Storage disk with temporary disk description structure (tdds) and temporary disk fault list (tdfl) and method and system for fault control in this storage disk

FIELD: information storage; storage disk with temporary informational area of fault control.

SUBSTANCE: disk contains fault control area, temporary fault information area which is formed in data area and in which temporary fault information is written, and temporary informational area of fault control. Thus, it is possible to write user data to a recordable disk carrying out fault control.

EFFECT: effective usage of fault control area which has a limited capacity.

77 cl, 14 dwg

 

Description

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the management of defects in the disk storage device, and in particular to a disk storage device in which is formed a temporary information management area of the defects and the temporary management area, as well as to a method and apparatus for managing defect in such a disk storage device.

The level of technology

Defect management is performed in order to allow the user to overwrite the user data portion of the user data area, in which there is a defect in the new area of the user data in the disk storage device, thereby compensating for the loss of data caused by the defect. Typically, defect management is performed using the method of linear replacement or moving of substitution. In the method of linear replacement, the user data area, in which there is a defect, is replaced with the backup data area having no defects. In the way of moving replace the user data area, in which there is a defect, is skipped in order to use the next field of the user data that is free of defects.

Both linear and sliding replacement PR is important only to the disk storage devices like DVD-RAM/RW drive, on which data can be repeatedly recorded, and the recording may be performed by a method of random access. In other words, the traditional method of linear and sliding substitution cannot be applied to once recordable discs, which allowed only once. In General, the presence of defects on the disk is checked by using the write data to the disk and confirm whether the data to be written to disk. However, when data is recorded on a single recordable disc, it is impossible to overwrite new data, and thereby to control the defects on the disk.

Meanwhile, after the development of CD-R and DVD-R, were presented once recordable high density disks having a recording capacity of several gigabytes. The drive of this type can be used as a backup drive, since it's inexpensive and allows random access, which provides fast read operations. However, defect management is not available for once recordable discs. Thus, the backup operation fails when the defective region (for example, an area in which there is a defect) is detected during the backup operation, as cannot be performed defect management for a single writable disk.

Typically, the backup is operamania runs when the system is not used often. Therefore, the backup operation is often performed at night, when the system administrator does not exploit the system. In this case, it is more likely that the backup operation is stopped due to the detection of the defective area on a single recordable disc, and thus, the backup system will not run reliably.

Disclosure of inventions

The present invention provides once recordable disc with a data structure that allows management defects, and a method and apparatus for managing defect on the disc.

The present invention provides once recordable disc with a data structure that allows management defects, even if the defect on the disk during write operations, thereby providing a successful write operation, and a method and apparatus for managing defect on the disk, with control defects.

Additional features and advantages will be partially formulated in the following description and will be in part obvious from this description, or may be understood in the use of the invention.

In accordance with a feature of the present invention, the disk contains the control defects, at least one of perejil is the R regions: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region; temporary information management area of the defect in the data area in which to store temporary information about defects; and the time information region management defects, at least one of the following areas: primary (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method of managing defects on the disc includes recording information about a defect related to the data written during the write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded during a previous write operation, as the first time information on the defect; and the recording of the first time information on the defect information and defect related to the data recorded during the next write operation, as the second time information about the defect in the data area.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method of managing defects on the disc includes recording information about a defect related to the data recorded in the data area on the disk, in accordance with the first write operation, recording information about a defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the second write operation, recording information about a defect related to Yes is s', recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and recording information about a defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-th write operation; and recording management information of the defect management nth time information about the defect, as nth temporary management information defects in the temporary information management defects, where n is an integer.

Preferably, but not necessarily that the method further includes recording the last recorded time information and temporary defect management information of the defects in the management of defects in the process of completing the write to disk.

Preferably, but not necessarily to write nth temporal information about the defect consisted of recording data in a predetermined unit; verifying the recorded data to detect areas on the disk, in which there is a defect; storing information indicating the area, covering the area having the defect and the data recorded after the area having the defect as a defective area; recording data in a predetermined block after the defective area; repeat scanning and saving at least one time; and reading information from the memory and recording the read information in the n-th time domain information about the Fund is regarding subsection in the data area, after n-e write operation completes.

Even more preferably, but not necessarily to write nth temporal information about the defect is additionally included the recording of information denoting the n-th time domain information of the defect as a defective area in the n-th time domain information about the defect.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a recording unit that records data in the data area on the disk in accordance with the write operation; and a controller that controls the recording unit to record information about the defect related to the data that is recorded in the data area in accordance with the write operation, in the form of temporal information about the defect in the data area, and recording temporary management information defect management time information of the temporary defect information area management defects, at least in one area: in the beginning (lead-in the field and in the final lead-out area of the disk.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a recording unit that records data on the disk; and a controller that controls the recording unit to record information about the defect related to the data that is recorded in the data area on the disk in accordance the with write operations from the first to the nth in the form of nth temporal information about the defect in the data area; and managing a recording unit for recording management information of the defect management nth time information about the defect in the form of nth temporal information about managing the temporary defect information area management defects, where n is an integer.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the drive includes a management area of defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; a temporary storage area of the information about the defects, which is located in a data region in which to store temporary information about defects; temporary information management area of the defect, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, and in which to store temporary information about the management of defects and the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area and which records the temporal information of the defect is recorded in the temporary storage area of the information about the defects, and the temporary management information, the defect is recorded in the temporary information management area of the defects.

In accordance with another feature of the present izaberete the Oia, the disk includes a management area of defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region; a temporary storage area of the information about the defects, which is located in a data region in which to store temporary information about defects; temporary information management area of the defects, which is in the initial lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region in which to store temporary information about managing defects; and a management area of defects, which is in the initial lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region in which to store temporary information about the defect is recorded in a temporary storage area of the information about the defect, and a temporary management information, the defect is recorded in the temporary information management area of the defects.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method for managing a defect on the disc includes recording information about a defect related to the data recorded in the data area, for each write operation in the form of temporal information about the defect in the data area; and recording management information of the defect management time information about the defect in the form of a temporary inform the tion about the management in the temporary defect information management defects, at least one of the areas in the initial lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; and recording the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management defect formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, in the process of completing the write to disk.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method for managing a defect on the disk includes a recording in the form of nth temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area of the disc according to the first write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the second write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the n-th write operation; recording information about the defect management to control the n-th time information about the defect in the form of the n-th temporary management information in the temporary defect information management defects, where n is an integer, and write the last recorded time information and temporary defect information is then about the management defect management defect in the process of completing the write to disk.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a recording unit that records the data in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operation; and a controller which controls the recording unit to record information about the defect related to the recorded data, in the form of temporal information about the defect in the data area; controls the recording unit to record information about the management defect management time information about the defect, in the form of temporary management information of the temporary defect information area management defects, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; and controls the recording unit to record the temporary information and temporary defect management information of the defect management defect, which is formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a recording unit that records the data in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-s; and a controller which controls the recording unit to record information about the defect related to the data recorded in accordance with the operations for the ISI from the first to the n-th, as nth temporary information about the defect in the data area; controls the recording unit to record information about the management defect management nth time information about the defect as nth temporary management information defects temporary information management area of the defects; and controls the recording unit to record the last recorded time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defect, where n is an integer.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the drive includes a management area of defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; a temporary storage area of the information about the defects, which is located in a data region in which to store temporary information about defects; and the time information region management defects, which are formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area and in which to store temporary information about the management of defects for managing time information about the defect, and in which re-writes the temporal information of the defect and a temporary management information, the defect if the defect is detected, the disk drive by way of checking on the Le record.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the drive includes a management area of defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; a temporary storage area of the information about the defects, which is located in a data region in which to store temporary information about defects; and the time information region management defects, which are formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area and in the external (outer) region, and in which to store temporary information about the management of defects, where the last recorded time information about the defect, which was recorded last staging area information about the defects, and the last recorded temporary management information, the defect, which was recorded last temporary information management area of the defects are recorded in the management area of the defects in the process of completing the write to the disk, and the temporal information of the defect and temporal information about the defect management is recorded again in the time domain information about the defects and the time information region management defects, respectively, when the detected defect disk using the method check-after-write.

In accordance with the laws the AI with another feature of the present invention, method for managing a defect on the disk includes a recording time information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, for each write operation; recording information about the defect management to time management information in the temporary defect information management defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out region; and performing a method, the check-after-write for at least one of the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect, and the recording time information and temporary defect management information of the defect again, if there is a defect of the disk.

