Skins and hides and pelts and leather (C14)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C14            Skins; hides; pelts; leather(3174)

ethod of smoothing flakes of flexible material shaped fabric // 2628789
FIELD: textile, paper.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for smoothing the flakes of a shaped fabric to be cut from a flexible material from which the preforms are cut. The method includes the steps of scanning at least a portion of the contour (Hc) of said fabric of flexible material (H), determining a specific direction (Di, Dj) of the smoothing and a specific distance (Vi, Vj) of the smoothing for each of the points (Pi, Pj) of the scanned section of the fabric contour and smoothing the flakes of the fabric at each selected point of the scanned section of the fabric contour by means of the presser foot of the cutting tool in the specific smoothing direction and the specific smoothing distance that was determined for the indicated point, and in the direction of smoothing from the inside of the fabric to its flakes.EFFECT: method is adapted to a specific contour of flattened fabric.8 cl, 9 dwg
ethod of producing leather for upholstery // 2616420
FIELD: textile, paper.SUBSTANCE: method involves the raw material soaking in the presence of a proteolytic enzyme preparation, liming, pelt deliming in the presence of 7% aqueous solution of lactic acid in an amount of 5.0-6.0 wt % at a fluid ratio of 0.1-0.2, softening, the pelt pickling in the presence of oiling emulsion in an amount of 0.4-0.5 wt % of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, modified with 40% aqueous solution of glutaraldehyde at a ratio of 1:(0.05-0.09) in an amount of 0.05-0.06 wt % at a fluid ratio of 0.1-0.2, glutaraldehyde tanning in the presence of a polymeric tanning agent at a flow rate 3.0-4.0 wt %, a retanning process of planed leather with synthetic tanning agents, dyeing and oiling in one bath, washing, fixation with 4% aqueous solution of organic acid in the presence of the cationic polyelectrolyte at their consumption, respectively, 5.0-6.0 wt % and 0.4-0.5 wt % and the semi-finished product finishing. Retanning with synthetic tanning agents is carried out in two stages in the presence of oiling emulsion in an amount of 3.0-4.0 wt % on each of them at synthetic tanning agents consumption 5.0-7.0 wt % at the first stage and 25,0-27,0 wt % - at the second stage.EFFECT: method of leather for upholstery production provides increased thermal stability and performance properties of leather for upholstery.4 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
ethod for preparation of collagen product // 2614273
FIELD: pharmacy.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing and cosmetics industris, namely to a method for production of a collagen product with the following characteristics: reception of skins of freshwater fish such as silver carp, carp, grass carp, mirror carp, manual or machine cleaning from scale, muscle tissue, fins and mechanical impurities, washing for 30 minutes in drum type machines with a solution of soap and then in water - to remove residual soap, the rinsed skins are subjected to peroxide and alkaline treatment, for which they are poured with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide with mass concentration of 3% and sodium hydroxide with mass concentration of 3 % and kept at 20-25°C for 1.5-2 hours and liquor ratio of 1:4, the treated skins are washed with flowing water at 8-12°C for 10-15 min, then the skins are poured with citric acid solution with mass concentration of 6% and kept for 6 days, the resulting mass is homogenized, packaged in polyethylene and stored at 0…+4°C for° max. 4 months.EFFECT: increase of collagen product quality indicators: increase in collagen output, improved organoleptic properties, reduced complexity and cost by reducing the number of process steps and reagents, intensification of the pre-treatment process and raw materials degreasing.1 tbl, 2 ex

Device for impregnation of leather-fur semi-product, processed at implementation of deformation of cyclic expansion-compression // 2603901
FIELD: textile industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to leather and fur production and can be used for single-piece processing of leather-fur semi-finished product in anhydric and low water media, for example, with second-order type emulsions “water-in-oil”. Device for impregnation of leather-fur semi-product, processed at implementation of deformation of cyclic expansion-contraction, consists of section (a) and additional section (b) (see fig. 1), each of which consists of the following elements: housing 1, fixed on the base 2, housing 1 accommodates cylindrical tank 3, which is connected with compressor 4 by flexible hose 5 by means of branch pipe 6 and clamps 7. On cylindrical vessel 3 secured rubber membrane 8 with the help of ring 9 with fastener is fixed, on which semi-finished product 10 is placed which is of irregular shape for application on it of working compositions by method of irrigation . Semi-finished product 10 of irregular shape is in free position between rubber membrane 8 and rubber belts 11 of throw-over cover 12. Throw-over cover 12 is made in the form of a ring 13 with fixed rubber belts 11 fixed on it to ensure uniform distribution of work composition on the surface of leather-fur semi-product 10 of irregular shape and providing alternate operation of both sections (a) and (b). For compressed air discharge from housing 1 slide valve 14 is installed, providing possibility of cyclo-dynamic supply of compressed air into cylindrical vessel 3. Slide valve 14 is connected to the cylindrical vessel 3 with flexible hose 15 with the help of pipe 16 and clamps 17. Housing 1 and throw-over cover 12 are interconnected by electric drive, consisting of motor 18, reduction gear 19 and belt transmission 20. Control is performed by control board 21.EFFECT: device allows to increase efficiency while ensuring high quality of impregnation of leather-fur semi-product, to intensify the process of impregnation and improves working conditions of operator.1 cl, 2 dwg

