Method to eliminate defects in skin grain patter layer with natural frain pattern and skin with eliminated grain pattern defects
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises eliminating defects representing damages sports (3) in layers (2) formed by recesses in skin (1) with natural grain patter. These defects are eliminated as follows, i.e. water or slightly foamed plastic suspension is forced into aforesaid recesses, the said suspension containing ultimate solid particles. Then skin (1) is dried, surface (4) of the layer of grain pattern (2) is subjected to pressure and thermal treatment with the help of pressure roller at least 100°C. Note here that plastic mass is formed in aforesaid recesses that contains hollow tiny balloons (5) made up of solid particles to completely fill the said recesses (dwg. 1).
EFFECT: higher quality.
13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to a method of repairing defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, and the damaged area is applied to eliminate their plastic mass. In addition, the invention relates to a skin with a natural grain, in particular ox-skin, in which the defects have been eliminated.
Layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, often has defects caused, for example, cuts of hedges, damage, barbed wire, insect bites, etc. that arise only in certain places, up to 10% of skin surface, however, significantly reduce the value of this skin. This makes the skin resulting putty damaged areas and subsequent polishing of the layer of grain is used as a so-called restored leather with grain, which, however, has little value and can be sold at a very low price.
It is known that the damaged areas, which do not pass through the layer of grain, can be repaired by filling of the polymeric material to dry, then Polish the layer of grain, and the entire top layer of the grain is removed.
It was also already proposed to eliminate the damaged areas in the layer of grain on the entire surface to apply high viscosity aqueous plastic filler, which are in prendimi or contain hollow microshare, these putty to dry, and then Polish it, and in this case the top layer of the grain is removed. The drawback of both methods is that water plastic putty contain a maximum of 80% solids and therefore these masses while removing water shrinkage, flow into the damaged areas and peeled off their edges, and the danger is that they stress in bending of the skin begin to fall from the damaged places.
In addition, it is known that the entire surface layer of the grain by rolling cause the so-called whipped foam high viscosity and is pushed into the damaged area. Such whipped foam obligatory contain the blowing means, as well as foam stabilizers, which reduce the resistance of the hardened foam.
In addition, the cured foam layer in the case of leather with a natural grain reduces the adhesion deposited on this layer plastic finish, because the whipped foam often exfoliate or behind the skin.
In addition, it was also proposed on the skin with the natural grain or slightly polished from the side grain of the skin to cause the plastic layer formed from the aqueous plastic dispersion containing dense particles, which after hardening treated with a hot roller or stamp for stamping. When this dense particles expand the I, and the plastic layer foams in a negative structure nappa-leather on the surface of the hot roller or stamp for stamping. Then knead the skin and supply a finish. This layer of foamed plastic material should have a thickness to cover the negative structure nappa-leather on the surface of the roller or stamp, so that the thus treated skin is no longer a real skin, because the effect rumpled nappa-leather was obtained by stamping.
The present invention is to develop a method with which you could fix defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide, so that these defects were no longer visible, without any of the disadvantages of the known methods, with the condition that after treatment it was possible to use very thin layers of finish to the skin again considered this.
In particular, the method according to the invention should contribute to the defects in the layer of grain, which, as a rule, are formed by the recesses can be closed up so that the weight for sealing even with long load bending resulting from the use of the skin did not drop out, did not give shrinkage after solidification, so that it was waterproof, was primarily used only for sealing the damaged places and not p is krival or covered with a very thin layer to the entire surface of the grain.
To solve this task according to the invention propose to do the following: in the damaged area to push water, if necessary, slightly foamed plastic dispersion, which contains the smallest dense particles, then dry the skin, then a layer of grain to expose the pressure treatment and heat treatment, resulting from a dense particles solidified plastic dispersion at least partially formed hollow microshare. Thus, through the use of the method according to the invention the aqueous plastic dispersion, and not pasty filler for sealing the damaged places, adhesion to the damaged areas is significantly improved, and the processing pressure and heat treatment of dense particles expand to education hollow microserv, resulting in the set of excess pressure, due to which formed after drying, the plastic mass is tightly bound to the surface of the damaged areas and, in particular, with the edges forming the damaged area of the recesses and withstand any load bending. Hollow microshare in formed of the solidified plastic dispersion plastic mass, which, if necessary, applied to the surface layer of the grain, not having damaged areas, etc chicosci completely destroy pressure treatment and heat treatment, or they may not be formed, so that in these places formed plastic layer, the thickness of which, as a rule, is not measurable in any case is less than 60 microns.
