Method to eliminate defects in skin grain patter layer with natural frain pattern and skin with eliminated grain pattern defects

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises eliminating defects representing damages sports (3) in layers (2) formed by recesses in skin (1) with natural grain patter. These defects are eliminated as follows, i.e. water or slightly foamed plastic suspension is forced into aforesaid recesses, the said suspension containing ultimate solid particles. Then skin (1) is dried, surface (4) of the layer of grain pattern (2) is subjected to pressure and thermal treatment with the help of pressure roller at least 100C. Note here that plastic mass is formed in aforesaid recesses that contains hollow tiny balloons (5) made up of solid particles to completely fill the said recesses (dwg. 1).

EFFECT: higher quality.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of repairing defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, and the damaged area is applied to eliminate their plastic mass. In addition, the invention relates to a skin with a natural grain, in particular ox-skin, in which the defects have been eliminated.

Layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, often has defects caused, for example, cuts of hedges, damage, barbed wire, insect bites, etc. that arise only in certain places, up to 10% of skin surface, however, significantly reduce the value of this skin. This makes the skin resulting putty damaged areas and subsequent polishing of the layer of grain is used as a so-called restored leather with grain, which, however, has little value and can be sold at a very low price.

It is known that the damaged areas, which do not pass through the layer of grain, can be repaired by filling of the polymeric material to dry, then Polish the layer of grain, and the entire top layer of the grain is removed.

It was also already proposed to eliminate the damaged areas in the layer of grain on the entire surface to apply high viscosity aqueous plastic filler, which are in prendimi or contain hollow microshare, these putty to dry, and then Polish it, and in this case the top layer of the grain is removed. The drawback of both methods is that water plastic putty contain a maximum of 80% solids and therefore these masses while removing water shrinkage, flow into the damaged areas and peeled off their edges, and the danger is that they stress in bending of the skin begin to fall from the damaged places.

In addition, it is known that the entire surface layer of the grain by rolling cause the so-called whipped foam high viscosity and is pushed into the damaged area. Such whipped foam obligatory contain the blowing means, as well as foam stabilizers, which reduce the resistance of the hardened foam.

In addition, the cured foam layer in the case of leather with a natural grain reduces the adhesion deposited on this layer plastic finish, because the whipped foam often exfoliate or behind the skin.

In addition, it was also proposed on the skin with the natural grain or slightly polished from the side grain of the skin to cause the plastic layer formed from the aqueous plastic dispersion containing dense particles, which after hardening treated with a hot roller or stamp for stamping. When this dense particles expand the I, and the plastic layer foams in a negative structure nappa-leather on the surface of the hot roller or stamp for stamping. Then knead the skin and supply a finish. This layer of foamed plastic material should have a thickness to cover the negative structure nappa-leather on the surface of the roller or stamp, so that the thus treated skin is no longer a real skin, because the effect rumpled nappa-leather was obtained by stamping.

The present invention is to develop a method with which you could fix defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, so that these defects were no longer visible, without any of the disadvantages of the known methods, with the condition that after treatment it was possible to use very thin layers of finish to the skin again considered this.

In particular, the method according to the invention should contribute to the defects in the layer of grain, which, as a rule, are formed by the recesses can be closed up so that the weight for sealing even with long load bending resulting from the use of the skin did not drop out, did not give shrinkage after solidification, so that it was waterproof, was primarily used only for sealing the damaged places and not p is krival or covered with a very thin layer to the entire surface of the grain.

To solve this task according to the invention propose to do the following: in the damaged area to push water, if necessary, slightly foamed plastic dispersion, which contains the smallest dense particles, then dry the skin, then a layer of grain to expose the pressure treatment and heat treatment, resulting from a dense particles solidified plastic dispersion at least partially formed hollow microshare. Thus, through the use of the method according to the invention the aqueous plastic dispersion, and not pasty filler for sealing the damaged places, adhesion to the damaged areas is significantly improved, and the processing pressure and heat treatment of dense particles expand to education hollow microserv, resulting in the set of excess pressure, due to which formed after drying, the plastic mass is tightly bound to the surface of the damaged areas and, in particular, with the edges forming the damaged area of the recesses and withstand any load bending. Hollow microshare in formed of the solidified plastic dispersion plastic mass, which, if necessary, applied to the surface layer of the grain, not having damaged areas, etc chicosci completely destroy pressure treatment and heat treatment, or they may not be formed, so that in these places formed plastic layer, the thickness of which, as a rule, is not measurable in any case is less than 60 microns.

According to a preferred form of the invention, the plastic dispersion is pushed into the damaged area using a preferably moving in the opposite direction of rolling of the roller, which, if necessary, has a microstructure surface, so that is the application of a plastic dispersion outside the damaged areas by type of application squeegee with a very thin layer.

The pressure treatment and heat treatment according to the invention carried out using heated to a temperature of at least 100C., preferably from 120C to 180C pressure roller which is in contact with the layer of grain, by which at least partially solidified plastic dispersion is firmly pushed into the damaged area, with dense particles expand to education hollow microshadow in the solidified plastic dispersion.

The surface of the pressure roller may be smooth. However, preferably the pressure roller has a microstructure surface, which may be obtained, for example by sandblasting processing apparatus, causing the surface of the plastic mass, : size the pattern in the damaged area, has the same structure.

Especially preferred is the use of dense particles smaller than 10 microns, preferably less than 7 microns, in an amount of from 15 g to 60 g per 1 kg of 40%plastic dispersion, which consist of thermoplastic and contain a liquid blowing agent. In this case ensures the sealing of forming the damaged area of the recesses using a plastic mass is obtained from the plastic dispersion as well as the tight binding of this mass with the surface of the damaged places.

