical file area.

Linear replacement is performed in units of blocks KIO to use all spare area of block KIO, even when damaged is one sector. When the linear replacement of the damaged unit is replaced with a physically isolated free area, so when you search the damaged area search speed is reduced. However, linear replacement can react to the damage produced during use of the disk, so it is used in relation to secondary is x damage, arising during use of the disk.

Supplementary spare area is allocated in the amount of all empty contiguous area is available at the end of the logical file area. The maximum size of the free area should be smaller than the area of the end zone. Here the logical file area defines the logical area in the total area used in the file system, where it can be recorded/reproduced data file user.

On a disk with a diameter of 80 mm, the radius of the area of user data should be a maximum of 38 mm, because, starting approximately with the radius of 38 mm, a disk with a diameter of 80 mm is the effect of high speed double refraction resulting from the input disk.

Figure 2 shows a functional diagram illustrating the allocation of free areas on disk during initialization carried out according to a variant implementation of the present invention. According to figure 2, when the step S101 is assumed command initialization, in response to the above command is formed one group in many areas of the disk, and at step S102 at the end of this group is the primary spare area. That is, the primary spare area for slipping replacement contains free area damage control, appropriate 7679 sector data (480 blocks To The O), where 7679 - maximum number of controls, the damage that can be processed using SPP, and free area (here 32 block Keaau high) to control the initial position of the block KIO in each boundary between zones.

Meanwhile on the disk 1,46 GB DVD-RAM primary spare area can handle the WBS elements for 8 sectors and 64 elements SVP and distributed advanced with respect to the free field to control the position of the block.

When the primary spare area is allocated, relative to the entire disk area, it is determined whether it produced the damage, and as determined in step S103 produced damage is replaced with a sliding replacement using the primary spare area allocated at the end of the group. Here, if distributed primary spare area is insufficient when replacing damaged by loose change, then the corresponding disk is determined as invalid, and in addition, may include the step of generating an error message initialization to prevent disk usage.

When at step S103 moving the replacement is completed, unused at the time of moving replace the portion of the primary spare area is allocated within the secondary spare area for linear replacement, and if the determined that the secondary spare area within the primary spare area is insufficient to perform the linear change, then at step S104 in the zones in units of zones advanced distributed secondary spare area. Information associated with the secondary distribution of free regions for linear replacement, distributed by zones in units of zones stored on disk management damage (PMO). When completing the free distribution of primary region and the secondary distribution of free regions for linear replacement, the initialization is terminated. In order to unify the way of managing additional spare area for linear replacement, it is preferable that the secondary spare area inside the first open area used for linear replacement, and the secondary spare area allocated for each zone were used in reverse order, starting with the last of the free, appropriate fields.

Figure 3 shows a functional diagram illustrating according to a variant implementation of the present invention, the method of distribution of free areas during use of the disk after the disk has been initialized. If the size of the secondary spare area for linear replacement, distributed during initialization of the disc is insufficient to replace damages the Oia, incurred during the use of the initialized disk, distributed additional spare area for linear replacement.

According to figure 3 at the step S201 determines whether while using drive additional spare area for linear replacement. If it is determined that the supplementary spare area is required, at step S202, it is determined whether there is a sufficient number of continuous empty area at the end of the logical file area. If at step S202, it is determined that in the final field of the logical file area has a sufficient number of continuous empty area, then at step S203 for linear replacement are allocated spare area, a predetermined size, starting with the last part of the logical file area, and the step S201 is executed again.

The distribution of additional open area corresponds to the redistribution of the logical file area, generated after initialization, thus, required to support the file system. In this scenario, the secondary spare area for linear replacement is not distributed for each zone, but can be distributed from the end of the logical file area, i.e. the area with the greatest logical sector number in the logical file area, the DG may register files for user data, in the direction of the region having the smallest logical sector number. When there is secondary damage and referred to secondary damage is replaced by the linear replacement using distributed thus additional free space, the speed of the search is only getting worse, but it is possible to prevent the generation of the logical number of a sector in the logical file area, which file system to use can't. It is possible to prevent the discontinuity of the logical number of a sector.

According to the method of controlling the damage to the existing linear replacement for a damaged unit KIO should be replaced by the first normal unused block KIO from the free area, so that the defective blocks within the spare area is not carried out even at a time when the free area is used in direct sequence, and damaged a vacant area is omitted. However, when the blocks in the free area are used in direct sequence, as in the existing method, the problem arises when additional increase free space. That is, whenever the size of the free area increases, must be carried out separately managing information about increase an additional free area is. To solve this problem, the blocks in the free area are used in reverse order from the end. Therefore, as soon as are determined by the lowest sector number and the highest sector number from which to start an additional spare area, the management of the entire free area can be carried out continuously. That is, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus does not need to have information about how often distributed for more free area of a predetermined size, these equipment can be controlled with the additional free area only if its initial and final positions. However, the maximum size of the free area must be less than the size of the end zone.