Preferably, but not necessarily that the method further includes recording the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defects in the initial lead-in region and in the final lead-out area.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, a method for managing a defect on the disc includes recording, in the form of nth temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area of the disc according to the first write operation, the information is then about the defect, related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the second write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the n-th write operation; recording information about the management defect management nth information about the defect in the form of nth temporal information about managing the temporary defect information area defect management; and the implementation of the method validation-after-write for, at least one of the nth temporal information about the defect and nth temporary management information of the defect and re-entry nth temporal information about the defect and nth temporary management information defect if a defect of the disk, where n is an integer.

Preferably, but not necessarily that the method further includes recording the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defects in the process of completing the write to disk.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a block read/write, which writes data into or reads data from the data area of the disk; and a controller which controls the block to be written and read/to write, as temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded on the disk in accordance with a write operation and for recording management information of the defect management time information about the defect, in the form of temporary management information in the temporary defect information management defects, in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; performs way to verify-after-write for at least one of time information the defect and temporal information about the management of defects; and manages the block write/read to write time information and temporary defect management information of the defect in the case of a defective disk.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention, the recording device includes a recording unit that records data in the data area of the disk; and a controller which controls the recording unit to record, in the form of nth temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-s; controls the recording unit to record information about the management defect management nth time information about the defect, in the form of nth time the military information management in the temporary defect information area defect management; performs way to verify-after-write for at least one of the nth temporal information about the defect and nth temporary management information defects; and controls the recording unit to record a nth temporal information about the defect and nth temporary management information of the defect in case of detection of a defect of the disk, where n is an integer.

Brief description of drawings

The above and/or other features and/or advantages of the present invention will become more apparent and more legkovosstanovimymi when the detailed description of implementations with reference to the following accompanying drawings:

Figure 1 - block diagram of the recorder and/or playback in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Figa and 2B is an illustration of the structures on the disk in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Figure 3 - illustration of the implementation of the disk structure shown in Figa and 2B;

Figure 4 - illustration of the implementation structure of the disk is shown in Figure 3;

5 is a chart illustrating the process of recording the temporary list of defects (TDFL) for the structure shown in Figure 4, in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Figa and 6B illustrates data structures of a temporary list of defects (TDFL), in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Figa and 7B - illustratesthat data of the defect #i, contained in the temporary list of defects (TDFL), and the data structure of the temporary list of defects (TDFL), shown in figure 4, in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Fig - illustration of the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i shown in Figure 4;

Fig.9 illustrates the data structure of the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i shown in Fig;

Figure 10 - illustration of data structures structure description disk drive (DDS), in accordance with the implementation of the present invention, intended for use on the disk, shown in Figure 3;

11 is an illustration of the data structure of the list of defects (DFL), in accordance with the implementation of the present invention, intended for use on the disk, shown in Figure 3;

Fig - functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with the implementation of the present invention;

Fig - functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with another implementation of the present invention; and

Fig - functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with another implementation of the present invention.

The implementation of the invention

Now will be described in detail actual implementations of the present invention, examples of which polluter the Vanir accompanying drawings, on which same reference numerals indicate the same elements. These implementations are described below to explain the present invention, referring to drawings.

Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the recorder and/or playback in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. In Figure 1, the recording device includes a block 1 write/read controller 2 and the memory 3. Unit 1 read/write records and/or reproduces data from the disc 100, which is an implementation of the media. During data write, block 1 write/read reads data from the disc 100, in order to verify the accuracy of recorded data. The controller 2 performs control of defects in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. In accordance with the implementation, the controller 2 uses the method check-after-write, in which the data recorded on the disc 100 in a predetermined unit, and a defect on the disk 100, detected by checking the accuracy of recorded data.

After recording data in a predetermined block, the controller 2 writes information indicating the position of the defective area on the disk 100. This information is recorded in the form of temporal information about the defect on the disk 100. Also, the controller 2 writes to the disk 100 control information, which is information used to control the time and the formation of the defect. The management information is recorded in the temporary management information defect. Here, the predetermined recording unit may be a write operation, which is a work unit is defined in accordance with user preferences or the type of task records. In accordance with the implementation, the write operation is a process in which the disc 100 is loaded in the recording device, the data is written to the disk 100, and the disk 100 is ejected from the recording device. However, it is clear that the write operation can be defined differently. For example, the write operation may be determined in accordance with the recording time or number of recorded data, in contrast or in addition to inserting or removing a disk by the user.

During a write operation, data is written and verified at least once. According to the implementation, when the user clicks the check out button (not shown in the drawings) on the main unit to eject the disc 100 after recording data, the controller 2 assumes that the write operation must be interrupted. Next, the controller 2 creates a temporary information and temporary defect management information of the defect and provides this information to the block 1 read/write to write to the disk 100. The temporal information of the defect, which is received in the cut is ltate account and check the controller 2, stored in the memory 3. However, the test can be carried out at a different time in the recording process.

If the write data to the disk 100 is completed (e.g., no more data to write to the disk 100, and the recording disk 100 is completed), the controller 2 writes the temporary information and temporary defect management defect management area of the defect (DMA) on the disk 100.

Figa and 2B illustrate the structure of the disk 100 in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. In more detail, Figa illustrates the disk 100, which is a disk with one recordable layer having a recording layer L0. Disk drive 100 includes primary (lead-in area, data area, and the final lead-out area. The initial lead-in area located on the inner part of the disk 100 and the final lead-out area is located on the outer part of the disk 100. The data region is located between the initial lead-in area and the final lead-out area, and is divided into a user data area and a reserved area. The user data area is the area in which records user data. The reserve area is a proxy for the part of the user data area having the defect, in order to compensate for the loss of the recording area of the defect.

Preferably, but not necessarily for all the person who values, to reserve the area contained 5% of the full capacity of the disc 100, so that more data could be recorded on the disc 100, on the assumption that there might be defects. Also preferably, but not necessarily, the reserve area was at the end of the recording area of the disc 100. Especially, in the case once recordable disc 100, the reserve area must be at the end of the recording area of the disc 100, in order to be used the way the moving of substitution, when the data backup area to be written, starting from the inner part of the disk 100 toward the outer part.

In the shown implementation of the reserve area is located between the user data area and the final lead-out area. If necessary, the part of the user data area can be used as another backup area. Namely, in accordance with another implementation, more than one backup area can be formed between the user data area and the final lead-out area.

Figv illustrates the disk 100 having two recording layers L0 and L1. The initial lead-in area, data area and the outer area are sequentially formed from the inner side of the first recording layer L0 to the outer part. Also, the outer area, a data area, and the final lead-out region p is therefore formed from the outer part of the first recording layer L1 to the inner part. Unlike disk 100 with a single recording layer on Figa, final lead-out area of the second recording layer L1 is located on the inner side of the second recording layer L1 of the disk 100 by Figv. That is, the disk drive 100 of figure 2 has the opposite way track (OPT), in which the data is written starting with an initial lead-in area on the inner side of the first recording layer L0 in the direction of the external field and continuing from the outer region of the second recording layer L1 in the direction of the final lead-out area in the inner part.

Figure 3 illustrates an example of the structure of implementations of the disk 100 shown in Figa and 2B. In accordance with Figure 3, the defects presented in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) area of the disk 100. Temporary management area of the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area. The temporal information of the defect formed in the data area in a predetermined block.

In General, information related to the management of defects on the disk 100, is recorded in the management area of the defects. Such information includes the structure of the disc 100 to control defects, the position information of the defect, whether the management of de the facilities, and the position and size of the backup area. For once recordable disc 100, new data is written after previously recorded data when the previously recorded data is changed. In the General case, when the disk 100 is loaded in the recorder/playback, such as shown in figure 1, the device reads the data from the initial lead-in area and the final lead-out area of the disk 100, in order to determine how to manage the disk 100 and to write or read data from the disc 100. However, if the amount of data recorded in the initial lead-in area increases, then more time will be spent on the preparation for recording or reproduction of data after loading the disc 100. Accordingly, implementation of the present invention provides a temporary management information and temporary defect information on the defect.

More precisely, only temporary management information, the defect, which is relatively more important than the temporal information of the defect is recorded in the initial lead-in area. The temporal information of the defect is recorded in the data area. Preferably, but not necessarily that new information was added to the previously recorded information in the time information about the defect, so that it has accumulated all recorded information. The recorder/playback reads after which have both been recorded temporal information about the defect and detects defects on the disc 100 on the basis of the results of the reading. Thus, information related to the location of the last recorded time information about the defect is recorded in the information management area of the defects in which to store temporary information about the management of defects.