Polysaccharides and/or polypeptides based graft polymers as synthetic tannins // 2603139
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to graft polymers based on polysaccharides and polypeptides. Graft polymer based on polysaccharides and polypeptides or respective derivatives thereof are obtained by free-radical polymerisation of A) a monomer selected from following, or a mixture of following monomers: (a) from 20 to 100 wt% acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, or mixture thereof, or salts thereof with an alkali metal, alkali-earth metal or ammonium, (b) from 0 to 80 wt% other monoethylenically unsaturated monomers, which can be copolymerised with monomer (a) and (c) from 0 to 5 wt% monomers containing per molecule at least 2 ethylenically unsaturated unconjugated double bonds in presence of B1) polysaccharides subjected to oxidative, hydrolytic or enzymatic decomposition, oxidised polysaccharides subjected to hydrolytic decomposition or subjected to enzymatic decomposition, or chemically modified decomposed products, chemically modified mono-, oligo-or polysaccharides, or mixtures of said compounds and B2) polypeptides subjected to hydrolytic or enzymatic decomposition and optionally chemically modified polypeptides, or mixtures of said compounds, with weight ratio A:(B1+B2) ranging from 60:40 to 1:99 and B1:B2 from 97:3 to 3:97. Also disclosed is a method of producing graft polymers, method of tanning leather, and tanned leather.EFFECT: wider range of polymers for various types of tanning.7 cl, 18 ex

Composition for arrangement of means for cleaning and recovery care for apparel fancy products from natural leather or natural fur, method for arrangement of means for cleaning and recovery care for apparel fancy products from natural leather or natural fur, agent for cleaning and recovery care for apparel fancy products from natural leather or natural fur // 2601811
FIELD: textile.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means and methods of satisfying human needs, namely intended for cleaning and recovery caring of apparel fancy products from natural leather and fur. Care agent for apparel fancy products - is a solution, containing water and active substance, at that active substance contains a mixture of ingredients exclusively of vegetal origin, representing a mixture of extracts, having different properties, directed for care and recovery of fur and leather products.EFFECT: offered invention enables cleaning and recovery of apparel fancy products from natural fur or natural leather, does not have allergic and ecological consequences after application, provides increase of quality properties, air permeability and moisture protection of products, elasticity (biotonus), elasticity of natural leather and natural fur, increase in silk gloss of natural fur hair, which improves aesthetic properties apparel fancy products from natural fur, provides leveling of fat-yielding balance of natural leather, and natural fur close to natural, and reduces chemical micro-injuries and improves cleaning properties.35 cl

ethod of drumming leather // 2601292
FIELD: leather industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to leather industry in production of leather of various assortment, in particular, to methods of drumming leather in presence of fungicide, and can be used in skin processing for improving operational properties. Method of drumming leather is implemented with drumming composition in presence of an effective antifungal inhibitor, the latter is represented by 6.0 % solution of N1-chloro-methylbenzimidazole fungicide. Fungicide is dissolved in ethyl alcohol taken in the amount of 0.2-0.5 % of squeezed leather weight at the drumming composition consumption of 20-22 % of the squeezed leather weight in terms of 100 % fat. Drumming time is 1.5-2.5 hours at the temperature of 70-80 °C.EFFECT: proposed method of drumming leather provides effective antifungal inhibition at high quality of finished skin.1 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

ethod for manufacture of fur skins // 2588984
FIELD: technological processes; fur production.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in processing of ship-fur and down and fur, primarily beaver hides. Fur stock is subjected to soaking, wet crushing, fleshing, degreasing, washing, stepped pickling, tanning, drying, breaking down, greasing, ageing, crushing, haulage, drying, grinding. Pickling and tanning of fur stock is carried out in an aqueous solution containing silver and copper citrate. Silver and copper content is 225-275 mg/dm3, and solution is used in concentration of 8-12 ml/l. Proposed method increases ultimate tensile strength of leather fabric under tension by 3.5 %, elongation at break by 8 % and elongation at load of 9.8 MPa by 16 % on average, which increases utilisation of this type of fur and improves shaping of designed furs.EFFECT: method provides prolonged storage of fur semi-finished product in medium of contaminated by microorganisms and mold, and use of silver and copper citrate during dressing has decontamination action on waste water, which improves environmental safety of process.1 cl, 4 tbl

ethod for improving waterproof properties of felt materials using hydrophobic silicon dioxide nanoparticles // 2579207
FIELD: textile industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of textile materials. Method to improve water-repellent properties of felt materials consists in treatment of felt material in suspension alcohol-nanopowder hydrophobic silicon dioxide of Wacker HDK N20 grade (Germany) under the effect of acoustic cavitation in ultrasonic bath. Ethyl alcohol is used which is a low-polarity organic solvent.EFFECT: invention provides material hydrophobicity, characterised by limiting the water wetting angle value not less than by 120°, this method is easy, technologically effective, safe and does not require large material or energy costs.3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

Compositions containing at least one compound, possessing carbamoylsulphonate groups, and application thereof as tanning substances // 2578611
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to water compositions, containing at least one compound, which has carbamoylsulphonate groups, and modified polyol, method for obtaining, as well as application as tanning substance or substance for pre-tanning. Water composition for tanning skins and furs contains at least one compound, which has carbamoylsulphonate groups, and at least one non-ionic containing ester groups alkoxylated polyol with value of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance at least 13 and/or alkylglycoside and carboxylic acid, selected from citric acid, lactic acid and/or tartaric acid, with products of interaction from organic polyisocyanates and bisulphite and/or disulphite being used as compounds, possessing carbamoylsulphonate groups. Method for tanning skins or furs. Method for obtaining leather and/or fur. Compounds, possessing carbamoylsulphonate groups.EFFECT: inventions make it possible to obtain compositions of tanning substances with improved storage stability.11 cl, 1 tbl, 26 ex

