Method of drumming leather

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: oil, fat or polymer is applied on leather in amount of less that 20%, preferably, less than 15%, particularly preferably less than 10%, per leather weight. Then leather is treated by compressed air. Carbon dioxide is used as compressed air, treatment if carried out at pressure below 70 bar and temperature below 25C. Leather is processed by compressed air unless leather weight is at least 1% smaller than its weight prior to applying oil, fat or polymer.

EFFECT: improved leather structure due to increased non-blocking property of molecules.

1 ex

 

DESCRIPTION

The invention relates to a method of treating skins of animals, and on the skin put oil, grease or polymer and the skin is treated with compressed gas.

Animal skins, skin, skins or fur subjected to different stages of processing in order to give them strength and in order to achieve certain properties. For simplicity, in the following context skins of animals of any kind, in particular leather, skins and furs, in General, referred to as the skins of animals.

Traditionally, the animal's skin after tanning process water-insoluble fats in order to achieve special flexibility. The introduction of fat carried out either mechanically or by impregnation in an aqueous bath. This greasing fat is added to the skin in an amount which corresponds to about 30% or often 50% relative to the weight of the skins.

In the next stage the excess fat again removed, as it is often desirable only to provide a good levelling of the fibers within the skin. For this, relatively little is enough fat. Remove excess fat exercise primarily using adsorbing oil sawdust, which should then be removed and processed as special waste. In a subsequent stage of treatment in most cases, use of chlorine-containing detergents, such as perchlorethylene, or try aratan, or paraffin. Also these partly toxic, partly flammable substances to clean should be treated as special waste.

In U.S. patent 5512058 describes how degreasing of hides and skins, which uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a means for purification. For impregnating leather features adding suitable additives to the supercritical carbon dioxide and skin treatment using the mixture of carbon dioxide and additives.

Proposed in U.S. patent 5512058 degreasing using supercritical carbon dioxide, i.e. at a pressure above the critical pressure, requires a controlled decompression, in order not to damage the skin due to sudden or too rapid expansion of compressed carbon dioxide. For impregnating you must enter the fats in the pressure vessel with supercritical carbon dioxide. Uniform distribution of fat in the skin thus attain only with long processing times.

The present invention is to develop an improved method for the fatliquoring of animal skins.

This task is solved through the method specified at the beginning of the sort, and applied to the skin or the skin of the amount of oil, fat or polymer is less than 20%, preferably less than 15%, particularly preferably less than che is 10% based on the weight of the hides or skins.

According to the invention on the skin of the animal at first put oil, grease or polymer. Then oily skin is treated using a compressed gas, in particular carbon dioxide. Without being bound to any theory, it is assumed that due to proposed according to the invention the method part of the course is contained in the skin of the animal fat is replaced by the added according to the invention fats and oils. Thanks to achieve improved skin structure, which has high neslipetu molecules that make up the structure of the skin or the skin. Found that processed according to the invention, the skin or the skin is more "viscous" and more stretchable, therefore, has a much larger permanent deformations than classically treated skin. It is desirable, for example, in the case of skins valuable species to save a small mass parts of the service.

Depending on the kind of skin and skin turn out to be different operating parameters. However, it is found that favorable is the addition of not more than 20% fat per sample skins or leather. Preferably, the fat and oil is limited to less than 15%, particularly preferably less than 10% based on the weight of the treated skin.

Mainly, fat, oil or polymer applied to the skin of the belly of the CSOs by napyalivaniya. Particularly favorably when the skin during napyalivaniya are offset by the circulation method or rotate to achieve a uniform loading of grease, oil or polymer. Loading in the compressed gas also applies to proposed according to the invention possible methods of impregnation, but often commercially reasonable to use an expensive pressure vessels only for the subsequent degreasing.

Preferably the fat, oil or polymer leave to act on the skin for some time, for example 15-60 minutes. During the exposure phase is preferably an animal skin you want to move. As a result, first, oil or polymer is rubbed into the skin, and secondly, due to mechanical processing improved elastic properties of skin or leather. During the processing of skins of high quality, in General, provide for a longer exposure times, for example up to one hour, preferably, also with simultaneous movement of the skins of valuable breeds.

As mentioned above, in the framework of this application skins of animals of any kind, in particular leather, skins and furs, in General, referred to as the skins of animals. The invention, in General, applicable in the sector of leather, for example, for treatment or processing of sheepskin, Fox or deer hides, skins or leather. Offer according invented the Yu method is especially suitable for working hides, skins, which should be kept hair. In the processing of skins, and in this case especially in the processing of skins of valuable breeds, the invention leads to technical, quality and commercial advantages.

Essential according to the invention is the subsequent treatment of the skin with the help of compressed gas. If this turns out to be favorable primarily processing using compressed carbon dioxide at a pressure from 20 bar up to 300 bar, preferably at a pressure from 20 bar to 100 bar, in particular, using liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure from 20 bar to 70 bar. Preferably, the treatment is carried out with the use of which is in the state below a critical carbon dioxide, particularly preferably at a pressure of less than 70 bar and at a temperature below 25C.