According to a preferred form of the invention, the plastic dispersion is pushed into the damaged area using a preferably moving in the opposite direction of rolling of the roller, which, if necessary, has a microstructure surface, so that is the application of a plastic dispersion outside the damaged areas by type of application squeegee with a very thin layer.
The pressure treatment and heat treatment according to the invention carried out using heated to a temperature of at least 100°C., preferably from 120°C to 180°C pressure roller which is in contact with the layer of grain, by which at least partially solidified plastic dispersion is firmly pushed into the damaged area, with dense particles expand to education hollow microshadow in the solidified plastic dispersion.
The surface of the pressure roller may be smooth. However, preferably the pressure roller has a microstructure surface, which may be obtained, for example by sandblasting processing apparatus, causing the surface of the plastic mass, : size the pattern in the damaged area, has the same structure.
Especially preferred is the use of dense particles smaller than 10 microns, preferably less than 7 microns, in an amount of from 15 g to 60 g per 1 kg of 40%plastic dispersion, which consist of thermoplastic and contain a liquid blowing agent. In this case ensures the sealing of forming the damaged area of the recesses using a plastic mass is obtained from the plastic dispersion as well as the tight binding of this mass with the surface of the damaged places.
It is advisable to use dense particles, which expands at a temperature below 120°C, preferably below 80°C. At these temperatures on the intact surface layer of the grain due to the coating on the plastic dispersion after its solidification does not form well-defined three-dimensional structure.
In the solidified plastic dispersion in zones adjacent to the damaged places, preventing hollow microshare can be eliminated or their formation can be prevented in the following way: according to the invention on the solidified plastic dispersion is applied, preferably sprayed, a mixture of water and solvent, for example, 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, in particular ethyl acetate, and then subjected to pressure treatment and heat treatment. So about what atom, after this wet hollow microshare collapse in the presence of small amounts of solvent at a temperature below 65°C and at a pressure below 0.5 kg/cm, or they are not formed.
For adjusting the optical properties of the plastic mass to seal damaged areas to the optical properties of the layer of grain is advisable to use pigmented dense particles, the color of which corresponds to the color layer with grain and/or plastic dispersions.
Leather with a natural grain, in particular cowhide leather, a layer of grain which has some defects that are fixed using a plastic mass, according to the invention differs in that the plastic mass consists of hardened plastic water dispersion having a hollow microshare formed from the solid particles by heat, which when applied is pushed into the damaged area.
Preferably the formation of hollow microcar in the zone adjacent to the surface layer of the grain is more intense than in a zone remote from the surface, the advantage of which is that after reducing the pressure of the solidified plastic dispersion having a hollow microshare, does not extend over the entire surface layer of the grain.
In the drawing, in greatly enlarged scale depicts leather with a natural grain, Def the points in which the layer of grain were removed using the method according to the invention.
Skin 1, from which the drawing shows only the upper zone has a layer of grain 2, which results in the damage layer of the grain has damaged seats 3, forming recesses in the layer of grain 2. These grooves can penetrate the whole thickness of the layer of grain or be available only on the surface layer of the grain 2. To resolve formed such recesses damaged areas 3, these pits buried water dispersion of any plastics or plastic mixtures, which in the liquid state well, and after its solidification almost barely sticks and then has an elongation at break of 300%. This plastic dispersion contains dense particles of thermoplastic copolymer, which when applying heat to form a hollow microshare.