More detail information related to the defect occurred in the write block #0, and information related to the defect occurred in the recording unit #1, written to a temporary information management area of the defects #0 and the time information management area of the defects #1, respectively. Information about the management defect management temporary areas #0 and #1 information about the defect is recorded in the temporary information management area of the defects. If the disc 100 can no longer be recorded or if the user does not want to write more data to disk 100 (for example, if you want to complete the write process to the disk 100), the temporal information of the defect is recorded in a temporary storage area of the information about the defect, and a temporary management information, the defect is recorded in the temporary information management defects, is recorded in the management area of the defects.

The reason for re-recording temporary management information and temporary defect information, the defect management area of the defects will now explain the and. If the disc 100 is no more data will be written (for example, if you want to complete the write process to the disk 100), temporary management information, the defect, which was updated few times, and the temporal information of the defect stored in the field data is moved into the management area of the defects in the initial lead-in area. Thus, it is possible to achieve faster reading information recorded on the disc 100. You can also increase the reliability of the information by recording information about managing defects in a variety of places.

In this implementation, information about the defect is recorded in the temporary area from #0 to #i-1 information about the defect is recorded again in the time domain #i information about the defect. Thus, it is enough to consider the information about the defect from the last time the information about the defect and again to store the read information in the management area of the defect (DMA) on the disk 100.

Figure 4 illustrates the structure of the disk is shown in Figure 3. In accordance with Figure 4, the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) area of the disk 100. If the disc 100 is a disk 100 with one recording layer, the defects formed in at least one area: in starting the Oh (lead-in area and the final lead-out area. If the disc 100 is a disk 100 with two recording layers, as shown in Figv, the management area of the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) area of the disk 100. For example, if the disc 100 has a single recording layer L0, the management defects formed in both the initial lead-in area and the final lead-out area, and if the disc 100 has two recording layers L1, L0, management defects formed in the initial lead-in area, the final lead-out region) and external (outer) region.

After recording the user data in the data area in accordance with the write operation #0, the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #0, which is the information about the defect corresponding to the recording operation #0, is hosted in a data region. Information related to the defect occurred in the user data recorded in accordance with the write operation #0, is written to a temporary list of defects #0. Similarly, user data corresponding to a write operation #1, recorded in the data area, and a temporary list of defects #1, the corresponding write operations #1, is placed in the data area. Temporary list of defects #2 corresponding write operations #2, also placed in the data area.

A temporary structure is ur description disk (TDDS), which is a temporary control information of the defect management temporary list of defects with #0 through #n, is written to a temporary information management area of the defects. The temporal structure description disk #0 through #n correspond to the temporary list of defects from #0 to #n, respectively. Using the temporal structure description disk #0 to #n may record whether the defect management, the size of the backup area and information for managing the temporary list of defects #i in the time structure description disk #i. It is also possible entry in the temporary list of defects #i, information relating to the position of the defective area and the relevant provisions of the reserve area, which is used to replace the defective area.

For a disk with a high recording density that can be recorded information in the size of several gigabytes, preferably, but not necessarily to select the cluster, for each temporal structure descriptions drive #i, and from four to eight clusters were allocated to the temporary list of defects #i. This allocation is due to the fact that it is preferable to record new information in units of clusters, in order to update the information when the minimum physical record size is the cluster, although the size of the temporal structure description drive #i, which BP is variable control information of a defect, only a few kilobytes. Meanwhile, preferably, but not necessarily to the total number of defects that are acceptable for the disk 100, was about 5 percent of the recordable disk capacity. For example, a temporary list of defects #i includes four to eight clusters, taking into account that about 8 bytes of information required for recording information related to the defect, and the cluster size of 64 kilobytes

In accordance with a feature of the present invention, the method check-after-write can be used for temporal structure description disk #i and the temporary list of defects #i. In this case, when the detected defect information is recorded again in the appropriate related field.

Figure 5 presents a diagram illustrating the process of recording the temporary list of defects (TDFL), in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. Here the block of data can be converted in units of sectors or clusters. The sector represents the minimum amount of data that is supported by the file system of the computer or application, and the cluster means the minimum amount of data that can be physically written to disk at one time. In General, one or more sectors make up the cluster.

There are two types of sectors: physical sector and a logical sector. Physical sects which R is the area on the disk 100, which should be written to the sector data. The address for the detection of the physical sector is called the number of a physical sector (PSN). Logical sector is the unit of sector data management in the file system or application. The address for the detection of logical sector is called the number of the logical sector (LSN). The recorder/playback, such as shown in figure 1, detects the position of the data to be written to the disc 100 using the number of the physical sector, and all of the data is processed in units of numbers of logical sectors in the computer or the application to write data to the disk 100. The relationship between the logical sector and the physical sector is changed by the controller 2 device recording/playback, depending on whether the defect and the initial position data.

Figure 5, A denotes a data region in which the number of physical sectors of a selected number of sectors (not shown) in ascending order. In the General case, each logical sector corresponds to at least one of the numbers of physical sectors, respectively. However, as the number of logical sectors are allocated to sectors, except for defective sectors, in ascending order, the correspondence between the physical sector numbers of the logs of the definition of the sectors is not supported, if the disc 100 is defective region, even if the physical sector size is the same as the logical sector.

Figure 5, figures from 1010 to 1090 indicate the data blocks on which the task is executed verification after the task record. In more detail, the recording device records the user data in section 1010 returns to the beginning of section 1010, and starts to check if there is any user data correctly or there is a defect in section 1010. If there is a defect, the area covering the defect, and the data recorded after the defect in section 1010 are referred to as defect #1. The device then records the user data in section 1020 returns to the beginning of section 1020, and checks if there is any user data correctly or there is a defect in the beginning. If there is a defect, the area covering the defect, and the data recorded after the defect in section 1020 are referred to as defect #2. Similarly, the determined defect #3 in section 1030. However, because the defect was not found in the section 1040, the defective area is not defined in section 1040.

As the disk 100, in accordance with the implementation of the present invention, is once recordable disc 100, preferably, but not necessarily to the data recorded after the area having the defect was not used, and the region covering the data recorded on the Le of the defect, was defined as the defective area, as well as the area covering the defect. Assuming that the number of the logical sector i highlighted the area in which the data recorded after the area having the defect, in order to use the data, the area in which data is recorded after the area having the number of the logical sector i, shall be denoted as having a number of logical disk i-1 to play back the data. However, if there is a section in which the number of logical sectors not allocated in ascending order, it is not easy to manage the logical sectors. Thus, in this implementation, all the field data after the defective area, also assigned to the defective areas, thereby increasing the efficiency of management of logical sectors.

Temporary list of defects #0 is recorded in section 1050, when it is expected the completion of the recording operation #0 after recording and verifying data in section 1040 (for example, when the user clicks the check out button on the recorder or the recording of the user data allocated in the write operation completed). Temporary list of defects #0 contains the information about the defects #1 through #3, which emerged in the sections 1010 through 1040. Similarly, a temporary list of defects #1 is recorded in the sector 1090, the corresponding write operations #1 and containing information regarding defects #4 and #5 in sectors with 1060 by 1080. Lying to the config list of defects #0 also contains information related to part of the region in which the recorded user data in accordance with the write operation #0, where the part has a defect, and thus is designated as the defective area. Also the temporary list of defects #1 contains information related to part of the region in which the recorded user data in accordance with write #1, where the portion having the defect is identified as another defective area. Though this is not required for all features, a temporary list of defects #1 further comprises information recorded in the temporary list of defects #0, in accordance with a feature of the present invention.

Figa and 6B illustrate data structures of a temporary list of defects (TDFL), in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. In accordance with Figo and 6B, the information about the defects #1 through #3 is written to a temporary list of defects #0. Information regarding the defect #1 describes the position of the defect #1, the information regarding the defect #2 describes the position of the defect #2 and information regarding the defect #3 describes the position of the defect #3. Further information on the temporary list of defects #0, which reflects the position of the temporary list of defects #0, is additionally recorded into the temporary list of defects #0.

Because user data is not written into the temporary list of defects #0, there is no need to read the information, recording the reduction in the temporary list of defects #0, during playback of user data. That is, to reproduce the user data is meaningless to distinguish the defective region #i and the temporary list of defects #0, because user data is not contained in these areas. Temporary list of defects #0 contains information related to his position, and, thus, can be used as useful information, for example, to indicate, during playback of user data, that user data is not recorded in the temporary list of defects #0.

Temporary list of defects #1 contains information related to the defects #4 and #5, in addition to the information recorded in the temporary list of defects #0. Temporary list of defects #1 also contains information related to the position of the temporary list of defects #1, for the same reasons that the item is indicated in the temporary list of defects #0.

