Method for formation and form fixation of fur product items (versions)

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method is related to formation and form fixation of fur product items and to light industry, in particular to furriery, and may be also used to recover properties of fur products that have already been in operation. Method includes application of polymer compound onto fur skin, drying and giving proper shape to product. For application polymer compound is used, which contains plasticised polyvinyl acetate dispersion, as plasticiser - diamyl phthalate, and water. Versions of this method use the following substances as plasticiser - di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate or tri(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, or tri(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. Product is dried after it has been properly shaped.

EFFECT: improved quality and service life of fur products by increase of shape stability of product items and strength of hair adhesion to skin tissue due to direct stabilisation of liquid composition in wide range of climatic conditions of its application.

4 cl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to light industry, in particular to the furrier production, and can be used in the manufacture of fur or fur items of garments and also when restoring properties of furs that were in operation.

Known methods of duplication of leather parts of fur garments perfect binding cushioning material with a low melting point adhesive coating. An example of the cushioning material of this type can serve as materials article Y861N43 - 090 and V084A44 - 090 (manufactured in Germany, the Firm Kufner) (Stelmashenko VI Materials for garments and thus web: textbook for students of higher educational institutions / Weitermachen, Tveritinov. - M.: Publishing center "Academy", 2008 - 320 C.; http://www.kufner.com). However, this method is recommended mainly in the manufacture of womens coat of fur, rabbit or other short pile fur. In practice, to improve the shape and hardening of the leather fur are often recommended and used cotton fabric without adhesive coating.

A known method of manufacturing a three-dimensional decorative elements in the fur products by molding elements on the fur detail, with supporting material, which is used as collagen composition (EN 2283350 C1, 2005.04.19).

Closest to the claimed is a method of forming three-dimensional and curved parts products from natural skin, comprising applying to boterman side of the skin of a flat part of the product polymer compositions based on aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate with dibutyl phthalate as a plasticizer, drying, shaping the parts and fixing it cooled. (EN 2266863 C1, 2004.07.12). The choice of basis polymeric composition attributable to the following. Polyvinyl acetate dispersion environmentally friendly, harmless to the environment and human health, cheap enough.

This method was created for processing natural garment leathers. It is not suitable for pornosecretary fur details and products, since the proposed set of operations is riodic to the deterioration of the operational properties of the leather and fur fur. The implementation of this method in application to fur connected with technical difficulties. In addition, it is known that the heating and molding the leather fur in a dry condition does not obtain a predetermined shape of a part or product.

Another disadvantage of this method of treatment is relatively low frost conventional plasticizer (dibutyl phthalate), part of the modifying composition. In addition, the low solubility of dibutyl phthalate in water and increased (compared to water) density dibutyl phthalate prevent long-term stabilization of the liquid composition.

The technical task of the invention is to improve the quality and life of the fur products by improving the shape of the product details and the bond strength of the hair with Koshevoy cloth due to the direct stabilization of the liquid composition in a wide range of climatic conditions of its application.

The problem is solved in that in the method of molding and pornosecretary parts of fur products, including drawing on the leather fur polymeric composition, drying, giving the product the desired shape, according to the invention for application use polymer composition containing the following components, wt%:

di is Persia polyvinyl acetate
plasticized10-35
dietilftalat1-10
waterthe rest,

thus the drying of the product is carried out after giving it the desired shape.

The difference of the proposed method from the prototype is used as a plasticizer another ingredient, namely diamictite or other variants of di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate, or three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, or three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. In addition, the feature of the method is that the drying of the product is carried out after giving it the desired shape.

The proposed method consists in the sequential stages of applying the polymeric composition of the composition on the surface of the leather details of the fur, make a given shape and fixing the shape by drying. Water contained in the composition penetrates into the structure of the leather fur, weakens the interrelations of structures of communication and leads to improved molding properties, furs, i.e. the increase of the effective area of fur semi-finished and plasticity. In contrast to the known method, the proposed method pornosgratis is not due to the heating being processed is etale on the press or iron after application of the composition, drying and imparting the desired shape, and by drying the applied resin composition immediately after molding details.

This eliminates the possibility of negative effects of heat treatment and pressure (high temperature and compression) on the fur, and to implement the proposed method does not require sophisticated technological equipment, devices or methods.

To increase the frost resistance of the treated products offered as a plasticizer to use plasticizing substance with a freezing point lower than those of dibutyl phthalate. In addition, these substances have a density close to the density of water, and in appreciable quantities dissolved in water.