Application of the aqueous plastic dispersion to the surface 4 of the layer of grain 2 carry out rolling roller with microstructure surface, in which like Rachel aqueous plastic dispersion plaster into the cavities. Then the skin is coated with the aqueous plastics dispersion is dried, and the surface layer 4 grain 2 using heated to a temperature of 120-180°C. the pressure roller is subjected to the pressure treatment and heat treatment. When this dense particles are expanded, so that the recesses formed plastic mass containing small hollow is irosary 5, which is tightly pressed into the recesses and carefully fastened to the edges of the recesses. By selecting an appropriate pressure, and, above all, by selecting the appropriate temperature of the pressure roller and the duration of the processing surface 4 can achieve that hollow microshare mainly formed only adjacent to the surface 4 of the area of the recesses forming the damaged area 3, while in the lower zones of the formation of balls substantially reduced or dense particles do not expand. For example, when the processing pressure roller is approximately 1 second and the temperature of the roller is approximately 145°C hollow microshare are formed only to a depth of 0.12 mm in spite of this deepening completely filled with solidified plastic dispersion. When the temperature of the pressure roller exceeds 170°C., processing time is reduced twice, and in those areas that do not contain damaged areas 3, education hollow microshadow as a result of high temperature terminated.
Also in the plastic dispersion caused next to the recesses on the surface 4 due to the pressure education hollow microshadow generally prevented, or already formed hollow microshare compressed in such a manner that in that place is formed, if at all, is almost not interfere plastic the film is barely measurable thickness, which does not affect the layer of grain leather.
Hollow micropores formed in the plastic film in these areas can be eliminated by spraying a mixture of 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, for example ethyl acetate, processing then pressure and heat treatment. Thus, after this wet hollow microshare to Ruscha already at temperatures below 65°C and at a pressure below 0.5 kg/cm2or not formed.
1. The method of removal of defects in the layer grain leather with a natural grain, and damaged places put a plastic mass, characterized in that the damaged area press water, if necessary, slightly foamed plastic dispersion, which contains the smallest dense particles, then the skin is dried, after which the layer of grain is subjected to the pressure treatment and heat treatment using heated to a temperature of at least 100°C. the pressure roller which is in contact with the layer of grain, resulting from the solid particles of the solidified plastic dispersion at least partially formed hollow microshare.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that under the skin mean cowhide.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the plastic dispersion is pushed into the damaged area using a preferably moving in against the opposite direction of rolling of the roller, which, if necessary, has a microstructure surface.
4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pressure roller is heated to a temperature of from 120 to 180°C.
5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pressure roller has a microstructure surface.
6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles smaller than 10 microns, preferably less than 7 microns, in an amount of from 15 to 60 g per 1 kg of 40%plastic dispersion.
7. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles of thermoplastic, which also contain a liquid blowing agent.
8. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use dense particles, which expands at a temperature below 120°C, preferably below 80°C.
9. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the solidified plastic dispersion is applied, preferably sprayed, a mixture of water and solvent, for example, 90 parts water and 10 parts of solvent, in particular ethyl acetate, and then subjected to pressure treatment and thermal treatment.
10. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that use pigmented dense particles, the color of which corresponds to the color layer with grain and/or plastic dispersions.
11. Leather with a natural grain, the layer of grain which has partially defects resolved with the help of the Plaza is the mass of the mass as a filler, characterized in that the plastic mass consists of hardened plastic water dispersion having a hollow microshare formed from the solid particles by heat, which when applied is pushed into the damaged area, and these microshare on the surface layer of the grain, free from damaged areas, not formed or destroyed.