Figa and 7B illustrate data structures for information regarding the defect #i, contained in the temporary list of defects (TDFL), and for information on the temporary list of defects #i. In accordance with Figo and 7B, the information regarding the defect #i includes information on the status, primary, reserved and end positions of the defect #i. In General, information about the state of the flag indicating whether the defective area is blasto, in which there was a defect, or it is a temporary list of defects that contains temporary information about the defect. The information regarding the defect #i, status information is a flag indicating that this area is a defective area. Information about the beginning is the beginning of this area (for example, the beginning of the defect #i). Information about the end is the end of this area (for example, the beginning of the defect #i). Reserved indicates the area that is delayed, in order to record other information.

Information on the temporary list of defects #i includes information about the condition and the initial reserved and end positions of a temporary list of defects #i. In General, information about the state of the flag indicating whether this area is a defective area in which there was a defect, or it is a temporary list of defects that contains temporary information about the defect. Information on the temporary list of defects #i, status information is a flag indicating that this region is a temporary list of defects that contains temporary information about the defect.

Fig illustrates the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i. In accordance with Fig, temporal structure description disk #i includes the identifier, information about fashion management defects, the pointer to which the information device, a pointer to a temporary list of defects #i, which indicates the position corresponding to the temporary list of defects #i pointer to the physical region of the user data, a pointer to the logical area of the user data, a pointer to the optimal power management, and information about the disk usage.

Information about fashion management defects indicates whether the management of defects on the disk 100. For example, the information describes a reserved area in the case of performing defect management and does not describe the backup area otherwise. If defect management is not required, the information provides this fact so that more user data can be recorded in the backup region, which, otherwise, uses about 5% of the recordable disk capacity, in accordance with a feature of the present invention. A pointer to a device information describes the location (for example, the number of the first physical sector) information device (not shown) of the disk drive 100 in accordance with a feature of the present invention.

The device information is obtained by using a test disc 100 in a particular drive, allowing you to skip the test in the case of reading data from the disc 100, thereby providing a fast read operations. In other words, inform the tion of the device is created to use a specific drive without a test drive. In this implementation, the device information includes recording conditions, such as the ID used drive and the optimum recording power. If once recordable disc, the data is written in the new cluster whenever updated information device. Thus, if the information area of the disk 100, which will be recorded the following information devices, are known in advance, it is possible to reduce the time required to perform preliminary operations to read or reproduce data to or from the disk 100. For this reason, it is useful to record this information devices on disk.

A pointer to a temporary list of defects #i indicates the position of the area of the disk 100 in which the recorded temporary list of defects #i (for example, the number of the first physical sector of the temporary list of defects #i). A pointer to the physical region of the user data indicates the end (for example, the number of the last physical sector of data area in which user data is physically written. A pointer to the logical area of the user data indicates the end portion (for example, the number of the last logical sector of data area, which is logically recorded user data. Using the pointer to the physical region of the user data and the pointer to the logical area of the user data, you can define the beginning of the data area, in which will be recorded on the user data during the next write operation. A pointer to the optimal power management describes the location of the test area for optimum power control. A pointer to the optimal power control can also be used as information, provide the next available area, when the different types of drives managed by different optimal power management. A pointer to information about the disk usage determines whether the recording disk 100 is completed (i.e., can be recorded user data in the data area).

Fig.9 illustrates the implementation of the data structure of the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i. According to Fig.9, the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i includes an identifier, a pointer to a temporary structure description disk (TDDS) #i, the information regarding the defect #n, the information regarding the defect #n+1 and so on. Information regarding the defect #n includes information about the start and end positions of the defect #n in the status information.

A pointer to a temporary structure description disk (TDDS) #i indicates the position of the area in which is recorded the corresponding temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i. For example, a pointer to a temporary structure description disk (TDDS) #i can indicate the number of the first physical sector of the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i. Information about the position of the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i included a temporary structure description disk (TDDS) #i, and information about the position of the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i included in the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i determines the position of the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i and the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i, which are paired information. Thus, the above-mentioned two different information can be used to check whether data stored in the temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i and the temporal structure description disk (TDDS) #i.

Status information, which is information regarding the defect #n describes whether a specific area is valid from a defective region or area in which recorded information about the management of defects. The inclusion of information regarding the defect #n status information is not required. Information about the start and end positions of the defect #n can be written as the number of the first physical sector number of the last physical sector of the defective area, respectively. Information regarding the defect #n+1 is also recorded using the recording method of the information regarding the defect #n.

In carrying out the invention method of test-after-write is performed for each of the multiple clusters. If the check-after-write vypolnyaetsya each individual cluster, the size of the area designated as defective, equal to one cluster, and therefore do not need to record the number of the last physical sector of the region.

Figure 10 illustrates the structure of the data structure description disk drive (DDS)recorded in the management area of the defect (DMA), shown in figure 3 and 4. In accordance with Figure 10, the structure of the disk (DDS) includes the identifier, information about fashion management defects, a pointer to the device information, a pointer to the list of defects (DFL), which determines the position of the corresponding list of defects, a pointer to the physical region of the user data, a pointer to the logical area of the user data pointer for optimal power management and a pointer to information about the disk usage.

Information about fashion management defects indicates whether defect management. This information describes that the reserve area is not formed on the disk 100, unless you manage defects, and describes what the backup region formed in the opposite case. A pointer to a device information specifies the position information of the device (not shown) on the disk 100. For example, a pointer to a device information can specify the number of the first physical sector information.

The device information is poluchaetsya using a test disc 100 in a particular drive, allowing you to skip the test in the case of reading data from the disc 100, thereby providing a fast read operations. In other words, the device information is created to use a specific drive without a test drive. In this implementation, the device information includes recording conditions, such as the ID used drive and the optimum recording power. If once recordable disc, the data is written in the new cluster whenever updated information device. Thus, if the information area of the disk 100, which will be recorded the following information devices, are known in advance, it is possible to reduce the time required to perform preliminary operations to read or reproduce data to or from the disk 100. For this reason, it is useful to record this information devices on disk.

A pointer to the list of defects indicates the position of the region in which the recorded list of defects (for example, the number of the first physical sector of the list of defects). A pointer to the physical region of the user data indicates the end position of the data region, which is physically recorded user data (for example, the number of the last physical sector of the region in which the recorded user data). A pointer to the logical area of the user data indicates the end position of the data region, which is physically recorded user data (for example, the number of the last physical sector of the region in which the recorded user data). Using the pointer to the physical region of user data and a pointer to the logical area of the user data, you can define the start, which will start the recording of user data during the next write operation. A pointer to the optimal power management describes the location of the test area for optimum power control. A pointer to the optimal power control can also be used as information, provide the next available area, when the different types of drives managed by different optimal power management. A pointer to information about the disk usage determines whether the recording disk 100 is completed (i.e., can be recorded user data in the data area).

11 illustrates the implementation of the data structure of the list of defects (DFL)is recorded in the management area of the defect (DMA), shown in figure 3 and 4. In accordance with 11, the list of defects (DFL) includes an identifier, a pointer to a structure describing disk (DDS), the information regarding the defect #n and the information regarding the defect #n+1. Information regarding the defect #n includes information initial and final position of the defect #n in the status information. Here is the information regarding the defect #i may be information relating to the above temporary list of defects (TDFL) #i.

A pointer to a structure describing disk (DDS) indicates the position of the area in which is recorded the corresponding description of the structure of the disk (DDS) (for example, the number of the first physical sector structure description disk). Information about the position of the list of defects (DFL)included in the structure of the disk (DDS), and information about the position description disk drive (DDS), included in the list of defects (DFL), determine the position of the list of defects (DFL) and the structure of the description of the drive (DDS), which are paired information. Thus, the above-mentioned two different information can be used to verify the information recorded in the list of defects (DFL) and the structure of the disk (DDS).

Status information, which is information regarding the defect #n describes whether a specific area is valid from a defective region or area in which recorded information about the management of defects. The inclusion of information regarding the defect #n status information is not required. Information about the start and end positions of the defect #n can be written as the number of the first physical sector number of the last physical sector of the defective area, respectively. Information regarding the defect #n+1 and Ki is recorded using the recording method of the information regarding the defect #n.

In carrying out the invention method of test-after-write is performed for each of the multiple clusters. If the check-after-write is performed for each individual cluster, the size of the area designated as defective, equal to one cluster, and therefore do not need to record the number of the last physical sector of the region.

Next will be described the implementation of the method of managing defects in accordance with the present invention.