In the course of the research it is established that with regard to the processing of fur products with the best of these positions plasticizers and polymer compositions can be dietilftalat, di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate, three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate or three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate.

A pilot study of the use of polymeric compositions based on aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate with these plasticizers for implementation of fur, it was found that in addition to the effect set (table 1) showed significant increase strength pinned the hair I in the leather and fur products (table 2). During electron microscopy and IR spectroscopic studies have shown that the combined effects of fixing the hair and improve the shape of the product due to the emergence of stable polymeric formations in the structure of the treated skin.

Table 1
The average results of changes in the height of the formed sample
Sample - three-dimensional decorative item headdress of minkThe sample is doubled nonwoven cushioning material company "kutner" (Germany)The sample stabilized polymer compositions based on polyvinyl acetate
The height of the samples, cmafter molding14,614.5
after effects, simulating operational13,114,1
Change the height of the moulded samples10,33,16

Table 2
The average strength of fixing of the hair in the leather fur
Secure the strength of the hair, SN
The original furAfter processing the leather compositions based on polyvinyl acetate
Mink1821
Rabbit dyed1214
Muskrat1418

The above plasticizers provide a given level of ductility processed by the composition of the material even at extremely low temperatures furs (up to minus 55C). In addition, the use of these plasticizers increases the resistance modifying the skin of impurities of the composition by increasing the boiling point of the plasticizer. All these substances are non-toxic, non allergenic and is not carcinogenic. Their density is close to the density of water, and the solubility in water is higher than that of dibutyl phthalate.

Thus, a method for processing fur in the manufacture of new and no the Institute used fur products, including the application of polymer compositions based on aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate with the addition of as a plasticizer, depending on the requirements of the frost resistance of the product or the heat - diamictite or di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate, or three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate, or three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate. Study 5 shows that this treatment can improve the strength of fixing of the hair in the leather fur products and their dimensional stability.

Work on the selection of compositions and polymer compositions allow in most cases to recommend the following composition: dispersion of polyvinyl acetate homopolymer coarse plasticized - 10-35%; plasticizers:

dietilftalat1-10%, or
di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate1-8%, or
three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate0.1 to 5%, or
three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate0.1 to 5%;
restwater

Such compositions compositions allow the polymer enough to easily penetrate the structure of the dermis. The excess of the indicated concentrations of the polyvinyl acetate is or plasticizers leads to an unacceptably high levels of viscosity compositions, which prevents the penetration of the polymer into the pores of the leather fur. Content in the solution is less than 10% of polyvinyl acetate is not possible to obtain a stable positive effect. The absence in the composition of the solution plasticizers, or in quantities less than those given practically no effect on the strength of fixing of the hair, however, leads to increased stiffness of the treated material. Sometimes this makes sense, for example, to stiffen the parts of the product, however, in most cases, the use of plasticizers is necessary and provides stable operation at high shape ergonomic products, such as flexibility, drape, stiffness.

Examples of specific implementation method

Example 1. Fur pelt cut, remove defects. Cut out detail (e.g., hat) on working patterns, while using skins of both high and low varieties, differing, for example, the thickness and stiffness of the leather. After cutting the pieces sewn together, applied to specified areas of the leather polymeric composition comprising a dispersion of a polyvinyl acetate homopolymer coarse plasticized by 25%; the plasticizer dietilftalat - 5%; water - the rest. Prepared fur the item put on the form-block volosamy the cover outward, while spreading out on the surface of the mold-block, and fix the item on the form-block in a known manner (for example, groves or nails). Then the item is dried in a drying Cabinet for drying fur semi-finished products or articles, after which the finished part is released from the push-rod or nail and remove pads.

Example 2. Prepared in the usual way fur details cut coats women before connecting display Koshevoy cloth out and spread on the table. Then to fix the shape and stiffness is applied from the side of the leather on separate parts of a whole (for example, collar, flap pocket, podbora etc) or locally at sites of items (for example, on the bottom of the sleeves, cuffs, parts of the front in the shoulder area, chest pockets, side, loops, etc.) polymer composition comprising a dispersion of a polyvinyl acetate homopolymer coarse plasticized - 10%; the plasticizer di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate - 1%; water - the rest (89%). Further details of the product dried on the table in the unfolded Koshevoy cloth outside. After drying, the product parts are combined in the usual way (in accordance with known standard methods of technological processing).