In principle, you can also use supercritical carbon dioxide as a medium for cleaning and degreasing. In contrast, however, the application of which is in the state below a critical carbon dioxide has the advantage that machines for cleaning can be performed easier and cheaper than those for supercritical applications, which are clearly designed for a higher pressure. However, such machines, designed for use in the state below a critical carbon dioxide, the same commercially available for the chemical treatment of textile materials using carbon dioxide and they need only be slightly modified for the proposed according to the invention use in skin and the fur. Due to the lower pressures used in the method, in comparison with supercritical degreasing, decompression performed after degreasing can be done faster. In particular, avoid sudden evaporation located in the skin or fur of carbon dioxide, which otherwise causes a risk of mechanical damage to the skin or skins.

Processing using compressed gas is used, on the one hand, for uniform distribution of the fat or oil in the skin of the animal, on the other hand, to remove excess fat. Processing animal skin when used in a state below a critical carbon dioxide optimally solves both of these partial tasks. Remove excess fat using in the state below a critical carbon dioxide is slow, so while scouring the fat is evenly distributed across the surface of the skin of the animal.

Especially suitable is a multiple rinsing of the processed material. Skin, fur or skin is treated with compressed gas, at least in the implementation of two, preferably three to five successive operations, and the skin and the compressed gas is separated from each other between each two stages of processing.

When processing the use of liquefied carbon dioxide for example, fat skin from the very beginning, washed with liquefied carbon dioxide. First applied on the skin fat is partially soluble in carbon dioxide. Part of the fat then gets on raw skin. Thus, the fat is evenly distributed throughout the skin. Preferably, at this stage, the skin is subjected to the offset circulating manner in a bath of carbon dioxide.

Later, for example, 10-20 minutes of liquid carbon dioxide and dissolved in the fat removed, down to the skin fresh carbon dioxide and carry out the second stage of processing. Often rational three to five such stages of treatment.

Preferably, after the washing process mixed with fat compressed gas, in the example above, the liquefied carbon dioxide is subjected to distillation, and then in a clean condition it was again translated in the collection.

In the case of multiple washing processes efficiently add to the compressed gas in one of the washing processes, for example in one of the latter, the co-solvent, for example, from the group comprising alcohols, ketones, waxes, or esters, or other additive, including odoriferous substance in order to effectively remove especially sticking firmly retaining substance.

Preferably, the skin is treated using a compressed gas as long as the mass of skins will not become m is nice, than its mass to apply oil, grease or polymer. The skin of an animal skin or fur from nature contain fat. Thanks proposed in the invention method these fats are partly washed out and replaced by added, purposefully selected fats or oils. The choice of these fats and oils carried out on the basis of their solubility in carbon dioxide, and oil, which, at least partially, should remain in the skin, chosen on the basis of his more minor (compared to the naturally found in the skin oils and fats) solubility in carbon dioxide.

Degreasing thus mainly carried out to such an extent that the hide or skin after degreasing becomes easier than in the raw state, before applying the grease. Preferably, the mass of skins or skin after degreasing is at least 1% less than in the raw state.

So, for example, dried manually mink skin after tanning has a relative weight of 100. Mink pelt now Somaliweyn according to the invention. For this to mink pelt add 5-15% of its weight of fats and oils. The total mass of mink pelts is then, depending on the additive fat, 105-115. Then the skin is cleaned with the help of liquefied carbon dioxide and clean up to obtain the total mass 93-97.

the quality of the oils, fats or polymers, which are applied to the processed animal skin, are suitable the following substances, respectively, of the groups of substances: oxopropylidene fatty alcohols and polypropylenglycol, as well as their mixtures, ethoxylates and propoxylated fatty amines, polyhydroxylated compounds, esters, derivatives of sugars, complex sorbitane esters, alkylpolyglycoside, glycerides, silicone, paraffin, polyethers and fluorinated compounds. These substances lead to increased elasticity and stretching of the skin or skins. This means an immediate advantage in terms of profitability for the handlers of the skin or skins and add value for the consumer.

The invention has significant advantages compared with traditional methods of fatliquoring and subsequent degreasing of hides and skins.

You may not realize requiring time-consuming machining of the skin for the introduction of a fat ("mate" or "kicking"). According to the invention apply the oil or fat and then during processing using compressed gas is distributed on the surface of the skin or skins and, in particular, when the skin or the skin when exposed to offset rotary way enter into it.

For degreasing do not use any toxic or flammable AIDS, which is s, first, you need to resolve as a special waste, secondly, from them on the skin or the skin often remains an unpleasant odor.

1. Method of treating skins of animals, including the following: on the skin put oil, grease or polymer, the skin is treated in the compressed gas, and applied to the skin of a quantity of oil, grease or polymer is less than 20%, preferably less than 15%, particularly preferably less than 10%, based on the weight of the hides and skins are treated with compressed carbon dioxide at a pressure below 70 bar and a temperature below 25C.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which oil, grease or polymer sprayed on the skin.

3. The method according to any one of claims 1 or 2, in which the skin is treated with liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 20-70 bar.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the skin is treated with compressed gas in the implementation of at least two, preferably three to five processing stages, and the skin and the compressed gas is separated from each other between each two stages of processing.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 4, in which the skin is treated using a compressed gas as long as the mass of skins, there will be at least 1% less than its mass to apply oil, grease or polymer.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, in which the skin put oil, grease or polymer, which is selected from the following group: oxypropyl the new fatty alcohols and polypropylenglycol, as well as their mixtures, ethoxylates and propoxylated fatty amines, polyhydroxylated compounds, esters, derivatives of sugars, complex sorbitane esters, alkylpolyglycoside, glycerides, silicone, paraffin, polyethers and fluorinated compounds.



 

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