Data carrier having free space for controlling damages, method for distributing free space

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier has data area. The latter has multiple zones, in which code blocks with error corrections are formed and sectors remaining as a result of sliding replacement at the end of zone, number of which is less than necessary for forming of one code block with error corrections. Said sectors are not used for recording one code block with error corrections and are skipped, and said code block with error corrections is formed at the beginning of next zone after skipping sectors of zone noted above. Carrier has additional free space, necessary for skipping sectors remaining at the end of zone during sliding replacement process.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 9 dwg

 

Prior art

The present invention relates to optical recording media, and more particularly to a disk having a spare area to control the damage, and to method of distribution mentioned free regions.

The closest analogue of the claimed technical invention is an optical recording medium containing a data area that includes many areas of Japanese application JP 05-028650 from 05.02.1993 year).

To control the damage on a recordable and/or rewritable drive common form of damage (primary damage)produced during the initialization of the disk by using a sliding replacement for unhandled damage that does not involve a logical unit number sector for the damage, and damage (secondary damage)arising during use of the disk, we use linear replacement to replace blocks of code with error correction (CRO) erroneous zones normal blocks in the free area.

So to minimize the loss of speed playback or arising from damage, use a sliding replacement, in which the logical sector number provided for the sector, which while checking for damage during initialization of the disk is defined as damaged is next for the damaged sector, thus, data is recorded or reproduced by shifting sector, where during recording or playback produced damage. A "shift in the reverse direction is carried out using sectors in the amount of damage provided in the free area, located in the end part of the corresponding recording area (or group of zones). According to the specification, the position of a defective sector is replaced with a sliding replacement must be recorded in the list of primary lesions (SPP) in the management of injuries (PMO) on disk.

Moving the replacement may not be used for damage that occurs during use of the disk. When the damaged part is not considered, or omitted, in the logical numbering of sectors occurs discontinuity, which means that moving the replacement violates the rules of the file system. Thus, for damages that occur during use of the drive applies a linear replacement, in which the block SIH containing the defective sector is replaced by a block KIO in a free field. Information about the location of the damaged unit is replaced using linear replacement must be recorded in the list of secondary damage (SVP) in the management of injuries on the disk. When using do anoy replacement does not occur interruption in the logical numbering of sectors. However, the positions of the sectors on the disk if it is damaged "broken", and the actual data for the damaged unit CROS are located in free space.

Meanwhile, a digital versatile disk RAM - multi-purpose digital disc (DVD-RAM), in accordance with the version 1.0 of the standard DVD-RAM, composed of multiple groups, each of which has a domain user and free region, which are constant in each zone. On figa illustrated half the disk image, which shows the user, the protection area and the spare area, and figv presents a one-dimensional structure of individual zones on the disk. Each zone is composed of the protection area, the user area, free area and the protection area, which are placed sequentially.

The disk is segmented into zones to solve inaccurate records due to a change speed drive during recording and to use the method zoned constant linear velocity (SPLS) to increase the speed of the search according to the method of constant linear velocity.

That is, when the damage is controlled by the linear replacement, the linear replacement inside the damaged area as possible increases the speed of search, because it does not change the linear speed of the disk. Thus, the DVD-RAM disc, as shown in figv, distributes some with the rim area in each zone for the implementation of linear replacement.

This existing method of controlling the damage each zone functioning as a group, and the spare area is located at the end of each group. Each group is managed as a management area of the damage. Also, since the number of the first sector of each group is pre-defined, it is assumed that the block KIO begins in the initial position of the zone, which is the unit for physical segmentation of the region.

The logical number of the first sector of each group is determined as described above. Thus, when the damage is controlled by a sliding replacement, sliding replacement should be performed only within the corresponding group. To replace the damage occurring in the group, using a sliding replacement, the number of bad sectors, which shift should be less than the number of sectors used the free area of the respective group. Accordingly, the constraint expressed that much of the damage occurring in one group must be processed within the above mentioned groups, limits the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by using the sliding replacement. If the amount of damage that must be replaced by a sliding replacement, more the size of the free area in the corresponding group is e, when the linear replacement should be used in a free area in the other group. However, when using linear replacement, damage not managed in units of sectors, and modules KIO, i.e. in blocks of 16 sectors. Thus, to process a single bad sector, the required free area of 16 sectors, which reduces the effectiveness of damage control.

