Method of paste tanning-stuffing of fur skins

FIELD: process engineering, leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: after hide pickling, skins are sent to ageing. Then fur leather layer is processed by priming solution comprising chrome tanning agent with concentration of 9-18 g/l per chrome oxide. Skins are aged to effect main paste-tanning-stuffing and ageing.

EFFECT: improved organoleptic properties of fur skins, ie broach, softness, elasticity and higher tensile strength.

2 tbl, 3 ex

 

The present invention relates to the processing of furs.

There is a method of tanning fur skins (Patent SU 1656873, IPC C14C 3/02, 3/06, C14B 1/26, from 20.10.93). This method includes : soaking off, degreasing, pickling, centrifuge, and then non-namazee tanning-greasing. The composition for Namazi: synthetic fat - 135 ml, industrial oil AND 12A - 135 ml, OP-10 - 30 ml and 700 ml of chrome tanning agent, the basicity of 40%, a concentration of 100 g/l, counting on the chromium oxide.

The disadvantages of this method are low organoleptic indicators relating to soft and elastic leather fur. In the known method process namanga tanning-fatliquoring carried out immediately after pickling, spinning and non. The result is the following: emulsion with a high concentration of chrome tanning agent (100 g/l, counting on the chromium oxide) is coated on motormania side dehydrated skins. The distance between the fibers in the squeezed skin less than potatoe. The high concentration gradient of the tanning agent, acting with the emulsion side, almost stitches the whole structure of the collagen fibers, making it rigid and immobile relative to the applied load.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method of tanning fur skins (Patent SU 1526231 A1, C14C 1/00, 3/02, 3/06, from 20.10.93). In the well-known is the procedure namazee tanning-greasing fur hold in the stretched condition, to increase the output area and simultaneously solve the problem of rigidity. As shown by results and practice, this technique is only exacerbates the situation.

Indicators of physical-mechanical tests of the leather fur (according to GOST 4661-76) do not provide a real view of plasticity and softness. Despite the undeniable advantages namanga tanning, the main of which are the lack of a chrome-containing waste water and reducing the consumption of chrome tanning agent, this method needs to be developed and improved. The leather fur processed by a known method, does not have a sufficiently high limit values of tensile strength and elongation at a load of 4.9 MPa.

Thus, the technical result of the claimed invention is the improvement of the organoleptic characteristics of fur skins (stretching, softness, elasticity), increased tensile strength while stretching the leather.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method namanga tanning-fatliquoring furs, including pickling, the main namazee tanning-greasing, aging, according to the invention after pickling skins left on the hides, and then the leather fur is treated with a primer solution containing chromium tanning agent concentration 9-18 g/l (including the chromium oxide), and leave the skins on aging within 20-24 hours

A distinctive feature of the proposed method are the availability of new techniques, namely pre-processing the leather slabokontsentrirovannye solution of a tanning agent before the main process namanga tanning-fatliquoring, as well as the implementation instead of the pressed skins long Stoke-on too.

Experimentally it was found that pre-priming before namanga tanning-fatliquoring maximizes such indicators of quality fur semi-finished product as pull, softness and elasticity. In addition, the leather is obtained fur has a higher tensile strength tensile elongation at a voltage of 4.9 MPa and the low stiffness compared to Koshevoy cloth treated according to standard methodology and prototype, that is, the priming allows to combine the advantages of both ocenocnaja way, and namanga. These indicators are very important in the processing of fur. Comparative evaluation of the results of the proposed method with the prototype (analogue) and the traditional technology are shown in table 1.

Table 1
IndexThe value of the index
Norm GOST 4661-76The placeholder Invention
The temperature of the weld point, CAt least 708284
The moisture content, %No more than 1413,212,8
The content of exitframe, %0,8-1,81,51,5
Ash content, %Not more than 8,06,76,7
Content
unbound fatty substances, %10-2018,5the 17.3
Ultimate tensile strength, MPaNot less 9,818,920,2
The elongation under a load of 4.9 MPa, %Not less than 3032,136,2

As can be seen from table 1, furs, processed by the claimed method are more in the high limit values of tensile strength and elongation leather under load, that improves the organoleptic characteristics of the pelts.