ethod for pickling of ship-fur stock // 2578538
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to light industry and can be used for processing fur materials. Method of pickling of sheepskin fur raw materials that was subjected to plating ensures application of smearing composition, i.e. lactic acid composition having titratable acidity value 300˚T, lactic acid concentration of at least 25-30 g/dm3 and active reaction medium is not more than 3.5 and the products of collagen dissolution with an active reaction medium does not exceed 4.0, taken at a ratio of 2:1. Process is carried out at a temperature of 24±2˚C, the composition is applied with a brush with a subsequent holding for 30 min after the first and second deposition followed holding for 24 h and additional plating.EFFECT: proposed method provides increase strength, ductility, and fullness of the leather finished fur skins.1 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of treating hair cover of sheepskin // 2573959
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of treating hair cover of sheepskin includes treating a semi-product with a plasticising composition, cutting hair and treatment twice with a fixing agent containing formalin with intermediate smoothing, wherein as the plasticising composition a collagen-containing dispersion in an organic acid with total consumption thereof of 0.26-0.15 g/m2 is used; treatment of the sheepskin with the plasticising composition is carried out twice with intermediate ageing at room temperature, and as the fixing agent formalin (40%) with concentration of 70 ml/l with total consumption of 0.2-2.0 ml/m2, at smoothing temperature of 135-140°C is used. The disclosed treatment provides high quality of hair cover with an optimum moderate mode of processing factors.EFFECT: set of treatment parameters significantly reduces consumption of harmful chemicals and treatment temperature, thereby improving the quality of the hair cover.1 tbl

ethod for measuring mass transfer rate in capillary-porous bodies // 2567510
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to general chemical engineering and is applicable to measure a mass transfer rate of various materials into capillary-porous bodies of leather and fur industries, wood processing, construction materials manufacturing, textile industry, etc. The method consists in the fact that capillary-porous body samples, e.g. leather, are filled with chemicals; this process involves sectioning specimens to be analysed to a chemical penetration speed as shown by a penetration depth per a unit of time. The capillary-porous bodies, e.g. thickness leather specimens are fixed in a retainer of a contrast colour, placed on a surface of a contrast colour and recorded by means of a remote digital camera fixed on a Tripod. The digital camera is provided with extension rings for macrophotography and a ring flash; a sample image is uploaded into a software programme for digital processing of colour images to generate a chemical penetration histogram into the thickness of the capillary-porous body, which is used to measure an area of the stained specimen, whereas a speed is calculated by the area of the stained specimen per a unit of time.EFFECT: invention provides the more effective measurement of mass transfer speed in the capillary-porous bodies, and reducing the length of the process.29 dwg, 6 tbl

Composition having impregnating effect // 2565204
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition having impregnating effect, which can be used as an impregnating agent and/or an agent for top surfaces of different materials in different forms of application. An impregnating agent contains (A) at least one known impregnating active substance from a group consisting of (A1) fluorocarbon resins and (A2) fluorinated siloxanes and (B) at least one cationic polymer selected from chitosan, a chitosan derivative or other biopolymer, preferably from polyamides, particularly polypeptides, in most cases, essential amino acids (lysine, arginine, histidine, citrulline as well as in a combination), or from an amino-functionalised (meth)acrylate copolymer, particularly amino-functionalised styrene-acrylate copolymer or aliphatic and aromatic amino-functionalised polyurethane of a polyester and polycarbonate type.EFFECT: agent has good oil- and dirt-repellent effect.16 cl, 19 dwg

Composition for protection of products from natural and artificial smooth and pile leather against action of water and water solutions of de-icing reagents // 2553652
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: composition for the protection of materials against the action of water and/or a water solution, contains: a) organic solvent; b) reactionable bifunctional aminosiloxane, which has the general structural formula I: (I) R1-O[-Si(CH3)2O-]n[-Si(OR2)(R10)O-]mR3; c) fluoropolymer, which represents a polymer and/or a copolymer of monomers, which have the general structural formula (II)-(VI), with the following content of monomers counted per the total weight of the polymer and/or copolymer (wt %): (II) R4-O(CH2)2R6 40÷97, (III) R4-OR7 3÷35, (IV) R4-OR8 0÷25, (V) R4-NHCH2OH 0÷15, (VI) CH2-C(R9)Cl 0÷40, where: R1 and R3 independently on each other represent CH3-Si(OCH3)O-[-Si(CH3)(OR2)O-]x, or methyl, R2 represents an alkyl, which contains one, two, three or four carbon atoms, R4 represents a group CH2=C(R5)C(O)-, R5 represents H or methyl, R6 represents an alkyl, which contains, at least, 4 carbon atoms, substituted with one or two fluorine atoms, R7 represents a C1-C40 alkyl with a straight or branched chain, R8 represents hydroxy(C2-C4)alkyl, R9 represents H or C1, R10 represents -R11-NH-R11-NH2, R11 represents an alkylene, which contains two, four or five carbon atoms, x represents an integer number from 10 to 500, m represents an integer number from 1 to 50.EFFECT: composition possesses high protective activity due to the combination of bifunctional polyogranosiloxanes and fluoropolymers in one means for leather protection.12 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of processing skin of lake frog // 2553244
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of processing lake frog includes soak, fleshing, degreasing, fermentative processing, degreasing, washing, liming, partial de-ashing, softening, pickling, tanning, neutralisation, after-tanning, decoration operations. First fermentative processing of frog skin is realised by preparations Pectophoetidin G20x with concentration 2.0-2.5 g/dm3, Celloviridin G20x with concentration 2.0-2.5 g/dm3 and Protosubtilin G3x with concentration 2.2-2.7 g/dm3 with the total liquid coefficient1.6 and temperature 32°C in drum in rotation-stop mode for respectively 5 and 30 min for 90 min. Second fermentative processing - properly softening is carried out after the process of liming with application of Ca(OH)2 with concentration 10.0-13.0 g/dm3 and Na2S with concentration 1.5-2.5 g/dm3 and partial de-ashing to pH=9.0 by proteolytic enzymes: alkaline protease Protosubtilin G3x with concentration 2.0-3.0 g/dm3 for 90 min. Tanning is realised in three stages: at first with potash alums with concentration 10.0-15.0 g/dm3, then by chrome tanning agent with concentration 10.0-13.0 g/dm3 and after laying and neutralisation with Na2CO3 with concentration 4.2-4.9 g/dm3 after tanning is carried out with syntan "Basyntan" with concentration 10.0-18.0 g/dm3.EFFECT: method of processing improves physical-mechanical characteristics of frog skin to a considerable extent.1 tbl, 1 ex
ethod of collagen substance obtainment out of animal material (versions) // 2551195
FIELD: biotechnologies.SUBSTANCE: inventions refer to biotechnology and can be used for collagen substrate obtainment. The method involves hide trimming, clipping and scouring. Raw hide is processed with peroxide alkali solution containing 1% to 10% of sodium hydroxide and 0.05% to 0.8% of hydrogen peroxide at 5°C to 20°C. Raw hide is degreased at inner side till fatty substance content is reduced to 0.05-1%, and flushed in flowing water to obtain neutral pH. Raw hide is aged for 6-24 hours at -20°C to -30°C and ground at -10°C - -20°C to a particle size of 2-5 mm. To obtain dry powder collagen substance, ground raw hide is dehydrated by sublimation to moisture level of 1-10% with further temperature rise to 20-40°C and hide milling to powder, thus obtaining the end product. To obtain liquid collagen substance, ground raw hide is treated with food acids and filtered, thus obtaining the end product.EFFECT: improved quality of product obtained, reduced process duration.3 cl, 2 ex