Example 3. Coats women fur that was in operation before the recovery process after the initial preparation and cleaning is separated from under the worn frets and gasket details. Prepared product spread on the table and is applied locally on the most worn areas leather (for example, on the bottom of the sleeves, cuffs, under the folds of the collar, in the field of pockets, side, loops, etc.) polymer composition comprising a dispersion of a polyvinyl acetate homopolymer coarse plasticized - 15%; the plasticizer three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate 3%; water - the rest. The treated product is dried on the table in the unfolded Koshevoy cloth outside. After drying the product is combined with the padding in the usual way.

Example 4. Fur pelt cut, remove defects. Cut out detail (e.g., collar) on working patterns, while using skins of both high and low varieties, differing, for example, the thickness and stiffness of the leather. After cutting the pieces and sew to improve the shape put on the leather is prepared semi-finished polymer composition comprising a dispersion of a polyvinyl acetate homopolymer coarse plasticized - 35%; the plasticizer three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate - 5%; water - the rest (60%). Prepared fur semi-finished product placed on a wooden form (hard pattern) hair out, spread on the surface forms (templates) and fix the item on the form in a known manner (for example, the number of the AMI or nails). Next, the intermediate product is dried in a drying Cabinet for drying fur semi-finished products or articles. Then finished semi-finished product release from peg or nail and removed from the form.

The composition of the polymer composition improves the quality of forming processes, pornosecretary parts of fur products, ensuring the reliability of a given shape and secure the strength of the hair in the dermis, resulting in improved quality and durability of the product as a whole.

The proposed method allows to:

- to reduce the number of stages of manufacturing products and get maloperation technology by combining forming operations, pornosecretary;

- reduce the number and range of support materials, which reduces the consumption of materials and the weight of the finished products;

- apply polymer composition of different concentrations and number in the form of a continuous or discontinuous coating, which allows to preserve the hygienic properties of fur and regulate the required properties (such as rigidity, flexibility, plasticity) of the obtained details of the products.

The invention can be used in the manufacture of fur or fur items of garments and also when restoring properties of furs that were in operation. Especially, the proposed method is effective for products, exploiter is working in extreme weather conditions (temperatures below -25C). The advantage of this method is the high degree of stabilization of the homogeneous structure of the compositions proposed compositions, which on an industrial scale will avoid the necessity of continuous activities to maintain homogeneity of the compositions, the low cost of the composition, the manufacturability of its receipt, safety, environmental friendliness and non-toxicity.

1. Method of molding and pornosecretary parts of fur products, including drawing on the leather fur polymeric composition, drying, giving the product a desired shape, characterized in that for application use polymer composition containing the following components, wt%:

dispersion of polyvinyl acetate
plasticized10-35
dietilftalat1-10
waterthe rest,

thus the drying of the product is carried out after giving him
the desired shape.

2. Method of molding and pornosecretary parts of fur products, including drawing on the leather fur polymeric composition, drying, giving the product the desired shape, distinguishing the I, the printing using the polymer composition containing the following components, wt%:

dispersion of polyvinyl acetate
plasticized10-35
di(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate1-8
waterthe rest,

thus the drying of the product is carried out after giving it the desired shape.

3. Method of molding and pornosecretary parts of fur products, including drawing on the leather fur polymeric composition, drying, giving the product a desired shape, characterized in that for application use polymer composition containing the following components, wt%:

dispersion of polyvinyl acetate
plasticized10-35
three(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate0,1-5
waterthe rest,

thus the drying of the product is carried out after giving it the desired shape.

4. The way the fo is mevania, pornosecretary parts of the fur, including drawing on the leather fur polymeric composition, drying, giving the product a desired shape, characterized in that for application use polymer composition containing the following components, wt%:

dispersion of polyvinyl acetate
plasticized10-35
three(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate0,1-5
waterthe rest,

thus the drying of the product is carried out after giving him
the desired shape.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition is meant for bleaching fur and can be used in fur production during oxidative bleaching of the fur pigment, as well as pre-coloured to obtain a "multi-colour" effect. The composition contains 30% hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulphate, target catalyst additives in form of a complex salt 3(NH4)2Mo4 4(MoO2 H2O) and carbopol - a polymer based on polyacrylic acid, and water. The composition has pH 7.5 - 8.0, and relative (kinetic) viscosity of 64-65.

EFFECT: simpler composition and increased bleaching effect with maximum retention of quality of hair coat and leather tissue.

2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: all layers of undercoat and finish paint are applied on leather subjected, prior to drum painting, to low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma of high-frequency discharge. Exposure is performed for 241 to 280 seconds in discharge chamber at 26.7 to 30.0 Pa, flow rate of plasma-forming argon making 0.041 to 0.06 g/s at discharge power of 0.7 to 2 kW.