On Fig presents a functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. In accordance with Fig, in step 1201, the recording device records the information in the defect-related data that is recorded in accordance with the first write operation, as the first time information about the defect in the data area of the disk, in order to manage defects on the disk. In step 1202, the recording device records the first time information about the defect and defect-related data that is recorded in accordance with the second write operation, a second temporal information about the defect in the data area. In step 1203, the recording device records information about the defect management to control the first and second time information of the temporary defect informationalist defect management. In more detail, the step 1203 is performed by successive recording of the first time information on the defect information, the defect management for managing the first temporary information about the defect, the first temporary management information about the defect, the second time information of the defect management information of the defect management second temporal information about the defect and the second temporary management information defect.

As described, the method writes only two temporary information about the defect and two temporary management information defect for convenience. However, it is clear that there is no limit to the amount of temporal information about defects and temporal information about the management of defects that can be recorded. If the number increases, the temporal information of the defects recorded cumulative temporary information area management defects (i.e. all previously recorded time information about defects is recorded together with the newly recorded time information about the defect).

During the completion of the write process to the disk, the last recorded time information about the defect and a temporary management information, the defect can be moved from the temporary information management defect management area of Def is chami (DMA), or saved to write to the temporary information management area of the defects. If you select the latter, the drive accesses the temporary information management defects, and reads the latest time information about the defect, in order to determine the defective area of the disk.

On Fig presents a functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with another implementation of the present invention. In accordance with Fig, in step 1301, the recording device records the information in the defect-related data that is recorded in accordance with the first write operation, as the first time information about the defect in the data area of the disk, in order to manage defects on the disk. In step 1302, the recording device records information about the defect management, for managing the first temporary information about the defect, as the first time information about managing the temporary defect information area management defects, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area and the final lead-out area of the disk. In step 1303, the recording device records the temporal information about the defect and defect-related data that is recorded in accordance with the second operation Zap the si, as the second temporary management information defect in the data area. In step 1304, the device records the control information for controlling the second time information about the defect in the form of a second temporal information about managing the temporary defect information area defect management. In step 1305 checks whether the process has finished writing to the disk.

In step 1306, if in step 1305 is determined that the completion of the process of writing to disk is not required, steps 1301 to 1304 are repeated, while the indices of the allocated write operations, the time information about the defect, and the temporary management information of the defect increases by 1. It is clear that the increase in the index may be a number other than 1 or a non-integer, if the index is changed to reflect the operations account. Though this is not required for all features, all previously recorded time information about the cumulative defect is recorded every time when you write the new time information about the defect.

In step 1307, if in step 1305 is determined that required the completion of the write process to the disk, one recorded the last of the temporary management information and temporary defect information, the defect that was recorded steps 1305, writes the I in the area of management defects (DMA). In other words, recorded the latest temporary management information, the defect and the temporal information of the defect is recorded as the final management information and defect information of the defect management area of the defect (DMA). The final management information and defect information of the defect can be re-recorded to increase the reliability of data detection.

Next, the method checks-after-write can be performed for definitive information about managing defect information and the defect in accordance with the implementation of the present invention. If this information is found to be defective, then the disk that has encountered the defect, and the data recorded after the area having the defect can be considered as unavailable (that is, they are marked as defective region), and the final management information and defect information of the defect can be re-recorded after the defective area. On Fig presents a functional diagram illustrating a method for managing a defect on the disk, in accordance with another implementation of the present invention. In accordance with Fig, the recording device records the user data in the data area of the disk in units of data, in order to simplify the way to check-after-write, in step 1401. In step 1402, the data Zap the sledge in step 1401, checked in order to find the area of a disk, in which there is a defect. In step 1403, the controller 2 of figure 1 generates information for designation of the area, covering the area having the defect, and the data recorded after the area having the defect as a defective region. In step 1404, the controller 2 stores the generated information in the form of the first time information about the defect in the memory 3 of figure 1. In step 1405 is checked, we expect that the completion of the write operation. If in step 1405 is determined that the completion of the write operation is unlikely, steps 1401 through 1404 are repeated until the completion of the write operation.

In step 1406, if in step 1405 is determined that the completion of the write operation is likely (for example, when the recording of user data is completed user input or in accordance with a write operation), the controller 2 reads the first temporal information about the defect from the memory 3 and writes the first time information about the defect in the first time domain information of the defect TDFL #0 in the data area. In step 1407, the information for designating the first time information about the defect TDFL #0 as the defective region is appended to the first time domain information of the defect TDFL #0. In step 1408, the controller 2 writes the control information for managing the first temporary information area is the effect TDFL #0 as the first time information about the defect management TDDS #0 in the temporary information management area of the defects.

In step 1409 checks should be completed the process of writing to the disk. In step 1410, if in step 1409 is determined that the completion of the process of writing to disk is not required, steps 1401 through 1408 are repeated until completion of the recording process with increasing indexes, selected temporal information about the defect, the time domain information and temporary defect management information of the defect on 1. Here all previously recorded time information about the cumulative defect is recorded every time when you write the new time information about the defect. It is clear that other numbers (including non-integer) can be used to index until the index changes reflect the different perform write operations.

In step 1411, if in step 1409 determined that requires the completion of the write process to the disk, the last recorded time information about the defect TDFL #i and a temporary management information, the defect TDDS #i is recorded as final information about defects DFL and information about managing defects DDS, respectively, in the area of management defects (DMA). Final information about the defects DFL and information about managing defects DDS can be re-written in the defect management (DMA) several times in order to increase the reliability of detection data.

Next, the method of verification for the Le-recording can be performed for definitive information about defects DFL and information about managing defects DDS in accordance with a feature of the present invention. If there is a defect in the DFL and DDS, the area covering the region of the disk that caused the defect, and the data recorded after the area having the defect can be considered as not available (that is, designated as a defective area), and DFL and DDS can be re-recorded after the defective area.

The above-mentioned defect management can be implemented as a computer program, which may be performed by the computer. Codes and code segments constituting the computer program can be easily justified by the programmer, a specialist in this field. The program stored on machine-readable media. When the program is read and executed by a computer, such as the controller 2 shown in figure 1, is managing defects. Here the machine-readable medium may be a carrier of magnetic recording media and optical recording media with a carrier frequency, or any other medium on which the computer can recognize the program. Moreover, the computer may be a General computer or a special purpose and can use a program coded in the software and hardware.

Industrial applicability

As described above, the present invention provides a method of managing defects is, which is applicable for recordable discs, such as once recordable discs. In the method, time domain information of the defect included in the data area of the disk, and thus, information about the cumulative defects is recorded in a temporary storage area of the information about the defect, regardless of the recordable disk capacity. Also, during finalization of the write process to the disk, only the temporal information of the defect is read from the last time the information about the defect and read information recorded in the management area of the defect (DMA), thereby providing efficient use of management defects (DMA), whose recording capacity is limited. Accordingly, it is possible to record user data even once recordable discs with performance management defects on it, so backup operation can be performed more stably without interruption.

In particular, the index that specifies the position of the corresponding TDDS #i, is recorded in the TDFL #i, and a pointer that identifies the position of the TDFL #i is recorded in the TDDS #i. Thus, it is possible to perform cross-validation of the relationship between the TDFL #i and TDDS #i. For the same reason, you can perform cross-validation of the relationship between DFL and DDS. Moreover, information about fashion management defects contained in the TDDS #i and DDS and allows uborochnaya management defects, thereby successfully performing a write operation, regardless of the recording conditions.

In addition, it is clear that, in order to achieve a recording capacity of several gigabytes, block write and/or read, shown in figure 1, must contain a block with a small wavelength and high numerical aperture suitable for the recording of many gigabytes of data on the disk 100. Examples of such units include, but are not limited to, blocks, using a wavelength of 405 nm and having a numerical aperture of 0.85, blocks, compatible with Blu-ray discs, and/or blocks that are compatible with the advanced optical disc (AOD).

Although the method has been described in relation to one-time recordable disks, it is clear that the method can be used with rewritable media or media that has once recordable and rewritable part.

Although only a few implementations of the present invention has been presented and described, a person skilled in the art it should be clear that changes may be made in this implementation, without going beyond the scope and essence of the present invention defined by the following claims and its equivalents.

1. The drive for use with a recording device/playback, the disc contains

area management defects, at the ore, one of the areas:

in the initial lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region of the disk and which can be recorded information about managing defects;

the data area into which data is written;

the time domain information of the defect, which is located in a data region which includes the temporal information about the defect related to the recorded data in the data area; and

temporary information management area of the defect, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, and which is used by the recorder/playback to access temporal information about the defects.

2. Method for managing a defect on the disk, and the disk contains the data area, the method includes the steps where

written as the first time information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data written in the current write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the previous write operations; and

written as the second time information about the defect in the data area of the first temporary information about the defect and defect related to the data written in the next write operation.