12. Leather with natural grain according to claim 11, characterized in that it is a cowhide.
13. Leather with natural grain according to claim 11 or 12, characterized in that the formation of hollow microshadow in the zone adjacent to the surface layer of the grain is more intense than in a zone remote from the surface.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises drying chambery communicating with pneumatic system and consisting of top and bottom sections arranged on the frame. Aforesaid sections have their open parts arranged in opposition. Heaters are arranged between housings of every section. Movable cover is arranged between sections for them to be sealed. Vessels intended for cyclic dynamic feed of compressed air into detachable pneumodynamic chambers are arranged on the cover to move from one section to another. Aforesaid pneumodynamic chambers are rigidly fitted onto sleeves arranged on the surface of every vessel. There are fans to uniformly circulate hot air inside every section that can be turned off after opening the sections. Aforesaid chambers represent petal-type nozzles consisting of tip outer threaded rings 16 with carving, outer 17 and inner 18 rings. Ring 21 with fasteners for lugs 22 and plates 23 are fastened, with the help of screws 19 and washers 20, onto every outer 17 or inner 18 ring of the nozzle, and on top outer ring 16. Four vertical plates 23 are arranged between ring pairs. Note here that plate 23 can move in ring 21 in every upper of ring pairs and in top outer threaded ring 16 of plate 23. Every lower ring 21 with fasteners lugs and plates is rigidly fixed with the help of pins 24. Four lugs 22 are arranged to move in ring pairs 21 via push-rods 28. Pneumodynamic chamber base accommodates platform 29 supporting aforesaid chamber to rule out sliding of treated fur skin 31. Collar 34 is tightened by the screw 35. Note that half nut 36 is attached to foresaid platform 29 for pneumodynamic chamber to be fastened to the device. Rubber gasket 39 is arranged between aforesaid half nut and platform. Rubber seal 40 is fitted into half nut 36 for tightness purposes. Bellow 41 is arranged inside afore described chamber for compressed air to be fed therein in cycles. Threaded plug 42 is fitted on one end of aforesaid bellows 41 for it to be jointed to top outer ring 16. Other end of bellows is arranged on nozzle of platform 29.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: light industry; methods of treatment of the furry semi-finished products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the method of treatment of the furry semi-finished products. The furry semi-finished product is treated with the low-temperature plasma in the vacuum chamber under pressure of 25-30 Pa in the medium of the argon gas. The treatment is conducted at the oscillator frequency of 13.56 MHz, with the current strength on the anode of the oscillation valve of 0.65-0.8 A within plasma action time of 3-5 minutes and at the rate of argon consumption of 0.03-0.05 g/s. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of bonding of the fur side with the skin tissue and strength of a hair at stretching.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the fur abradability, the increased strength of the fur side pelage with the skin tissue and strength of the fur at stretching.
FIELD: light industry; leather and fur branches; series processes such as soaking process, washing, pickling, tanning and dyeing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cyclic evacuation and mixing the working solution with raw material; rate of pressure drop which is within 0.3-0.9 bar/s exceeds rate of its increase and frequency of pressure fluctuations lies in field of infra-red spectrum; mixing is performed by ordered motion of raw material in working solution. Device proposed for realization of this method is made in form of closed thermostable reservoir mounted on base and provided with casing, movable rotor, loading shaft, discharge chamber, temperature indicator, liquid chemical supply valve, drain valve and preheating and evacuation systems. Preheating system includes delivery of heat agent to movable rotor and preheating of working solution through wall of rotor; mounted on external surface of rotor are cassettes with raw material. Evacuation system is isolated from working solution by means of elastic membrane; loading shaft performs function of discharge chamber.
EFFECT: improved quality; reduced duration of process; saving of chemicals; enhanced ecological safety; cut costs.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: tannery or furry production.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of tannery or furry production and may be used for a piece by piece treatment of a tanning, furry semi-finished product with emulsions of "water in oil" type. The device for impregnation of sheets contains a mounted on the frame bath with a working compound, in which a corrugated roller is dipped, and also a feeding and auxiliary conveyers and a smoothing roller, a supporting means with a resilient counterbody, an actuator, a tool for removal of a finished semi-product, a device for creation of a hydrodynamic wedge and a pinch roller for engagement of the ribbed roller with the feeding conveyor. The problem of the presented invention is - development of the device simple in its servicing with a high reliability allowing to realize the process of impregnation more efficiently with a possibility of its installation in an automatic production line.
EFFECT: the invention presents a device simple in its servicing, having a high reliability, more efficient realization of the process of impregnation, a possibility of its usage in an automatic production line.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spreading skin on respective carrier plates and introducing carrier plates with skin spread thereon into vessel; hermetically sealing vessel and creating low pressure therein; introducing liquid solution into vessel for treatment of skins to wet state; transmitting vibrations to vessel in order to provide continuous and uniform movement of treating solution contained in vessel. According to another version, method involves cleaning animal skin by introducing aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide into vessel. Apparatus has number of plates on which leathers are spread, hermetically sealable vessel into which plates with skins spread thereon are introduced, device for creating low pressure in said vessel, at least one mixing reservoir for introducing therein of water and respective active substances for the purpose of producing liquid solution for skin treatment. Mixing reservoir is adapted for communication with hermetically sealable vessel, wherein low pressure is maintained for introducing therein of liquid solution, and vibratory member for transmitting vibrations to vessel for providing continuous and uniform movement of liquid solution introduced into hermetically sealable vessel.