If at step S202, it is determined that at the end of the file system does not have enough contiguous empty area, then at step S204 empty area allocated by the file system or application program. After that, at step S205 again determines whether there is sufficient continuous empty area. If the size of the continuous empty area is sufficient, at step S203, the distribution of additional free space. If the size of the continuous empty area is insufficient is even after the allocation of empty areas at step S206 is allocated message “supplementary spare area cannot be allocated”. Then the process is terminated. If at step S201 is determined that the supplementary spare area is not required, the process ends.

At the same time, a small open area to control the damage can be distributed in a special application programs type of record in real time or similar, linear replacement against secondary damage is limited, and most damage that can be processed by the file system or application program. Also is preferable that the secondary damage was processed by the file system or application program when recording in real time to achieve the minimum transmission rate required by the corresponding application program.

In this case, the recording and/or reproducing device also requires the definition of the damage and minimal management in relation to detectable damage. Here the minimum management means management using SAP determination made whether the linear replacement of damage that has occurred.

For example, for damage occurring during use of the disk that has information about the management of injuries, etc is this mentioned on the disc for recording in real time is not used control damage using linear replacement, only

in the list of secondary damage (SVP) is written the number of the first sector of each damaged unit,

information indicating that the invalid block has not been replaced, is written in a bit forced overlay mask redistribution (PNMP) item SVP, showing, was replaced by a bad block,

and information, determines that the damaged unit is replaced, it will write the number of the first sector of the replaceable unit in the element SVP.

Since the recording and/or reproducing device cannot recognize the contents damaged, processed by the file system or application program when the corresponding disk is initialized again and used for another purpose, the said device may re-initialize the disk, not taking into account the damage that has occurred. Accordingly, there can be performed a quick format, where secondary damage (which is stored in the element SVP) just change the WBS element and processed by a sliding replacement, thus, recording and/or reproducing device must control the damage, even if the secondary injury are managed by the file system or application program. Therefore, the occurrence of or against damage on the should in all cases be controlled using SVP, regardless of whether or not to perform the linear change and the existence or absence of a free area for linear replacement.

As described above, the present invention eliminates the limit on the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by sliding replacement, without violating the constraint, namely, that even great damage produced in the group must be processed within this group, so you can exercise more effective sliding replacement. Can also be accordingly adjusted the size of the free area according to the purpose of the application program so that the disk space could be used more efficiently.

1. The allocation of free area for the recorder and/or playback of a disc, in which the free distribution management damage to the disc, the said method comprises the steps of distributing at least one spare area to replace items damaged area user data, which stores user data, and the distribution of the specified distributed one free region in the reverse order, starting with the last part of the distributed at least one open area, with the specified at least one free region is to be distributed in the location, following the data area of the user.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the disk 80 mm in diameter region of the user's data is distributed within 38 mm radius disk.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the distribution of at least one free region includes the step of storing information about the distribution, at least one of the vacant areas in the management of damage to the disk.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that at least one of the free areas is allocated to the corresponding protection areas, which are parts of the respective zones of the disk.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that information about the damages that occur after initialization during use of the disk, is stored in the list of secondary damage regardless of made whether the linear replacement and is there at least one spare area for linear replacement.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that is used, at least one spare area for linear replacement of secondary damage after initialization during use of the drive in the forward direction with the largest logical unit number logical file field.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the amount distributed, at least, one of the free Oh region is smaller than the size of the last zone.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the size of the distributed at least one free region corresponds to the size of the continuous empty area at the end of the logical file area.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises the step of configuring the empty areas of the disk when the lack of continuous empty area at the end of the logical file area when allocating at least one open area.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes a step of forming a message stating that at least one spare area cannot be allocated to the insufficient size of the continuous empty area even after configuring the empty fields.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises the step of storing in the management of disk damage information related to the distribution of at least one free region.

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the information associated with the distribution of at least one free region, contains information about the start and end positions, at least one open area.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises the step of using at least one free region in the reverse order with most on ledney part of the logical file area, distributed as at least one spare area.

14. The distribution of the free area of the recording device and/or playback of a disc, which is used to allocate the free space to control the damage of the disk, namely, that distribute the primary spare area for slipping replacement group, formed from a variety of zones on the disk, allocate a secondary spare area for linear replacement based on the size of the primary spare area remaining after the primary spare area for slipping replacement, and distribute additional free area of a predetermined size for linear replacement secondary damages incurred during use of the disk after it is initialized.

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that the amount distributed for more free regions corresponds to the size of continuous empty area at the end of the logical file area of the disk.

16. The method according to 14, characterized in that in the distribution of the secondary spare area distribute the secondary spare area is not only part of the primary field, but also in each respective area.

Priority items:

10.10.1998 - PP-16;

21.10.1998 - according to claims 1, 3-6, 9-13;

14.05.1999 - according to claim 2, 7.



 

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