3. With the ESP control defect on the disk, the disk contains the data area, the method includes the steps where

written as the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the first write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the second write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-th write operation;

written as the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area of the defect management information about the management of defects for managing the nth temporary information about the defect, where n is an integer.

4. The recorder and/or playback, which transfers data with respect to the disk, the disk includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device consists of a

the recording unit that records data in the data area in accordance with the write operation; and

a controller that controls the recording unit to

recording time information about the defect in the region given the output disk, information about the defect related to the data written during the write operations; and

recording temporary management information defect management time information of the temporary defect information area management defects, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area.

5. The recorder and/or playback, which transfers data with respect to the disk, the disk includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device consists of a

the recording unit that records data in the data area in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th and

a controller that controls the recording unit to

records in the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th and

records in the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area defect management, temporary management information defect for managing the nth temporary information about the defect, where n is an integer.

6. The drive for use with a recorder and/or playback, the disc contains the inhabitants

the defects in at least one area:

in the initial lead-in area, in the final lead-out area of the disk, which includes information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback;

the data area on the disk, in which data is written;

the time domain information of the defect, which is located in a data region which includes the temporal information about the defect related to the recorded data in the data area; and

temporary information management area of the defect, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, and includes the temporal information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback to control time information about the defect, where information about the management defect management defect includes a last recorded temporary management information of the defect, which was recorded last staging area information about the defect, and the last recorded information about managing defect, which was recorded last temporary information management area of the defects.

7. The drive for use with a reader and/or play the fight, the disk contains

the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) area of the disk, which includes information about the management of defects used by the reader and/or playback;

the data area into which data is written;

the time domain information of the defect, which is located in a data region which includes the temporal information about the defect related to the recorded data in the data area; and

temporary information management area of the defects, which is in the initial lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region and includes temporal information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback to access temporal information about the defect, where information about the management defect management defect includes a last recorded temporary information about the defect, which was recorded last staging area information about the defect, and the last recorded information about managing defect, which was recorded last temporary information management area of the defects.

8. Method for managing a defect on the disk di is to contain the data area, and, at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the method includes the steps where

written as temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, for each write operation;

write time management information of the temporary defect information area of the defect management information about the management of defects for managing time information about the defects, the time information management area of the defect is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area; and

during the completion of the write to disk write time information about defects and temporal information about the management of defects in the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area.

9. Method for managing a defect on the disk, the disk contains the data area, the method includes the steps where

written as the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the first write operation, information about the defect, otnosiashiysia data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the second write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-th write operation;

written as the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area of the defect management information about the management of defects for managing the nth temporary information about the defect, where n is an integer;

during the completion of the write process to the disk write n-th temporal information about the defect and the n-th temporal information about the management defect management area of the defects.

10. The recorder and/or playback, which transfers data with respect to the disk, the disk includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device contains

a recording unit that records data in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operation; and

a controller that controls the recording unit to

recording time information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in accordance with the write operation;

records in vremennoemilco about managing the temporary defect information area management defect management information of the defect management time information about the defect; and

recording time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defect, which is formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area of the disk.

11. The recorder and/or playback, which transfers data with respect to the disk, the disk includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device contains

a recording unit that records data in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th and

a controller that controls the recording unit to

records in the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th and

records in the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area of the defect management information, the defect management for managing the nth temporary information about the defect; and

write the last recorded time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defect, where n is an integer.

12. The drive for use with a recorder and/or playback when the eat the disc contains

the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area of the disk, which includes information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback;

the data region that includes data;

the time domain information of the defect in the data area, and which includes temporal information about the defect-related data; and

temporary information management area of the defects in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, which includes the temporal information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback to control time information about the defect, where the temporal information of the defect and temporal information about the defect management is recorded again when it detects the defect of the disk when the check-after-write.

13. The drive for use with a recorder and/or playback, the disc contains

the defects formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out area of the disk, which includes information about managing defect, IP is aleshea recorder and/or playback;

the data region that includes data;

the time domain information of the defect, which is located in a data region which includes the temporal information about the defect related to the data in the data area; and

temporary information management area of the defect, which is located in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in area, in the final lead-out region and in the external (outer) region of the disk and which includes temporal information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback to access time information about the defect, where the last recorded time information about the defect, which was recorded last staging area information about the defects, and the last recorded temporary management information, the defect, which was recorded last temporary information area management defects, re-recorded in the management area of the defects during the process of completing the write to the disk, and the temporal information of the defect and temporal information about the management of defects recorded for the second time in a different time domain information and temporary defect information, respectively, when the detected defect of the disk when the check-after-write.

14. SPO is about control defect on the disk, the disk consists of a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in area and the final lead-out area, the method includes the steps where

written as temporal information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, for each operation data;

record temporary management information defect management time information of the temporary defect information area management defects, formed in at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area; and

perform method validation-after-write, for at least one of time information and temporary defect management information of the defect, and if there is a defect of the disk during the use of the method, the check-after-write, re-write temporary information and temporary defect management information of the defect.

15. Method for managing a defect on the disk, the disk includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the method includes the steps where

written as the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in the art of data in accordance with the first write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the second write operation, information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-1 write operation, and information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area, in accordance with the n-th write operation;

record information about the defect management for managing the nth temporary information about the defect, in the form of the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area management defects on the disk;

perform method validation-after-write for at least one of the n-th temporal information about the defect and the n-th time management information about the defect, and if there is a defect of the disk in accordance with the method of test-after-write, re-write the n-th temporal information about the defect and the n-th temporary control information of the defect, where n is an integer.

16. The recorder and/or playback for use with the disk drive includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device contains

block read/write, which writes data into or reads data from the data area of the disk; and

the controller, which

manages the block write/read to write time information about the defect in the data area of the information about the defect related to the data recorded in the data area in accordance with the write operation; and

manages the block write/read to write time management information of the temporary defect information area management defect management information of the defect management time information about the defect, the time information management area of the defect is at least one area: in the beginning (lead-in region and in the final lead-out region;

performs way to verify-after-write for at least one of time information and temporary defect management information of the defect; and

manages the block read/write to record at least one of time information and temporary defect management information of the defect, which was carried out the way to check-after-write, at the moment of detection of the defect by way of check-after-write.

17. The recorder and/or playback for use with the disk drive includes a data region and at least one of the areas: primary (lead-in) and final (lead-out area, the device soda the people

a recording unit that records data in the data area of the disk in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th and

the controller, which

controls the recording unit to record in the form of the n-th temporal information about the defect in the data area, information about the defect related to the data recorded in accordance with the write operations from the first to the n-th;

controls the recording unit to record in the form of the n-th time information about managing the temporary defect information area of the defect management information, the defect management for managing the nth temporary information about the defect;

performs way to verify-after-write for at least one of the n-th temporal information about the defect and the n-th temporal information about the defect management; and

controls the recording unit to record at least one of the n-th temporal information about the defect and the n-th time management information about the defect, which was carried out the way to check-after-write, at the moment of detection of the defect by way of check-after-write, where n is an integer.

18. Method for managing defects in the data recorded on the disk, the disk contains the data area, the method includes the steps where

check the recorded data to detect a defect in the data recorded in the data; and

record information about the defect is related to a defect in the recorded data, in the form of the first time information about the defect in the data area of the disk.

19. The recorder and/or playback for use with the disk drive includes a data region, the device contains

block read/write, to write data in the data area of the disk and for reading data recorded data from the disk; and

a controller to control the block write/read to detect a defect in the recorded data in a data region of the disk, and for recording information about a defect related to a defect in the recorded data in the first temporary information about the defect in the data area of the disk, where the disk is once recordable disc, preventing the entry of other data area on the disk after the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

20. Machine-readable media containing executable computer instructions for performing the method of managing defects on a disk, the method includes the steps where

check the recorded data to detect a defect in the data recorded in the data area; and

record information about the defect related to the defect as the first time information about the defect in the data area of the disk.

21. The medium for storing information for IP is of use in the recorder and/or playback the environment includes

recordable layer, which includes the initial lead-in area, data area, and the final lead-out region;

the time domain information of the defect in the data area, which includes the temporal information about the defect; and

temporary information management area of the defect, at least one of the following areas: primary (lead-in region and in the final lead-out area, which includes the temporal information about the defect management used by the recorder and/or playback to control time information about the defect, where the temporary management information, the defect includes a pointer to the information about the defect, specifying the position and time data about the defect, and the temporal information of the defect includes a pointer to the control information of the defect specifying the position and time data about managing defect.