ethod of manufacturing form-stable parts of leather and/or fur // 2538871
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: part of the article is placed on form-setting surface, at least one layer of the means for imparting form-stability is placed on it, which is used as a cellular polymeric material of mesh or grid structure, on top of which the means for attaching the layers is applied, which is used as a polymer paste, and the unreleasable connection is achieved by subsequent drying.EFFECT: improvement of form-stability of parts of articles on its basic indices with the minimum increase in the thickness and weight of the package of materials, the large interval of variability of indices, simplicity of technological performance, the ability of saving the resources and the use of cheaper lining polymer material.5 cl, 4 dwg

ethod and device for skins and leathers tanning // 2520657
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tanning industry and tanning agents. Proposed method comprises processing by tanning means including deglycosylated iridoids and/or deglycosylated secoiridoids apart from tanning means including genipine.EFFECT: non-polluting process, higher quality of leather, decreased consumption of chemicals.15 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
Solution of polyurethane-ureas and using thereof for application of coatings on substrates // 2515955
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solution of polyurethane-ureas for application of coating on substrates. Claimed solution can be obtained as a result of interaction of (a) mixture of two bifunctional polyetherdioles, each of which has molecular weight between 500 and 5000, with molar ratio of both components in the mixture being chosen between 10:90 and 90:10, (b) 0.7-1.5 mol of mixture of two lowmolecular bifunctional alcohols with molecular weight from 32 to 500 per a mole of polyetherdiol, as co-called chain-elongating agents, with molar ratio of both components in the mixture being chosen between 10:90 and 90:10, (c) 0.08-0.33 mol of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic bifunctional amine with molecular weight from 28 to 500 per a mole of polyetherdiol, as so-called chain-elongating element, (d) 1.8-2.9 mol of aromatic diisocyanate per a mole of polyetherdiol, and dissolution of obtained polyurethane-ureas or obtaining them in (e) 40-85 wt % of solvent or mixture of solvents calculated per the total mixture from (a)-(e), consisting of linear or cyclic esters and ketones, with residual NCO-groups being, possible interacted with monofunctional chain terminator. Also described is application of thereof for application on substrates, in particular textile products.EFFECT: manufacturing stable covering solutions of polyurethane-ureas in toxicologically safe organic solvents, which have good elasticity, high strength and relatively high point of softening.7 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex
Tanning of fish skin tanning // 2512308
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tannery and can be used for production of leather from fish skin. Proposed method comprises processing by organic tanning agent over surfactant. The organic tanning agent represents a compound based on the products of condensation of propylene carbonate, formaldehyde and monoethanolamine and used in amount of 6.0-7.8 wt % of skin weight. Said surfactant represents a water-organic compound based on nonionic surfactants, organic solvent and auxiliary admixtures used in amount of 0.25-0.45 wt % of skin weight. Processing is performed for 6-8 hours. Note here that in two hours after tanning beginning micro talc is added to the solution in amount of 0.5-2.0 wt % of skin weight.EFFECT: higher quality of leather, expanded range of products.2 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of producing mineral tanning agent // 2509810
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: sulphate titanyl-containing and aluminium-containing salts and ammonium sulphate are mixed. The sulphate titanyl-containing salt used is crystalline titanyl sulphate and the sulphate aluminium-containing salt used is aluminium-ammonium alum or aluminium sulphate. The components are mixed in weight ratio of TiO2:Al2O3:(NH4)2SO4=1:0.02-0.1:1.7-2.5 and then reacted in solid-phase mechanical activation mode while supplying energy at a rate of 2-5 kW-h/kg of the mixture for 15-50 minutes to form a tanning agent. Before reacting the components, water can be added to the mixture in an amount of not more than 3.5 wt % with respect to the weight of the mixture. The disclosed method is characterised by a 5.5 times shorter duration on average and enables to reduce consumption of ammonium sulphate 1.75-2.25 times while avoiding use of sulphuric acid. The obtained composite tanning agent with content of the active titanium component of 17.6-22.7 wt % with respect to TiO2 has basicity of 40-43.6%.EFFECT: method is technologically effective and environmentally friendly.3 cl, 8 ex