EFFECT: increased depth of paint penetration, improved quality of ready leather.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises eliminating defects representing damages sports (3) in layers (2) formed by recesses in skin (1) with natural grain patter. These defects are eliminated as follows, i.e. water or slightly foamed plastic suspension is forced into aforesaid recesses, the said suspension containing ultimate solid particles. Then skin (1) is dried, surface (4) of the layer of grain pattern (2) is subjected to pressure and thermal treatment with the help of pressure roller at least 100C. Note here that plastic mass is formed in aforesaid recesses that contains hollow tiny balloons (5) made up of solid particles to completely fill the said recesses (dwg. 1).

EFFECT: higher quality.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method, which is suitable for finishing chrome leathers, comprises consecutively applying coating layers followed by action with low-temperature plasma at generator lamp anodic current intensity 0.2-0.6 A. Action of low-temperature plasma is effected for 180-240 sec at pressure 13.3-26.6 Pa in discharge chamber and consumption of plasma-forming gas (argon) 0.035-0.04 g/sec. Method is implemented on high-frequency plasma installation.

EFFECT: increased adhesion of coating to dry and wet leather, dye penetration depth, resistance to repetitive bends, and strength at better quality of leather.

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wax emulsions used in coating pain composition designed for finishing genuine leathers and provides a wax emulsion component, which represents polyvinylacetate dispersion containing non-plasticized polyvinylacetate in amount at least 45 wt %, content of polyvinylacetate dispersion in wax emulsion ranging from 40 to 80%. Proposed component when used in wax emulsion allows leather coatings to be obtained manifesting good organoleptic properties, high temperature resistance, low tackiness, and agreeable leather to the touch at moderate cost of wax emulsion.

EFFECT: improved consumer's quality and enlarged resource of wax emulsion components.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: preparation of composition is conducted on vertical-type bead mill. Induline, kerosene, and diesel fuel are consecutively charged into mill before stirring mechanism is energized, after which apparatus and contents thereof are slowly heated. Stirring is then stopped for 1 h while slow heating of mill contents is continued. When specified time expires, carboxylic acid or acid mixture, white spirit, fat additive, and aluminum oxide or hydroxide are added. Mechanic stirring is then switched on and contents of the bead mill are ground and the process is carried out at spontaneously fixed temperature caused by heat effects of the processes and natural cooling. When temperature is lowered to 85-120°C, desired product is discharged.

EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.

1 tbl, 19 ex

FIELD: light industry; methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article is intended for usage in light industry at forming volumetric and curvilinear details for articles made out of a leather, predominantly - clothing. The method consists that on the surface of the flesh side of hide of the flat component of the article made out of leather deposit the polymeric composition containing the following elements (in mass %): - polyvinyl acetate homopolymeric coarse-dispersed plasticized dispersion - 20-35; - dibutyl phthalate (DPHT) - 1.5-15; - water - the rest. The composition may be deposited in the form of a net on in advance prepared templates. After that the component of the article is dried at an indoor temperature. Then the component of the article is formed, for example, by hot pressing at 70-90°C during 1.5-2.0 minutes. And fix the gained form by chilling. The invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

4 cl

FIELD: tanning industry.

SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.

1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to finishing of various-destination leathers made from various types of raw skins and consists in consecutively applying layers of soaking ground, covering paint, and fixing agent. After applying each layer, leather is dried for 5 to 50 sec in microwave fields at field intensity 10000-15000 v/m and power 300-3500 W.

EFFECT: expanded technological possibilities and improved quality of coating.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: powdered thermoplastic polyurethane with reduced melting point is applied on fur article parts in most wear place, said polyurethane being prepared from 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate, poly(butylene glycol adipate) and 1,4-butanediol serving as chain extension agent. Thus treated part is then pressed at 64-75°C and remained to lie.

EFFECT: improved quality of fur articles due to increased hair-to-skin tissue binding strength, resistance of hair coat against wear, and increased lifetime of clothes.

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming elements on the fur article with the use of auxiliary material and drying. The auxiliary material is made of a composition containing 6% of collagen mass, 9.6-12% of glycerin , 0.78% of oak extract, 0.6% of fish oil, and the balance water .

EFFECT: simplified method.