22. Machine-readable media containing executable computer instructions for performing the method of managing defects in the medium for storing information, the method includes the steps where

cumulative record information about the defect corresponding to the defect, temporary information about the defect in the medium for storing information; and

zapisi who have information about the defect, which was recorded in the last corresponding to the time domain information of the defect, the defects in the medium for storing information during the process of completing the record in the medium for storing information.

23. The drive for use with a recorder and/or playback, the disc contains

the user data area, which records user data;

temporal information about the defect containing information about the position of the defective area in the user data area; and

temporal information about the defect management to manage temporal information about the defect, where temporary information about the defect and temporal information about the defect management is recorded for the write operations for use by the recorder and/or playback to perform defect management.

24. Drive on item 23, in which temporary management information, the defect includes information about the position and time data about the defect.

25. Drive on item 23, in which the temporal information of the defect is n-I recorded the temporal information of the defect, and contains information about the positions of defects for write operations from the first to the n-th, where n is an integer.

26. Drive on item 23, further containing region management defects, where the disc is finalized disc, head information about the defect and temporal information about the defect management is recorded in the disk region, non-management defects are recorded in the management area of the defects.

27. The drive p, in which the temporal information of the defect is the last time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defect that is accumulated in the write operations from the first to the last.

28. Drive on item 27, in which region there is a temporary information area, which includes the latest time information and temporary defect management defect management the last time information about the defect, where the temporary management information, the defect is located in the temporary information area of the temporary defect management area, the defect management.

29. Drive on item 23, further containing a temporary management area of the defects, which contains the temporary management information and temporary defect information on the defect.

30. Drive by clause 29, in which the temporal information of the defect is the last time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defect stored in the write operations from the first to the last.

31. Drive by clause 29, in which temporary management information, the defect is located in the temporary information area of the temporary defect management area, the defect management.

32. Drive by clause 29, in addition to the holding area defect management, where the defects formed in the initial lead-in area and/or in the final lead-out area of the disk.

33. Drive on item 23, further comprising

temporary management area of the defects in the initial lead-in area and/or in the final lead-out area of the disk; and

the defects in the initial lead-in area and/or in the final lead-out area of the disk that contains temporary information and temporary defect management information of the defect, where the disc is completed by the disk.

34. Drive on item 23, in which the disc is a multilayer disk, containing a lot of recording layers, each of which contains the user data.

35. Drive on item 23, in which the disc is once recordable disc having a property which prevents the entry of new data to the disk after the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

36. Method for managing a defect on the disk, the method includes the steps where

write data to the disk; and

write temporary information about the defect containing information about the position of the defective area on the disk, and a temporary management information defect management time information about the defect on the disk for write operations used by the recorder and/or playback to issue the log management defects disk.

37. The method according to p in which recording temporary management information contains a defect record temporary management information defect containing information about the position and time data about the defect.

38. The method according to p in which the write operation is the n-th write operation, and the recording time information about the defect includes recording time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defect for write operations from the first to the n-th, where n is an integer.

39. The method according to p in which the recording time information and temporary defect management information of the defect includes recording time information and temporary defect management information of the defect in the area other than the user data area of the disk, and the method includes an additional step, which record temporary information and temporary defect management defect management area of the defects on the disk in response to the completion of the write process to the disk.

40. The method according to 39, in which the temporal information of the defect is the last time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defect that is accumulated in the write operations from the first to the last.

41. The method according to p, in which region there is a temporary information management area of the defect and timeline details rmacy about managing defect to control the last time information about the defect, is information in the field of time management defect.

42. The method according to p in which disk contains the region of the defect management and the temporary management area of the defects, and recording time information and temporary defect management information of the defect includes recording time information and temporary defect management information of the temporary defect management area of the defects.

43. The method according to p, further including recording time information about a defect in a memory accessible by the recorder and/or playback.

44. The method according to item 43, in which the recording time information about the defect on the disk includes reading time information about the defect from the memory and recording time information about the defect region on the disk in response to the read operation is completed.

45. The method according to p, in which the disc is a multilayer disk, containing a lot of recording layers, each of which contains the user data.

46. The method according to p, in which the disc is once recordable disc having a property which prevents the entry of new data to the disk after the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

47. Machine-readable media containing a set of computer instructions to perform operations, perechisleny the x in p.

48. Method for managing a defect on the disk, the method includes the steps are:

reading time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defective area on the disk for write operations;

recording time information and temporary defect management defect management time information about the defect on the disk for use by the recorder and/or playback for managing defects on the disk.

49. The method according to p, in which the read time information about the defect involves reading time information about the defect of the memory available to the recorder and/or playback.

50. The method according to p, in which the read time information about the defect involves reading time information about the defect from disk.

51. The method according to p in which the write operation is the n-th write operation and the read time information including the read time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defect in the write operations from the first to the n-th, where n is an integer.

52. The method according to p, further comprising recording the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect management area of the defects on the disk in response to the completion of the disk.

53. The way of accessing data on disk, the method includes the steps where

reads temporal information about the defect, including the information about the position of the defective area on the disk, and a temporary management information defect management time information about the defect on the disc for managing defects on the disk; and

get access to recorded data on the basis of the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect.

54. The method according to item 53, in which temporary management information, the defect includes information about the position and time data about the defect.

55. The method according to item 53, in which

the disk contains the defect management and staging area defect management;

the reading includes reading the time information and temporary defect management information of the defects in the management of defects and/or temporal field defect management; and

access includes access to data based on the read time information and temporary defect management information of the defect.

56. The method according to item 53, in which the disc is a multilayer disk, containing a lot of recording layers, each of which contains the user data.

57. The method according to item 53, in which the disc is once recordable disc having a property which prevents the recording of new data in the disk once the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

58. Machine-readable media containing a set of computer instructions to perform the operations listed in item 53.

59. The recorder and/or playback for use with a disk drive, the device contains

block read/write, which writes the data to disk;

the controller block read/write

record temporary information about the defect, including the information about the position of the defective area on the disk and temporal information about the management defect management time information about the defect on the disk for write operations to manage defects on the disk.

60. The device according to p in which temporary management information, the defect includes information about the position and time data about the defect.

61. The device according to p, in which the controller controls the block write/read to write time information about the defect, including the information about the position of the defect in the write operations from the first to the n-th to n-th write operation, where n is an integer.

62. The device according to p in which disk contains the defect management, and a controller that controls the block write/read to write time information and temporary defect management information of the defect region on the disk, other than about the Asti management defect management defect, in response to the operation completion of the write to disk.

63. The device according to item 62, in which the temporal information of the defect is the last time information about the defect, including the information about the position of the defect that is accumulated from write operations from the first to the last.

64. The device according to p, in which region there is a temporary management area of the defects and the temporary management information, the defect management the last time information about the defect is in the time information managing defects in a temporary management area defects.

65. The device according to p in which disk contains the defect management and the temporary management area of the defects, and the controller controls the block write/read to write time information and temporary defect management information of the temporary defect management area of the defects.

66. The device according to p, optionally containing a memory in which the controller controls the block write/read to write time information about the defect in the memory during a write operation.

67. The device according to p, in which the controller controls the block read/write read-temporal information about the defect from the memory and recording the read time information and temporary defect management information of the defect on the disk in response to the head of the decision of the write operation.

68. The device according to p, in which the disc is a multilayer disk, containing a lot of recording layers, each of which contains the user data.

69. The device according to p, in which the disc is once recordable disc having a property which prevents the entry of new data to the disk after the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

70. The playback device for use with a disk drive, the device contains

a block read that reads the data from disk.

controller unit for reading

reading time information about the defect containing information about the position of the defective area of the disc and the temporal information about the management defect management time information about the defect on the disc for managing defects on the disk; and

access to recorded data on the basis of the time information and temporary defect management information of the defect.

71. The device according to item 70, in which temporary management information, the defect includes information about the position and time data about the defect.

72. The device according to item 70, in which

the disk contains the defect management and the temporary management area of the defect; and

the controller unit controls the reader to read temporarily the information and temporary defect management information of the defect management defect and/or temporary management defects, and to access data based on the read temporary information about the defect and temporal information about the defect management.

73. The device according to item 70, in which the disc is a multilayer disk, containing a lot of recording layers, each of which contains the user data.

74. The device according to item 70, in which the disc is once recordable disc having a property which prevents the entry of new data to the disk after the data has been recorded in this region of the disk.

75. The computer-readable medium containing a data structure accessible by the recorder and/or playback, the device is intended for use with the disk, the data structure contains temporary information about the defect containing information about the position of the defective area on the disk for write operations, the temporal information of the defect is used by the device to control the defects on the disk.