ethod of computer-aided footwear cutting // 2503723
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises fitting of leather on digitiser stage, digitisation of leather outline and defect sections, virtual lay-up of parts with allowance fro leather geometry and defects, transmission of IN/OUT instructions to blade drives and vibrating blade drive instructions and making the cutting jobs. Video sensor automatically performs levelling in thickness and bundling. Leather outline geometry, area and reference points in contact with locating points are defined. Obtained data is transmitted to central computer. At once, digital camera arranged nearby video sensor at coordinate device indentifies leather flaws and located them. Obtained data is also transmitted to central computer for it to relay instructions to industrial robot for distribution of parts among accumulation stackers. Working platforms have the drives to displace them on track composed of top and bottom runs. Top run extending rails are connected with lifting-and-lowering devices.EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency.
ethod of making leather // 2502807
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling a hide, tanning with a titanium-aluminium tanning agent with particle size not greater than 50 nm in the presence of cationic fat, alkanising the treating solution in two steps: first with magnesium oxide and then with a mixture of sodium formate and sodium bicarbonate, pressing, shaping, retanning with a chrome tanning agent in the presence of cationic fat, dyeing and oiling processes, drying and finishing by depositing a clear prime coat and a pigment finish based on aqueous dispersions of acrylic copolymers and a pigment concentrate containing a nanosize pigment. Tanning with a titanium-aluminium tanning agent is carried out for 1.5-2.0 hours, alkanisation of the treating solution with magnesium oxide is carried out for 30-40 minutes, with a mixture of sodium formate and sodium bicarbonate - for 20-30 minutes and retanning with a chrome tanning agent is carried out for 40-60 minutes.EFFECT: invention speeds up leather treatment processes and improves operational properties of titanium-aluminium tanned leather for the upper part of shoes.3 tbl, 4 cl

Top coating // 2494151
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: coating film contains: a layer of coloured coating formed from a mixture of a hard component (10% modulus is greater than 2.3 but not grater than 3.0) and a soft component (10% modulus is greater than 0.0 but not greater than 1.0) of a two-component polyurethane resin; and a top coating layer formed from a mixture of a middle component (resin with 10% modulus greater than 1.0 but not greater than 2.3) and a soft component (resin with 10% modulus greater than 0.0 but not greater than 1.0) of a two-component polyurethane resin. The coating film formed from a top coating layer maintains properties of the material, such as strength and wear resistance.EFFECT: when a consumer touches natural leather, the coating layer on the surface of the natural leather provides pleasant characteristics of natural leather and smoothness.5 cl, 11 dwg, 4 tbl, 18 ex
ethod of processing sheepskin // 2494150
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves soaking, first and second defatting in aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant and a preparation containing an oxyethylated compound, polyvinyl alcohol and a saturated monoatomic C1-C3 alcohol in ratio of 60:20:20, respectively; pickling in the presence of the preparation in amount of 2.0-3.0 g/l; tanning-oiling is carried out in a treatment solution containing sodium chloride; the oiling agent and chrome tanning agent are used in amount of 1.0-1.4 g/l per content of chromium oxide, in which before adding the chrome tanning agent, aluminium hydroxochloride and sodium formate are further added in amount of 10.0-14.0 g/l and 2.0-3.0 g/l, respectively. First defatting is carried out with amount of the anionic surfactant and the preparation of 2.0-3.0 g/l each; second defatting is carried out with amount of the anionic surfactant and the preparation of 3.0-4.5 g/l and 1.0-1.5 g/l, respectively; aluminium hydroxochloride is added in two equal portions with an interval of 50-60 min; the chrome tanning agent is added 4.0-5.0 hours after adding sodium formate.EFFECT: improved quality of a half-finished product made from sheepskin owing to high strength thereof, reduced contamination of factory sewage with chromium compounds and high environmental safety of fur production.5 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
ethod of obtaining collagen dissolution products // 2486258
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain quality collagen dissolution products, rawhide is treated with a solution in form of a lactic acid composition having titratable acidity of 250-300°T, concentration of lactic acid of at least 25-30 g/dm3 and medium active response of not more than 4.0. The process is carried out at temperature of 24±2°C, float ratio=1 and alternating mechanical action. Dissolution has duration of 11-13 days. At the end of dissolution, the samples are almost transparent, loose, swollen pieces of skin which easily break up under slight mechanical action.EFFECT: improved properties of the product.3 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of producing titanium tanning agent // 2484143
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: titanium hydroxide containing 30-80% TiO2 is mixed with ammonium sulphate in weight ratio of 1:0.05-0.2 with respect to TiO2 and the obtained mixture is treated with sulphuric acid with concentration of 600-800 g/l H2SO4 with transfer of titanium into the solution. Ammonium sulphate is added to the titanium solution in weight ratio TiO2:(NH4)2SO4=1:3.5-5.5 to precipitate a double salt of ammonium and titanium sulphate. The precipitate is separated by filtering and washed with saturated ammonium sulphate solution with concentration of 400-450 g/l. The end product is obtained - a titanium tanning agent and a filtrate which contains ammonium sulphate which can be used when adding ammonium sulphate to the titanium solution. The method enables to obtain a titanium tanning agent from titanium hydroxide with high (94.7-97.6% TiO2) extraction of titanium and low content of iron impurities (0.01-0.025% Fe2O3).EFFECT: method is less energy-consuming, cheap and is characterised by low consumption of ammonium sulphate.3 cl, 4 ex