The invention relates to the fur industry and can be used in the manufacture of fur detail of garments, such as collars, cuffs, pockets, coquette from skins of tubular shape and tanned layer of low fur, such as mink, marten, weasel and sheared furs, such as muskrat, mink, beaver, and also for skins with defects in the cervical part and parts abrasives

FIELD: items of personal use, clothes.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the fur industry and can be used in furriery-tailoring manufacture at manufacturing and repair of fur products. The method of strengthening of fur fabric leathers of a half-finished product is carried out by application and drying of a collagen-containing composition containing moist collagenic aggregation, a softener and a hardening agent. Thus the collagen-containing composition additionally contains cod-liver oil and castor oil. The composition is applied in two stages. The first stage of treatment is performed with a compound, in recalculation on a solid: collagenic aggregation 2%, glycerin 2.6-4%, oak extract 0.1%, cod-liver oil 0.2%, castor oil 0.2%, water - the rest. The second stage of treatment is performed with a compound, in recalculation on a solid: collagenic weight 6%, glycerin 7.8-12%, oak extract 0.3%, cod-liver oil 0.6%, castor oil of 0.6%, water - the rest. Drying of a fur half-finished product is performed after the first and the second application. The way allows to raise adhesion strength of body hair coat with a leather fabric, to increase useful area of a fur half-finished product due restoration of defective sites of leather fabrics and simultaneously to receive a detail with the zones differing by properties.

EFFECT: increase of adhesion strength of body hair coat with leather fabric, increase in useful area of a fur half-finished product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: fur industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, concerns treatment of sea animal fells. Fell is subjected to tanning and treated in aqueous solution of enzyme preparation exhibiting proteolytic andelastolytic activities, its consumption being 0.1-5.0 g/L at pH 3-8. Fell is the dried and greased, after which follow rolling-shaking, straitening-stretching, chipping, rolling, and stretching.

EFFECT: improved strength and elastic-plastic properties of fell tissue of fur semi-finished product, reduced process cycle duration, reduced consumption of greasing substances, and avoided use of organic solvents.

2 tbl

FIELD: light industry; methods of treatment of the furry semi-finished products.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the method of treatment of the furry semi-finished products. The furry semi-finished product is treated with the low-temperature plasma in the vacuum chamber under pressure of 25-30 Pa in the medium of the argon gas. The treatment is conducted at the oscillator frequency of 13.56 MHz, with the current strength on the anode of the oscillation valve of 0.65-0.8 A within plasma action time of 3-5 minutes and at the rate of argon consumption of 0.03-0.05 g/s. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of bonding of the fur side with the skin tissue and strength of a hair at stretching.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of the fur side pelage with the skin tissue and strength of the fur at stretching.

1 tbl

The invention relates to the technology of tanning fur skins, in particular to the final finishing them, namely, surface-active substances (surfactants) to process haulage and degreasing

FIELD: personal articles.

SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing products from natural fur on knitted warp includes preparation of strips, placing them on knitted base and fastening to it. Strips are cut from natural fur and successively placed on cut piece of knitted warp at distance from each other is such way, that hairs of strips cover distance between them. Strips are sewed to cut piece along longitudinal side. Than borders of cut piece of knitted warp are connected enlargement or fitting of product is performed. Width of strips constitutes 0.2-10 cm, and distance between strips constitutes 0.1-10 cm, depending on length of hairs and product fashion.

EFFECT: invention ensures low manufacturing cost and comfort in use.

11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing two-side spatial seamless canvas for leather and/or fur product can be applied in furriery for manufacturing of various clothes articles, ornamental articles and textile small-ware. Method involves canvas formation by sequential interweaving of stripes. Leather and/or fur are cut into stripes joined lengthwise by any method, e.g. by sewing. Then 30-60 mm long and 25-40 mm broad ornamental elements are cut out of leather and/or fur. 2-4 slits are made in the ornamental elements at equal pace, leaving 10 mm to the edges. Ornamental elements are shaped in three dimensions by twisting the stripes between slits against the centre and fixating the twisted stripes by glue. Canvas is formed out of leather and/or fur stripes by interweaving the stripes as warp and weft, along with linking to spatial ornamental elements by threading the stripes through loops of ornamental elements in definite sequence to match pattern. The claimed method allows combining materials of different kinds, colours and textures, making two-side spatial seamless articles, separate inserts, appliques. By the use of furriery and waste pieces, possibilities of processing off-grade fur and leather material and cuttings of various shape and size.

EFFECT: extended product range due to new weaving and knitting versions, rational utilisation of fur and leather semiproducts.

4 cl, 3 dwg

Up!