Also, the standard size of a free area for the control of damage is determined in advance, thus, the spare area of the same size should be placed in application programs, record type, in real time, which cannot be applied to the management of injuries, using linear replacement. Therefore, decreases the efficiency of disk space.

The invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide an optical recording medium containing data region, which includes many areas in which the generated code blocks with an error correction (CRO), and remaining in the sliding replacement in the end zone sectors, the number of which is smaller than required for forming a single block (KIO), which are not used for recording block (KIO) and are ignored, while the mentioned block (CRO) formed at the beginning of next last the crossing of these sectors of the zone.

In addition, the recording medium contains additional free area required for the passage of sectors remaining to the end zone in the process of moving replacement.

Brief description of drawings

The above-mentioned objectives and advantages of the present invention are explained in the detailed description of the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention according to the appended drawings:

Figa is half the disk image with the user, the protection area and the spare area, and figv presents a one-dimensional structure of different areas of the DVD-RAM disc;

Figa and 2B are views according to the present invention, illustrating the distribution of free areas during initialization, and figs depicts a view explaining the distribution of free areas during use after initialization;

Figa and 3B depict views illustrating the discontinuity bloc KIO damaged sectors within areas with sliding replacement

Figure 4 is a functional diagram illustrating, according to one variant of implementation of the present invention, the method of distribution of free regions during initialization; and

Figure 5 is a functional diagram illustrating, according to one variant of implementation of the present invention a method for distributing free region the values while using after initialization.

Description of the preferred embodiments

According to the present invention available management damage on the disk containing the primary spare area, a secondary spare area and a supplementary spare area.

The primary spare area is first distributed to replace damaged when the disk is initialized, and first used for the sliding replacement. Spare area remaining after sliding replacement may be used as a secondary spare area for linear replacement. Secondary spare area for linear replacement of damages occurring during use of the disk, determines the area remaining after the primary spare area is used during initialization to a sliding replacement. Secondary spare area may also be defined separately distributed free area. Additional spare area for linear replacement of damage produced during use of the disk defines a free area, advanced distributed during use of the disk after the initialization.

That is, according figa in the present invention are many areas on the disk forms a group, and at first, during the initialization of the spare area (the primary spare area for slipping replacement raspredelyaet is at the end of each group. Sliding replacement performs replacement in units of sectors, thus increasing the efficiency of a free area. However, when moving the swap area of damage is simply not used, and the data start in the next normal sector so that the area of damage could not be used after initialization.

During the initialization of the distributed maximum possible free area in the form of a primary spare area for slipping replacement, but the primary spare area remaining after slipping replacement, can be used as a secondary spare area for linear replacement. When it is detected that the linear replacement cannot be sufficiently carried out using only the secondary spare area allocated upon completion of the sliding replacement when initializing the disk inside the primary spare area, in units of zones for areas of advanced distributed secondary spare area for linear replacement, as shown in figv. The secondary spare area is not the logical number of a sector, and information on the distribution of the secondary spare area is stored in the management of injuries (PMO), as well as managed mentioned PMO. Secondary spare area allocated during initialization, essentially, R is polagaetsa in the end zone, although the secondary spare area is not always distributed in each zone. As spare area for linear replacement is located in the end zone, it is easily manageable. Also, because the administration of the free area is in units of area, then you can easily find a free area in the zone closest to the area that was damaged. Moreover, it is possible to minimize a change in the existing information of the PMO.

Secondary spare area may be located before the security realm, which is the last part of the zone. When the secondary spare area is located in each zone, its size can be determined provisionally, as a relative or absolute amount determined according to numerical expression (for example, 3% of the size of each zone).

When using the disk after the initialization, if the spare area for linear replacement, distributed in blocks of zones is inadequate, according pigs, starting from the upper part of the logical file area, the file system is allocated a predetermined number of additional spare area for linear replacement. During the linear replacement supplementary spare area is used in reverse order, starting from the end of the logical file area, thus allowing problemgenerator logical file field.