Leather // 2478120
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: leather, obtained by (1) pretreatment before tanning, (2) tanning process, (3) a process using a re-tanning agent which is a synthetic tanning substance and a resin. The re-tanning agent is used for re-tanning with subsequent dyeing and treatment by emulsion oiling using an emulsion oiling agent and (4) subsequent treatment after re-tanning.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain leather having such characteristics as unique elasticity and softness in addition to providing a dressed coat, as well as the capacity for restoration, which prevents overstretching but enables to return to the initial state after use.6 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of hydrophobisation of leather and fur materials // 2475544
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: method of hydrophobisation of leather and fur material, which includes its treatment, and the treatment is carried out by action on the leather and fur material by low-temperature plasma of high-frequency discharge at pressure in the working chamber of 39.9-53.2 Pa, ion energy of 70-95 eV, ion flux density of 0.3-0.4 A/m2 in the presence of hydrocarbon gas at a ratio of inert plasma-forming gas: hydrocarbon gas (50-60):(40-50) wt % for 600-1200 s.EFFECT: invention enables to develop a method of hydrophobisation of leather and fur semi-finished product, which provides a stable hydrophobic effect, while simultaneous improvement of physical and mechanical and hygienic properties of the treated material.3 cl, 4 dwg, 6 tbl

Apparatus for soaking and ageing leather and fur semi-product // 2472861
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus for soaking and ageing a leather and fur semi-product, having in the bottom part a filler device for depositing working compositions onto the return strand of a feed conveyor which is mounted over the filler device, a working member lying over the loaded strand of the feed conveyor and made in form of shafts with annular cavities which are arranged in checkered order for each previous shaft with respect to the next shaft, wherein in the top part of the apparatus there is an additional filler device for depositing working compositions onto the return strand of an additional feed conveyor and there is an additional working member over its loaded strand; the working member lying in the bottom part of the apparatus can move back and forth in the vertical plane perpendicular to the semi-product being processed through a crank; there is also an automatic device for removing the finished half-product lying at the end of the loaded strand of the feed conveyor lying in the bottom part.EFFECT: invention improves the quality of soaking, cuts the processing time and cuts the ageing time.1 dwg
ethod of leather processing // 2467071
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to leather processing industry. Proposed method comprises pickling leather, tanning by titanium-bearing tanning agent in the presence of cationic fat, alkalising processing solution by neutralising agent in the presence of amino compound, squeezing, planning and retaning. Note here that pickling and retaning are carried out at a time in the presence of nonionic surface active agent and acid protein-degrading enzyme at their amount of 0.1-0.2 wt % and 0.3-0.5 wt % of pelt. Note also that complex titanium aluminium tanning agent is used as titanium-bearing tanning agent at weight ratio of titanium dioxide and aluminium oxide of 1:(0.1-0.3) in amount of 1.6-1.8% of pelt. Note that in alkalising of processing solution, magnesium oxide is used as neutralising agent while ethanolamine borate is used as amino compound in amount of 0.3-0.5% and 0.1-0.2% of pelt weight. In retaning, chromium tanning agent is used in the presence of cationic fat in amount of 1.5-1.7% per chromium oxide and 0.5-0.6 % of planed semi-finished product with additional alkalisation.EFFECT: intensified process, higher quality of leather.4 cl, 2 tbl

Dust-removing device for plate materials // 2464322
FIELD: instrument making.SUBSTANCE: dust-removing device for plate materials is described; its main components are rigidly attached internal discharge chamber with longitudinal slot opening to the side of processed material, and external chamber with system of slots for dust-loaded air removal; at that, in its internal chamber there installed is movable breaker made in the form of cylinder with longitudinal grooves.EFFECT: invention allows improving the processing quality, ie more complete removal of dust from material surface without its accumulation in connection pipelines and without increase in air flow rate for intensification of the process.3 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of processing natural leather with grain breaks // 2460805
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises subjecting natural leather to low-temperature plasma of high-frequency induction discharge for 30-120 seconds at discharge chamber pressure of 40-60 Pa at flow rate of plasma-forming argon of 0.04-0.08 g/s at current of 0.3-0.9 A. Then, it is subjected to low-temperature plasma of high-frequency induction discharge for 60-600 seconds at discharge chamber pressure of 13.3-26.6 Pa at flow rate of plasma-forming argon of 0.02-0.06 g/s at current of 0.3-0.7 A and voltage of 1.3-3.0 kV.EFFECT: ruled out grain breaks.2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of treating leather material // 2459873
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of treating leather material, which involves successive two-step soaking with a surfactant-based composition, liming, deliming, softening, pickling and tanning, wherein at the first soaking step, at the second soaking step, as well as at the liming step, the composition used contains surfactants in form of a product of condensation of float tar with triethanolamine, taken in molar ratio (0.8-1.2):1.0, sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate and neonol with average degree oxyethylation 12, water and isopropyl alcohol, also employs sodium carbonate, sodium sulphide and calcium hydroxide depending on the step. All components are taken in a defined ratio.EFFECT: invention improves quality of material, reduces concentration of toxic sulphides in waste water, enables to use domestically produced chemicals, including oleic acid production wastes, thereby reducing the cost of the process of treating leather material.2 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of leather processing // 2447159
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises tanning, dyeing, oiling, drying, sorting semi-finished products into those with deep and shallow surface defects. Additionally, semi-finished products are processed laser liner radiation with wavelength of 1.064-1.075 mcm and power of 1.1-1.5 kW at processing speed of 8-10 m/min. After said additional processing, bottom composition is applied on semi-finished product with shallow defects that comprises, in wt %: 40%-water dispersion of methyl methacrylate copolymer, butyl acrylate, vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid at the ratio of 20:50:25:5, respectively 20-30, penetrator 5-7, and water of up to 100. Composition is applied on surface with deep defects that comprises the following components in wt %: pigment concentrator 7-9, 40%-water dispersion of butyl acrylate, acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid at the ratio of 70:25:5 respectively 35-45, wax emulsion 9-10, 10%-casein 7-8, mix of aminoparaffins containing 1-6 aminogroups and chlorinated paraffins at the ratio of 1:1-4-6, and water of up to 100. Obtained coatings are fixed by composition containing, in wt %: 40%-water dispersion of butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile copolymers at the ratio of 64:36 35-45, wax emulsion 3.5-4.5, 10%-casein 3,5-4,5, mix of aminoparaffins containing 1-6 aminogroups and chlorinated paraffins at the ratio of 1:1 3.5-4.5, and water of up to 100.EFFECT: higher durability of leather from low-grade raw stock.3 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod of processing sheepskins // 2447158
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises raw stock soaking, washing, shearing, fleshing, deoiling by water solution in the presence of anionic surfactant at 42°C, "ЖК" 7, pickling and tanning-oiling by water composition containing sodium chloride, chromium tanning agent and fat emulsion. Proposed composition comprises additionally the mix of nonionic surfactant and chloride alkyl dimethyl benzene ammonium at the ratio of 60-70:30-40 in amount of 0.5-1.0 g/l. Note here that processing is performed for 70-90 min. Composition for tanning-oiling comprises the mix of nonionic surfactant and isopropanol at the ratio of 90:10 in amount of 0.5-1.5 g/l while oiling agent ''Talis'' is used in amount of 4-5 g/l.EFFECT: higher operating properties.1 tbl, 4 ex