EFFECT: reduced unfavorable effect upon environment of skin treatment procedure, in particular, elimination of necessity for utilization of chemicals, simplified, useful and compact construction of apparatus.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method, which is suitable for finishing chrome leathers, comprises consecutively applying coating layers followed by action with low-temperature plasma at generator lamp anodic current intensity 0.2-0.6 A. Action of low-temperature plasma is effected for 180-240 sec at pressure 13.3-26.6 Pa in discharge chamber and consumption of plasma-forming gas (argon) 0.035-0.04 g/sec. Method is implemented on high-frequency plasma installation.
EFFECT: increased adhesion of coating to dry and wet leather, dye penetration depth, resistance to repetitive bends, and strength at better quality of leather.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wax emulsions used in coating pain composition designed for finishing genuine leathers and provides a wax emulsion component, which represents polyvinylacetate dispersion containing non-plasticized polyvinylacetate in amount at least 45 wt %, content of polyvinylacetate dispersion in wax emulsion ranging from 40 to 80%. Proposed component when used in wax emulsion allows leather coatings to be obtained manifesting good organoleptic properties, high temperature resistance, low tackiness, and agreeable leather to the touch at moderate cost of wax emulsion.
EFFECT: improved consumer's quality and enlarged resource of wax emulsion components.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: preparation of composition is conducted on vertical-type bead mill. Induline, kerosene, and diesel fuel are consecutively charged into mill before stirring mechanism is energized, after which apparatus and contents thereof are slowly heated. Stirring is then stopped for 1 h while slow heating of mill contents is continued. When specified time expires, carboxylic acid or acid mixture, white spirit, fat additive, and aluminum oxide or hydroxide are added. Mechanic stirring is then switched on and contents of the bead mill are ground and the process is carried out at spontaneously fixed temperature caused by heat effects of the processes and natural cooling. When temperature is lowered to 85-120°C, desired product is discharged.
EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.
1 tbl, 19 ex
FIELD: light industry; methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article is intended for usage in light industry at forming volumetric and curvilinear details for articles made out of a leather, predominantly - clothing. The method consists that on the surface of the flesh side of hide of the flat component of the article made out of leather deposit the polymeric composition containing the following elements (in mass %): - polyvinyl acetate homopolymeric coarse-dispersed plasticized dispersion - 20-35; - dibutyl phthalate (DPHT) - 1.5-15; - water - the rest. The composition may be deposited in the form of a net on in advance prepared templates. After that the component of the article is dried at an indoor temperature. Then the component of the article is formed, for example, by hot pressing at 70-90°C during 1.5-2.0 minutes. And fix the gained form by chilling. The invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.
FIELD: tanning industry.
SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.
1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to finishing of various-destination leathers made from various types of raw skins and consists in consecutively applying layers of soaking ground, covering paint, and fixing agent. After applying each layer, leather is dried for 5 to 50 sec in microwave fields at field intensity 10000-15000 v/m and power 300-3500 W.
EFFECT: expanded technological possibilities and improved quality of coating.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: powdered thermoplastic polyurethane with reduced melting point is applied on fur article parts in most wear place, said polyurethane being prepared from 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate, poly(butylene glycol adipate) and 1,4-butanediol serving as chain extension agent. Thus treated part is then pressed at 64-75°C and remained to lie.
EFFECT: improved quality of fur articles due to increased hair-to-skin tissue binding strength, resistance of hair coat against wear, and increased lifetime of clothes.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: semifinished product is degreased, neutralized, dyed, and lubricated. Dyeing is performed in two washing-interrupted steps with anionic black dye consumed in amount 0.5-0.6% of the weight of semifinished product in each dyeing step. Lubrication is followed by retannage with chrome tanner in amount 0.6-1.0% of the weight of semifinished product (calculated for chromium oxide) and treatment with 0.8-1.0% of spindle oil.
EFFECT: achieved deep black color and high performance characteristics.
1 tbl, 5 ex