In the present method high organoleptic characteristics are achieved through a gradual process of tanning-fatliquoring. From theory of the process of tanning salts of chromium is known that chromium complexes, which include one or more water molecules (so-called aquacomplex), have a high chemical affinity to collagen fibers, capacity evenly distributed in the structure of the leather skins, making turns prefabricated increased softness.

The disadvantages namanga tanning-fatliquoring, the prototype is primarily the increased stiffness of the leather obtained fur. To reduce stiffness in the known methods use a more thorough preliminary training and more intensive mechanical treatment during the finishing operations, which reduces strength and increases the complexity of production. When carrying out emulsion tanning-fatliquoring (prototype) on the leather fur apply the emulsion (Namazi),consisting of (ml/l): synthetic fat - 135, industrial oils AND 12A - 135, non-ionic surfactant OP-10 - 30 and solution of chrome tanning agent basicity 40%, a concentration of 100 g/l (including the chromium oxide) - 700. This composition is applied to tropicaliving, pressed and stretched out on the Amah hide that will inevitably reduce the mechanical strength and elasticity of the leather fur. Poor from the point of view of technology will be the flow of the process of tanning, as stretched skin will quickly dry up and the distribution of the tanning material thickness especially at the periphery will be uneven.

In the present method pre-priming operation in its essence is a pre-tanning process, as a priming solution containing complexes of chromium-enriched water molecules and residues of acetic acid, which possess excellent tanning properties. In addition, the solution contains salt and surfactant equalize the distribution of the tanning complexes on the thickness of the leather of the fur. The concentration of tanning salts in the primer solution is 25-50 g/l (9-18 g/l, in terms of oxide of chromium), 9-19 times less than in the emulsion. This allows to obtain a sufficient number of aquacomplexes chromium. The primary protein of the skin - collagen is a spatial mesh of interlacing fibers of different diameters. During the preparatory operations structure (grid) becomes more uniform. If you act in such a structure is highly concentrated emulsion having a high reactivity, without prior fixation, going is it binding fibers among themselves, that deprives the structure flexibility and mobility relative to the applied load. The task of priming the proposed method and is reduced to form and fix structure obtained in preparatory processes, i.e. to give it elasticity, or the ability to resist high concentration gradient of tanning agent for subsequent namanga tanning - fatliquoring.

To justify such parameters as duration of aging skins after pickling and concentration of primers were experimental treatment fur sheepskin five options:

1) the duration of the aging - 18 hours, the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution of 7 g/l, counting on the oxide.

2) Duration of aging 20 hours, the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution 9 g/l, counting on the oxide.

3) duration of the aging 22 hours, the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution of 12 g/l, counting on the oxide.

4) Duration of aging for 24 hours, the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution of 18 g/l counting on the oxide.

5) duration of the aging - 26 hours, the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution is 20 g/l, counting on the oxide.

The results of the experimental treatment are presented in table 2.

Table 2
IndexOption 1Option 2Option 3Option 4Option 5
The temperature of the weld point, C8886848484
The moisture content, %2,62,812,813,213,3
The content of chromium oxide %6,76,76,76,76,7
The content of unbound fatty substances, %20,118,618,0the 17.3the 17.3
Ultimate tensile strength, MPathe 17.319,219,720,220,3
Outline the s at a load of 4.9 MPa of 31.435,536,136,736,6

From table 2 it is seen that the highest quality criteria are indicators of options No. 2-5. If option # 5 not further improve quality indicators skins. Proceeding from this, we selected the optimal process parameters: the concentration of the tanning agent in the primer solution 9-18 g/l (counting on the oxide chromium (III) and the duration of aging 20-24 hours in Almost all samples are softness, elasticity and expressed pulled up, compared with samples processed by analog and prototype.