ethod of pelt processing // 2437940
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises retanning half stuff by chrome tanning agent, neutralisation, rinsing, dyeing, stuffing, filling with water-soluble acrylic retanning by organic tanning agents, setting, drying and pickling by applying clear primer, first compaction, twofold application of finishing composition, first fixation of coating, second compaction and second fixation. Filling with acrylic polymer is performed after dyeing. retanning by organic tanning agents is performed prior to stuffing. After stuffing, half stuff is additionally filled for 20-30 min with 40%-water dispersion of copolymer of butadiene, acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid in the ratio of 50:45:5 at the flow rate of 3-4% of half stuff bulk.EFFECT: production of water-, oil-, gasoline- and heat resistance leather.2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

Apparatus for soaking-ageing leather-fur semi-product, processed while realising capillary effect // 2435867
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus for soaking-ageing a leather-fur semi-product has a housing, a base, a cylindrical vessel, a rubber membrane, a removable cover, a compressor installation, a flexible hose and a control valve. The removable cover is in form of a ring. Rubber belts are tied to the cover. The rubber membrane is attached to the cylindrical vessel. The semi-product is placed between the rubber membrane and the rubber belts. The control valve is installed on the flexible hose. The hose is configured for cyclo-dynamic feeding of compressed air into the cylindrical vessel.EFFECT: increase in efficiency while maintaining high quality of soaking-ageing and improved working conditions of the operator.4 dwg

ethod for determining water content in leather fabric // 2427649
FIELD: textile industry.SUBSTANCE: method involves water intrusion and boiling of samples of leather fabric. During water intrusion the increase in thickness of leather fabric samples is determined by boiling. Leather fabric samples are measured during water intrusion by means of thickness gauge before boiling and after boiling. Thickness increase of samples is calculated in percents. If thickness of samples increases by more than 50%, leather fabric is subject to mechanical treatment, and namely to scouring.EFFECT: invention allows determining thickness increase of leather fabric in percents at boiling and based on this the water content which is enough to perform scouring.3 ex, 1 dwg

ethod to produce tanned half stuff from skin of all kinds of fresh-water fish // 2425893
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: fish skin is soaked in solution containing sodium chloride and antiseptic agent at 18-20°C for 4.0-6.0 hours. Then, fish skin is degreased by 0.8-1.0%-solution of enzyme preparation Liporesin "ГЗх" for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. Then, degreased fish skin is treated by 0.3-0.6%-solution of enzyme preparation Protosubtiline "ГЗх" for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. Fish skin treated by Protosubtiline "ГЗх" is flooded by 0.3-0.6%-solution of enzyme preparation Collagenase and treated for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. After every said treatment, fish skin is carefully rinsed by cold running water to remove residues of enzyme ppreraiton. Scales are remove from skin to be fleshed and, then, pickled for 8-12 h at 18-20°C. Now, fish skin is tanned by willow bark broth for 12-20 h at 18-20°C, aromatised, dubbed and dried.EFFECT: perfected process.1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod to protect fur materials against putrefactive microorganisms // 2413005
FIELD: veterinary science.SUBSTANCE: method consists in fur treatment with acoustic (audible) sound of certain frequency in the range of 20-20000 Hz, its intensity varies in the range of 10-100 dB for the time of treatment in the range of 1-10 min.EFFECT: reduced toxicity of treatment.2 tbl, 7 ex
Collagen containing composition // 2410242
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: collagen containing composition consists of tanned collagen containing waste and products of solution of not tanned collagen. Additionally composition contains a surface active substance. As tanned collagen containing waste there is used tanning powder produced from waste of leather of chrome tannage of shoe industry. This waste is preliminary crumbled in air-dry state to size of fibres to 0.7-0.9 mm. The composition has the following ratio of components, wt %: tanning powder 12-15; products of collagen solution 1.5-2.5; SAS 0.02; water - the rest. The advantage of produced material is simple content of collagen containing composition including mainly collagen containing waste, which facilitates production of material similar to natural leather by chemical contents.EFFECT: natural and ecologically safe fibrous porous material of increased strength.2 tbl