Linear replacement is performed in units of blocks KIO to use all spare area of block KIO, even when damaged is one sector. When the linear replacement of the damaged unit is replaced with a physically isolated free area, so when you search the damaged area search speed is reduced. However, linear replacement can react to the damage produced during use of the disk, so it is used in relation to secondary damage that occurs during use of the disk.

Supplementary spare area is allocated in the amount of all empty contiguous area is available at the end of the logical file area. The maximum size of the free area should be smaller than the area of the end zone. Here the logical file area defines the logical area in the total area used in the file system, where it can be recorded/reproduced data file user.

On a disk with a diameter of 80 mm, the radius of the area of user data should be a maximum of 38 mm, because, starting approximately with the radius of 38 mm, a disk with a diameter of 80 mm is the effect of high speed double refraction resulting from the input disk.

According to the present invention, when the spare area for slipping replacement is distributed to the price of the disc by forming groups in many areas, free area having a size corresponding to its processing in the group, is distributed mainly for 7679 points (fifteen sectors), which is the maximum number of damage that is processed using the list of primary lesions (SPP). In this case, the spare area (spare area used to control the positions of the block must be allocated additionally to prevent the possibility of starting block KIO is not in the initial position of the area by reason caused by the slipping replacement shift in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector on the border between zones.

For example, if you apply the present invention to drive 1,46 GB (Gigabyte) DVD-RAM, the primary spare area can be processed with WBS elements for the eight sectors and 64 elements SVP, thus preventing immediately after formatting the generation of warnings due to failure of the primary spare area. Here the warning level occurs when the size of the free area is less than 32 blocks KIO. Accordingly, more than 3% each zone is allocated as the primary spare area based on the number of damage generated in free space, and the size of the free area to prevent discontinuity bloc KIO in each zone.

The WBS element that can be processed is ervices free region, matches from one to eight sectors, and the element SVP is defined for one of the eight sectors. Free area for processing WBS element (SDSSand the free area of the processing element SVP (SSVP) can be expressed by the following inequality 1:

Further, according pigs and 3B will be considered as due to moving swap to shift in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector, which can occur at the boundary between zones.

According to the present invention in the group, formed in many areas, when a bad sector is located in the zone #n, as shown in figa remaining sector, not forming unit KIO, are placed in the slipping replacement in the end zone. If data is written in the remaining sector, not forming unit KIO, arising by reason of the sliding replacement shift in the opposite direction" logical unit number sector occurs at the boundary between zones, so you may discontinuity bloc KIO on the border between zones, as shown in figv. That is, one unit KIO can be divided in two zones. In this case, problems may arise related to the fact that the drive should be excited with different speeds for read or write one block KIO, distributed what about the two zones, and the user and the protection area should be treated separately, as the number of physical sectors between them continuous. The protection area is an area buffering to prevent instability of the excitation due to the difference in rotation speed between zones.

When in the end zone on the cause of bad sectors remains less sectors than the number required to form a single bloc KIO, (16 sectors), in accordance with the present invention, the above-mentioned sectors are not used and are ignored. For free space, used to control the location of the beginning of the block KIO in the initial position of the zone when the shift is in the opposite direction" logical number of a sector, which may arise from the moving of the replacement on the border between zones, required size, the value of which is determined by the following expression 2:

the free area of the control position of the block = (number of zones - 1) x (number of sectors for each block fix - 1) ...(2)

On the DVD-RAM block KIO has 16 sectors, thus, a maximum of 15 sectors may remain in the end zone, if the block heater does not start at the beginning of the zone. Remaining at the end of each zone sector, which do not form a bloc KIO, you should also skip to negotiate the initial position of the block KIO with boundary the position of the zone, so additionally required free area of the same size as the noise sector. The number of boundaries between zones is obtained by subtracting a few areas. That is, where there are two zones, the number of parts connection between zones is one, and where there are three zones, the number of parts connection between zones is equal to two. Free area to control the position of the block, the size of which is equal to the size of one block KIO, can usually be distributed in each zone.

Thus, it is preferable that one disk had only one group for sliding replacement. In this case, the spare area for slipping replacement can be distributed at the end of the disc with respect to the number of elements that can be processed using SPP and SAP, and the size of the free region (here, a maximum of 32 blocks CRO) to control the initial position of the block KIO on the border between zones.