It is advisable to use dense particles, which expands at a temperature below 120C, preferably below 80C. At these temperatures on the intact surface layer of the grain due to the coating on the plastic dispersion after its solidification does not form well-defined three-dimensional structure.

In the solidified plastic dispersion in zones adjacent to the damaged places, preventing hollow microshare can be eliminated or their formation can be prevented in the following way: according to the invention on the solidified plastic dispersion is applied, preferably sprayed, a mixture of water and solvent, for example, 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, in particular ethyl acetate, and then subjected to pressure treatment and heat treatment. So about what atom, after this wet hollow microshare collapse in the presence of small amounts of solvent at a temperature below 65C and at a pressure below 0.5 kg/cm, or they are not formed.

For adjusting the optical properties of the plastic mass to seal damaged areas to the optical properties of the layer of grain is advisable to use pigmented dense particles, the color of which corresponds to the color layer with grain and/or plastic dispersions.

Leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide leather, a layer of grain which has some defects that are fixed using a plastic mass, according to the invention differs in that the plastic mass consists of hardened plastic water dispersion having a hollow microshare formed from the solid particles by heat, which when applied is pushed into the damaged area.

Preferably the formation of hollow microcar in the zone adjacent to the surface layer of the grain is more intense than in a zone remote from the surface, the advantage of which is that after reducing the pressure of the solidified plastic dispersion having a hollow microshare, does not extend over the entire surface layer of the grain.

In the drawing, in greatly enlarged scale depicts leather with a natural grain, Def the points in which the layer of grain were removed using the method according to the invention.

Skin 1, from which the drawing shows only the upper zone has a layer of grain 2, which results in the damage layer of the grain has damaged seats 3, forming recesses in the layer of grain 2. These grooves can penetrate the whole thickness of the layer of grain or be available only on the surface layer of the grain 2. To resolve formed such recesses damaged areas 3, these pits buried water dispersion of any plastics or plastic mixtures, which in the liquid state well, and after its solidification almost barely sticks and then has an elongation at break of 300%. This plastic dispersion contains dense particles of thermoplastic copolymer, which when applying heat to form a hollow microshare.

Application of the aqueous plastic dispersion to the surface 4 of the layer of grain 2 carry out rolling roller with microstructure surface, in which like Rachel aqueous plastic dispersion plaster into the cavities. Then the skin is coated with the aqueous plastics dispersion is dried, and the surface layer 4 grain 2 using heated to a temperature of 120-180C. the pressure roller is subjected to the pressure treatment and heat treatment. When this dense particles are expanded, so that the recesses formed plastic mass containing small hollow is irosary 5, which is tightly pressed into the recesses and carefully fastened to the edges of the recesses. By selecting an appropriate pressure, and, above all, by selecting the appropriate temperature of the pressure roller and the duration of the processing surface 4 can achieve that hollow microshare mainly formed only adjacent to the surface 4 of the area of the recesses forming the damaged area 3, while in the lower zones of the formation of balls substantially reduced or dense particles do not expand. For example, when the processing pressure roller is approximately 1 second and the temperature of the roller is approximately 145C hollow microshare are formed only to a depth of 0.12 mm in spite of this deepening completely filled with solidified plastic dispersion. When the temperature of the pressure roller exceeds 170C., processing time is reduced twice, and in those areas that do not contain damaged areas 3, education hollow microshadow as a result of high temperature terminated.

Also in the plastic dispersion caused next to the recesses on the surface 4 due to the pressure education hollow microshadow generally prevented, or already formed hollow microshare compressed in such a manner that in that place is formed, if at all, is almost not interfere plastic the film is barely measurable thickness, which does not affect the layer of grain leather.

Hollow micropores formed in the plastic film in these areas can be eliminated by spraying a mixture of 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, for example ethyl acetate, processing then pressure and heat treatment. Thus, after this wet hollow microshare to Ruscha already at temperatures below 65C and at a pressure below 0.5 kg/cm2or not formed.

1. The method of removal of defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, and damaged places put a plastic mass, characterized in that the damaged area press water, if necessary, slightly foamed plastic dispersion, which contains the smallest dense particles, then the skin is dried, after which the layer of grain is subjected to the pressure treatment and heat treatment using heated to a temperature of at least 100C. the pressure roller which is in contact with the layer of grain, resulting from the solid particles of the solidified plastic dispersion at least partially formed hollow microshare.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that under the skin mean cowhide.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the plastic dispersion is pushed into the damaged area using a preferably moving in against the opposite direction of rolling of the roller, which, if necessary, has a microstructure surface.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pressure roller is heated to a temperature of from 120 to 180C.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pressure roller has a microstructure surface.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles smaller than 10 microns, preferably less than 7 microns, in an amount of from 15 to 60 g per 1 kg of 40%plastic dispersion.

7. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles of thermoplastic, which also contain a liquid blowing agent.

8. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles, which expands at a temperature below 120C, preferably below 80C.

9. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the solidified plastic dispersion is applied, preferably sprayed, a mixture of water and solvent, for example, 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, in particular ethyl acetate, and then subjected to pressure treatment and thermal treatment.

10. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use pigmented dense particles, the color of which corresponds to the color layer with grain and/or plastic dispersions.

11. Leather with a natural grain, the layer of grain which has partially defects resolved with the help of the Plaza is the mass of the mass as a filler, characterized in that the plastic mass consists of hardened plastic water dispersion having a hollow microshare formed from the solid particles by heat, which when applied is pushed into the damaged area, and these microshare on the surface layer of the grain, free from damaged areas, not formed or destroyed.

12. Leather with natural grain according to claim 11, characterized in that it is a cowhide.

13. Leather with natural grain according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that the formation of hollow microshadow in the zone adjacent to the surface layer of the grain is more intense than in a zone remote from the surface.



 

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