ethod to dehair siberian stag antlers // 2408736
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of antlers with sodium sulfate, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide solution at the specified ratio of components. Treatment is carried out for 1.0-1.5 hours with subsequent removal of hair cover. Then washing is carried out in running water for an hour and neutralisation with 2% solution of hydrochloric acid.EFFECT: high quality of dehairing with no adverse effect at epidermis and derma of skin.2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of unhairing pelts of rabbits using enzyme preparation protosubtilin g10h // 2406765
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method refers to unhairing pelts of rabbits with the enzyme preparation Protosubtilin G10H and can be used in the leather industry. Rabbit pelts obtained by a mechanical removal in a slaughterhouse are cleaned from mechanical impurities, slits of connective and muscular tissue. Then they are treated with a solution of sodium sulfide at a concentration of 1% for 2 hours. The pelts are squeezed and treated with a solution of enzyme preparation Protosubtilin G10H at a concentration of 0.7-1%. The treatment is carried out at a temperature 37-40°C and pH of process fluid 7-7.5 for 4-5 hours with stirring. The pelts are then squeezed, hair is removed, skin and hair are washed with water and dried.EFFECT: improvement of quality of leather and wool, intensification of the process, improvement of safety and ecological compatibility of production, cost reduction of finished products.1 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of processing and hardening skins of birds for production of fur out wear // 2405043
FIELD: personal effects.SUBSTANCE: all materials used in tanning and hardening of skins of birds are used in the food industry. In this regard, the production is clean and safe. Hardening of the scrapings of birds skins tanned and further strengthening of their material from the tissue adhesive on the basis provides an opportunity for making and sewing finished fur products from virtually any species of birds. Method of tanning and hardening of skins of birds includes strict observance of processing operations pelts. The method includes shooting skins, then impregnation of pen cover is carried out with absorbent powder, degreasing and cleaning of skin by mechanical means with addition of absorbent mixtures. After these operations skins are washed in a solution of detergent powder and degreaser. Then skins are wringed in a centrifuge with subsequent drying inn the drum with use of medium powder drier, preservation of skins with pickle is made and fixing of skins with nails and preservation with acid-saline. As the absorbent powder mixture of sawdust and powder-dryer is used, as a powder-dryer starch is used. As the tannins in the skins harden tanning a decoction of oak bark is used.EFFECT: exclusion of contact with the pen cover of fats and other contaminants and ensuring of drying skins of birds in certain conditions with the use of powder-dryer and hardening of tanning with an additional enhancement of the skin material, higher rates of physical and mechanical properties compared to tanned skins of fur-bearing animals known methods and possibility to keep a pen cover from in original appearance, form and direction of the pen and its natural colour; experienced wearability of these products for several years has shown great strength of their tear.2 cl, 13 dwg
ethod of producing hydrophobic leather // 2404260
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves tanning a semi-finished product with a chrome tanning agent, neutralisation, washing, dyeing and tanning with organic tanning agents twice. The first tanning is carried out with a polymeric tanning agent, while the second is carried out with a mixture of synthetic and vegetable tanning agents. Hydrophobicising greasing, treatment with an organic acid and re-tanning with a chrome tanning agent are then carried out. Additional washing is carried out before neutralisation. Dyeing is carried out after the second tanning. Neutralisation, tanning twice and dyeing are carried out at water-to-goods ratio of 0.5-0.7. Hydrophobicising greasing is carried out in the presence of a 20% solution of the product of reacting amino alcohol with fatty acids of vegetable oils of the C12-C22 fraction and boric acid in molar ratio of 2:1:1 in mineral oil in amount of 0.5-1.5% of the weight of the semi-finished product.EFFECT: good hygienic properties of hydrophobic leather and prolonged fungus resistance of the leather in high humidity and temperature conditions.2 tbl, 5 ex

ethod of regenerating spent chrome tanning solutions // 2404259
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves separation of suspended and fatty substances. A solution heated to 50-70°C is mixed with hydrogen peroxide and held for 30-120 minutes until complete decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The mixture is mixed with a fresh tanning agent until achieving process concentration of chromium for tanning material and returning the solution for tanning. In order to separate suspended and fatty substances, silicic acid is added to the spent tanning solution in form of silicon dioxide (SiO2), with ratio of SiO2 to weight of suspended and fatty substances of the spent tanning solution equal to 1: 10-30.The solution is held for 5-15 minutes, after which the floating solid phase on which dissolved organic impurities are adsorbed is separated. Hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution in dosages of 12-45% of the stoichiometric standard for complete mineralisation of organic impurities due to chemical consumption of oxygen of the solution.EFFECT: simplification of the process with low content of dissolved organic impurities and consumption of oxidising agent.1 ex, 1 tbl

ethod of producing heat-resistant leather // 2402615
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves chrome tanning and post-tanning a semi-finished product through chrome tanning in the presence of a product of reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glycidylmethacrylate in molar ratio of 1:2 and consumption of the chrome tanning agent and reaction product of 3-4% and 2-3% of the weight of the semi-finished product respectively. Neutralisation and hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent are then carried out for 30-40 minutes with consumption of the tanning agent equal to 8-10% of the weight of the semi-finished product. After that dyeing is carried out in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Post-tanning is carried out with a plant-material tanning agent and the semi-finished product is also treated for 20-30 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 respectively, in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product and for 20-30 minutes with organic acid in amount of 0.5-1.0% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Further, the semi-finished product undergoes greasing and re-treated for 40-50 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 and consumption of 7-8% of the weight of the semi-finished product, volume ratio of 0.8-1.0 and temperature of 20-22°C. Hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent, dyeing in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent, post-tanning with a plant-material tanning agent, further treatment with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phoshoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in the said molar ratio and with organic acid is carried out in one bath. Separation and drying are carried out after all operations.EFFECT: higher water-, fungus- and heat-resistance of leather under high moisture and temperature conditions, and wide range of special types of leather.2 cl, 3 tbl, 5 ex
ethod of drumming leather // 2401865
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: oil, fat or polymer is applied on leather in amount of less that 20%, preferably, less than 15%, particularly preferably less than 10%, per leather weight. Then leather is treated by compressed air. Carbon dioxide is used as compressed air, treatment if carried out at pressure below 70 bar and temperature below 25°C. Leather is processed by compressed air unless leather weight is at least 1% smaller than its weight prior to applying oil, fat or polymer.EFFECT: improved leather structure due to increased non-blocking property of molecules.1 ex