Thus, many areas are defined as one group, and a spare area for slipping replacement is distributed at the end of the above mentioned groups. A reduced ability to cope with mistakes, made a big scratch, is constrained due to the small size of the free area, distributed in each group, when there are many groups, each group has multiple zones.

For example, on the disk OK is lo 4.7 GB, have one group in each zone, one group contains approximately 1600 tracks, and the width of each track on the physical disk is about 1 mm, as shown in figa. When the disk occurs scratch more than 1 mm in the radial direction, become damaged about 1600 sectors. However, if the spare area in each zone forms a group and is distributed in a certain manner, in accordance with the capacity of the disk, it is determined that only about 1100 sectors can be replaced by sliding replacement in the inner part of the circumference of the disk. Consequently, there is approximately 400 to 500 sectors, which cannot be replaced by the slipping replacement and are therefore replaced by the linear replacement. In the case of free fields requires approximately 400 to 500 units KIO, and efficiency drive in the zone where the corresponding damage decreases significantly. However, when, as suggested in the present invention, for moving the replacement is distributed in a large open area in relation to the size of the entire disk, moving the replacement can be performed on even such a large damage.

Figure 4 shows a functional diagram illustrating the allocation of free areas on disk during initialization carried out according to a variant implementation n the present invention. According to figure 4, when the step S101 is assumed command initialization, in response to the above command is formed one group in many areas of the disk, and at step S102 at the end of this group is the primary spare area. That is, the primary spare area for slipping replacement contains free area damage control, appropriate 7679 sector data (480 blocks CRO), where 7679 - maximum number of controls, the damage that can be processed using SPP, and free area (here 32 block Keaau high) to control the initial position of the block KIO in each boundary between zones.

Meanwhile on the disk 1,46 GB DVD-RAM primary spare area can handle the WBS elements for 8 sectors and 64 elements SVP and distributed advanced with respect to the free field to control the position of the block.

When the primary spare area is allocated, relative to the entire disk area, it is determined whether it produced the damage, and as determined in step S103 produced damage is replaced with a sliding replacement using the primary spare area allocated at the end of the group. Here, if distributed primary spare area is insufficient, while replacing damaged by loose change, then choosing the proper disk is determined as invalid, and in addition, may include the step of generating an error message initialization to prevent disk usage.

When at step S103 moving the replacement is completed, not used at the time of moving replace the portion of the primary spare area is allocated in the secondary spare area for linear replacement, and if it is determined that the secondary spare area within the primary spare area is insufficient to perform the linear change, then at step S104 in the zones in units of zones advanced distributed secondary spare area. Information associated with the secondary distribution of free regions for linear replacement, distributed by zones in units of zones stored on disk in the management of injuries (PMO). When completing the free distribution of primary region and the secondary distribution of free regions for linear replacement, the initialization is terminated. In order to unify the way of managing additional spare area for linear replacement, it is preferable that the secondary spare area inside the first open area used for linear replacement, and the secondary spare area allocated for each zone were used in reverse order, starting with the last of the free, appropriate fields.

Figure 5 shows the function the national scheme, to illustrate, according to a variant implementation of the present invention, the method of distribution of free areas during use of the disk after the disk has been initialized. If the size of the secondary spare area for linear replacement, distributed during initialization of the disc is insufficient to replace the damages incurred during the use of the initialized disk, distributed additional spare area for linear replacement.

According to figure 5 in step S201 determines whether while using drive additional spare area for linear replacement. If it is determined that the supplementary spare area is required, at step S202, it is determined whether there is a sufficient number of continuous empty area at the end of the logical file area. If at step S202, it is determined that in the final field of the logical file area has a sufficient number of continuous empty area, then at step S203 for linear replacement are allocated spare area, a predetermined size, starting with the last part of the logical file area, and the step S201 is executed again.