76. The media item 75, in which the temporal information of the defect contains information about the position of the defect that is accumulated during a write operation.

77. Media in p in which the data structure is available to the device, in order to have access device to temporal information about the defect and to record this temporal information about the defect on the disk in response to the completion of the write operation.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: methods of recording and/or playing back for optic record carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method of recording and/or has the following steps: reading address from record carrier out (record carrier has at least first and second areas - data is recorded to first are and the first area goes after the second one. Information of address represents location of the second area), detecting of error, which corresponds to error detection code used for coding address information, which is read out from record carrier. When result of step of determination represents that the error was detected in address information, which was read out of record carrier the note comes to user on the error detected.

EFFECT: improved stability of recording; improved stability in data recording.

125 cl 11 dwg

FIELD: technology for recording information onto data carrier, having shape of disc, like those of optical or magnetic disc.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to recording method, onto disc, having multiple recording tracks, separated on blocks, recording area of which has addressed user area with free access, serial data packets are recorded in different blocks of addressed user area with free access, prior to recording session, given portion of addressed user area with free access is cached as replacement zone, if damaged block is detected, replacing record for appropriate data packet is performed in aforementioned area for replacements of addressed user area with free access, in accordance to which during recording session size of aforementioned replacement zone is altered dynamically in accordance to requirements for replacement zone.

EFFECT: decreased number of leaps of recording head during recording, higher efficiency of disc capacity use.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: disk has recording area, where data are recorded in at least one physical cluster, defect area, in which defect, preventing recording and/or reproduction of data, is present in recording area, and recording end area, in which information, pointing to end of recording, is recorded prior to defect area. After defect area a link is set.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.

4 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: primary reserved area, marked out during initialization, is present on data carrier. Also present is auxiliary reserved area, marked after initialization and/or expanded reserved area. Additional reserved area is marked in directly, starting from back portion of data zone.

EFFECT: excluded double replacements and marking of normal blocks as defect ones.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method includes following stages: forming of a group of multiple zones on disk, while a group includes data area of user, including code block with correction of mistakes, distribution of primary, free space for the group. Additional free space is distributed with possible exclusion of discontinuousness of code block with correction of mistakes contained in user data area, at the limit between zones and distribution of it at two zones. Such distribution may be realized by skipping sectors at the end of zone, of their number is less than needed for forming code block with correction of mistakes with correction of primary position of code block with correction of mistakes at limit between zones.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier has data area. The latter has multiple zones, in which code blocks with error corrections are formed and sectors remaining as a result of sliding replacement at the end of zone, number of which is less than necessary for forming of one code block with error corrections. Said sectors are not used for recording one code block with error corrections and are skipped, and said code block with error corrections is formed at the beginning of next zone after skipping sectors of zone noted above. Carrier has additional free space, necessary for skipping sectors remaining at the end of zone during sliding replacement process.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in location, following said user data area. Said free data area is distributed in reverse order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used starting from last elements of noted free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: to determine origin of data carrier disk, errors are used, which appear during manufacture process of master-disk, and are imparted to later batches. Data from said disk in non-corrected form are read, then data about errors is retrieved. Characteristic information about errors is provided and extracted data is compared to characteristic data, which characterizes all data carriers, manufactured by same source. As a result of correlation of compared data, origin of disk is judged either known or unknown.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of copy-protection measures.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in position, following noted data area of user. Said free area is distributed in backward order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used from last elements of said free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 7 dwg

The invention relates to the field of optical recording media, and in particular to methods of defect management, implemented by the equipment to record and/or playback

FIELD: information storage; storage disk with temporary informational area of fault control.

SUBSTANCE: disk contains fault control area, temporary fault information area which is formed in data area and in which temporary fault information is written, and temporary informational area of fault control. Thus, it is possible to write user data to a recordable disk carrying out fault control.

EFFECT: effective usage of fault control area which has a limited capacity.

77 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: electric radio engineering, possible use for testing functioning of a DVD player.

SUBSTANCE: method includes the following: subject DVD player is connected to controlling computer by interface, protocol of which supports transfer of control commands from computer to player and of player status information from player to computer; content of test DVD is copied to storage of controlling computer, test DVD is loaded into subject player and control software is launched, by means of control software, composition and structure of test DVD is analyzed; testing mode is selected, manual, semi-automated or fully automated; using functions of control software, testing scenarios are composed using the set of tests of test DVD and scenarios are saved in form of series of instructions for modules of system, included in composition of control computer; test or testing scenario are selected, testing is conducted and its results are recorded.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities due to conduction of testing in manual, semi-automatic and automatic testing modes.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: system is available to monitor electronic devices, comprising a computer, a comparison unit, a shift register, a counter, a clock oscillator, a pulse distributor, a zero decoder and an OR element. In order to expand capabilities of the system application due to monitoring of both good condition and stability of electronic devices functioning under a partial failure of an input signal, the system additionally comprises an N-digit random number generator, an N-channel key and N summators. Summators are connected to appropriate digits of the outlet of the computer testing signal and via the N-channel key to the outlet of the random number generator.

EFFECT: possibility to randomly vary an output testing signal, and the entire system monitors adequacy of reactions from a monitored electronic device.

1 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method for automated serialisation for mass production of radioelectronic devices (RED) involves: testing operation of a RED on a wireless interface on an allocated frequency channel using a process serial number; recording a program in the RED while testing through the wireless interface, through which the programmer checks the memory read protection setting, if the read protection is removed, the process program is restored and the testing process is stopped, and if the read protection is on, the process program is replaced with the working program of the RED on a wire or wireless interface; if testing is successful, the preset value written in the memory of a counter is reduced, the housing of the RED is labelled with a barcode and a unique serial number with continuous numbering, said barcode is scanned and a unique number associated with the barcode is written in the internal memory of the controller of the RED on a wireless interface, and the RED is transferred to the working frequency channel.

EFFECT: providing guaranteed recording of a serial number from a label through a cable and a wire interface into the internal memory of a radioelectronic device controller during testing.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering. The method for hardware detection and cleaning of unknown malware installed on a personal computer comprises steps of: preparing and carrying out a series of experiments, wherein the experiment is simulating connection to the inspected personal computer of an external device or another personal computer storing any information; performing analysis of changes in the information on the simulated external devices or other personal computers obtained during all experiments; determining, during the analysis, presence of unknown malware on the inspected personal computer which violates integrity of information on the simulated external devices or other personal computers, and determining if it is possible to delete the detected unknown malware using a cleaning mechanism, wherein: if unknown malware is detected on the inspected personal computer, said malware being able to be deleted by a cleaning mechanism, the cleaning mechanism is created and applied to the inspected personal computer.

EFFECT: improved protection from unknown malware.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electronic computing device.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of information processing by means of electronic computing devices, such as logging of operation of automated control systems for space-rocket engineering and real-time diagnosis of possible malfunctions. Complex comprises a unit that records parameters of control system, data coding unit, system bus of the transmission portion, communication unit, system bus of receiving part, data decoding unit, checksum input unit, data analysis unit.

EFFECT: technical result is the implementation of logging of digital parameters of control system, troubleshooting of control system, improving reliability.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in position, following noted data area of user. Said free area is distributed in backward order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used from last elements of said free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: to determine origin of data carrier disk, errors are used, which appear during manufacture process of master-disk, and are imparted to later batches. Data from said disk in non-corrected form are read, then data about errors is retrieved. Characteristic information about errors is provided and extracted data is compared to characteristic data, which characterizes all data carriers, manufactured by same source. As a result of correlation of compared data, origin of disk is judged either known or unknown.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of copy-protection measures.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in location, following said user data area. Said free data area is distributed in reverse order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used starting from last elements of noted free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier has data area. The latter has multiple zones, in which code blocks with error corrections are formed and sectors remaining as a result of sliding replacement at the end of zone, number of which is less than necessary for forming of one code block with error corrections. Said sectors are not used for recording one code block with error corrections and are skipped, and said code block with error corrections is formed at the beginning of next zone after skipping sectors of zone noted above. Carrier has additional free space, necessary for skipping sectors remaining at the end of zone during sliding replacement process.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method includes following stages: forming of a group of multiple zones on disk, while a group includes data area of user, including code block with correction of mistakes, distribution of primary, free space for the group. Additional free space is distributed with possible exclusion of discontinuousness of code block with correction of mistakes contained in user data area, at the limit between zones and distribution of it at two zones. Such distribution may be realized by skipping sectors at the end of zone, of their number is less than needed for forming code block with correction of mistakes with correction of primary position of code block with correction of mistakes at limit between zones.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 9 dwg

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