Thus, it is revealed distinctive features of the proposed method give the achievement of the technical result consists in the improvement of the organoleptic characteristics of furs, increase tensile strength while stretching the leather.

The inventive method is as follows.

Spend pickling furs in accordance with standard methods. Followed by Stoke-aging. Then the leather fur is treated with a primer solution.

The primer solution is prepared as follows. First prepare the General (basic) solution: to 500 g of chrome tanning agent basicity of 33% add Aut 200 ml of 70%acetic acid, add 800 ml of hot water and heat the solution to dissolve the tanning agent. Acid (or mixture of acids) take the same, and that while conducting pickling. The basicity of the tanning agent 20-25%. Then, the solution can withstand the day for "ripening". If the water has evaporated a lot in the process of preparation of the solution, the solution volume was adjusted to one liter.

To prepare the solution of the soil taken 50-100 ml of the initial solution (depending on the thickness of the skins)add 950-900 ml of water, 50 g of sodium chloride and 5 ml of nonionic surfactants. The solution is stirred to dissolve the salt, soak 12-24 hours at 25C. the soil is ready. The concentration of chrome tanning agent in the primer solution is 9-18 g/l, counting on the chromium oxide-III. Remnants of the original solution used for the preparation of the emulsion for namanga tanning-fatliquoring.

The primer solution is applied to motormania side of the skin with a brush made of natural hair. Consumption of soil 300-350 ml of 1 m2. After that, the skins are placed on the hides are within 20-24 hours After aging should the main smearing skins emulsion for namanga tanning-fatliquoring. Next, the skins are placed again on the aging. Further operations are conducted on standard technology.

The inventive method is illustrated by examples of specific performance.

Example 1.

The sheepskin fur.

The peak is levania: salt - 50 g/l, acetic acid 10 g/l, the process duration is 12 hours.

Stoke-aging - 20 hours at a temperature of 20C.

Priming: priming solution smear with motormania side of the skin with a brush made of natural hair. Consumption primer solution of 300 ml/m2. The composition of primers: chrome tanning agent 9 g/l, counting on the oxide of chromium III, salt - 50 g/l of nonionic surfactants 5 ml/L. Then the skins left on aging for 20 hours followed by smearing emulsion for namanga tanning-fatliquoring prototype-based aging.

Example 2.

The sheepskin fur.

Pickling salt - 50 g/l of formic acid and 12 g/l, duration - 16 hours.

Stoke-aging 24 hours at a temperature of 20C.

Priming: priming solution is applied with motormania side of the skin with a brush made of natural hair. Consumption primer solution of 300 ml/m Composition of primers: chrome tanning agent 15 g/l, counting on the oxide of chromium III, salt - 50 g/l of nonionic surfactants - 5 ml/l When preparing a basic solution, add 180 ml of formic acid. Then the skins left on aging for 24 hours followed by smearing emulsion for namanga tanning-fatliquoring prototype-based aging.

Example 3.

Kamus (paws large deer).

Pickling salt - 50 g/l of formic acid and 12 g/l, duration - 16 hours.

Stoke-p is Olezhka - 24 hours at 20C.

Priming: priming solution is applied with motormania side of the skin with a brush made of natural hair. Consumption of primers 350 ml/m2. The composition of primers: chrome tanning agent 18 g/l, counting on the oxide of chromium III, salt - 50 g/l of nonionic surfactants - 5 ml/l When preparing a basic solution, add 200 ml of formic acid. Then the skins left on aging for 24 hours followed by smearing emulsion for namanga tanning-fatliquoring prototype-based aging.

The way namanga tanning-fatliquoring furs, including pickling, the main namazee tanning-greasing, aging, characterized in that after pickling skins leave to drain the hides, and then the leather fur is treated with a primer solution containing chromium tanning agent concentration 9-18 g/l, counting on the chromium oxide, after which the skins left on aging within 20-24 hours



 

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