The distribution of additional open area corresponds to the redistribution of the logical file field generated by the Oh after initialization, thus, the need to support file system. In this scenario, the secondary spare area for linear replacement is not distributed for each zone, but can be distributed from the end of the logical file area, i.e. the area with the greatest logical sector number in the logical file area, where you can schedule files for user data, in the direction of the region having the smallest logical sector number. When there is secondary damage and referred to secondary damage is replaced by the linear replacement using distributed thus additional free space, the speed of the search is only getting worse, but it is possible to prevent the generation of the logical number of a sector in the logical file area, which file system to use can't. It is possible to prevent the discontinuity of the logical number of a sector.

According to the method of controlling the damage to the existing linear replacement for a damaged unit KIO should be replaced by the first normal not used by the block Keaau of free space, so that the defective blocks within the spare area is not carried out even at a time when the free area is used in direct sequence, and damaged a vacant area is omitted. However, when BL is key in the free area are used in direct sequence, as in the existing method, the problem arises when additional increase free space. That is, whenever the size of the free area increases, must be carried out separately managing information about increase an additional open area. To solve this problem, the blocks in the free area are used in reverse order from the end. Therefore, as soon as are determined by the lowest sector number and the highest sector number from which to start an additional spare area, the management of the entire free area can be carried out continuously. That is, the recording and/or reproducing apparatus does not need to have information about how often distributed for more free area of a predetermined size, these equipment can be controlled with the additional free area only if its initial and final positions. However, the maximum size of the free area must be less than the size of the end zone.

If at step S202, it is determined that at the end of the file system does not have enough contiguous empty area, then at step S204 empty area allocated by the file system or application program. After that, the floor is PE S205 again is the definition is there a sufficient continuous empty area. If the size of the continuous empty area is sufficient, at step S203, the distribution of additional free space. If the size of the continuous empty area is not sufficient even after the allocation of empty fields, then at step S206, the message "supplementary spare area cannot be allocated". Then the process is terminated. If at step S201 is determined that the supplementary spare area is not required, the process ends.

At the same time, a small open area to control the damage can be distributed in a special application programs type of record in real time or similar, linear replacement against secondary damage is limited, and most damage that can be processed by the file system or application program. Also is preferable that the secondary damage was processed by the file system or application program when recording in real time to achieve the minimum transmission rate required by the corresponding application program.

In this case, the recording and/or reproducing device also requires the definition of the damage and minimal management in relation to detectable damage is enum. Here the minimum management means management using SAP determination made whether the linear replacement damages. For example, for damage occurring during use of the disk that has information about the management of injuries, with the above-mentioned disk for recording in real time is not used control damage using linear replacement, only in the list of secondary damage (SVP) is written the number of the first sector of each damaged unit, information indicating that the invalid block has not been replaced, is written in a bit forced overlay mask redistribution (PNMP) item SVP, showing, was replaced by a bad block, and the information identifying that the damaged unit is replaced is written in the number of the first sector of the replaceable unit in the element SVP.

Since the recording and/or reproducing device cannot recognize the contents damaged, processed by the file system or application program when the corresponding disk is initialized again and used for another purpose, the said device may re-initialize the disk, not taking into account the damage that has occurred. Accordingly, there can be performed a quick format, where secondary damage (which the storage is carried out in the element SVP) just change the WBS element and processed by a sliding replacement thus, recording and/or reproducing device must control the damage, even if the secondary injury are managed by the file system or application program. Therefore, the occurrence or not occurrence of damage shall in all cases be controlled using SVP, regardless of whether or not to perform the linear change and the existence or absence of a free area for linear replacement.

As described above, the present invention eliminates the limit on the maximum amount of damage that can be replaced by sliding replacement, without violating the constraint, namely, that even great damage produced in the group must be processed within this group, so you can exercise more effective sliding replacement. Can also be accordingly adjusted the size of the free area according to the purpose of the application program, so that disk space can be used more efficiently.

1. Optical recording media containing data region, which includes many areas in which the generated code blocks with an error correction (CRO), and remaining in the sliding replacement in the end zone sectors, the number of which is smaller than required for forming one who Loka (CRO) which are not used for recording block (KIO) and are ignored, characterized in that said block (CRO) formed in the beginning of the next, after skipping the specified sectors of the zone.

2. The recording media according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains additional free area required for the passage of sectors remaining to the end zone in the process of moving replacement.



 

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