Method to manufacture natural leather

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: all layers of undercoat and finish paint are applied on leather subjected, prior to drum painting, to low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma of high-frequency discharge. Exposure is performed for 241 to 280 seconds in discharge chamber at 26.7 to 30.0 Pa, flow rate of plasma-forming argon making 0.041 to 0.06 g/s at discharge power of 0.7 to 2 kW.

EFFECT: increased depth of paint penetration, improved quality of ready leather.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the leather industry and can be used for the dressing of leather.

There is a method of finishing leather (patent 2127763, SS 9/00, 11/00, VS 59/14, the authors Abdullin IS, Abutalipov L.N., Makhotkin LU).

There is a method of finishing (ASU No. 969732 (034291), MCL3SS 11/00, the authors AMV, Vyalkova, Yes, Weetamoo, Vpoly and others).

A known method of manufacturing of leather or fur skins (patent No. 795502, MCL3SS 1/00, SS 3/00, SS 9/00, author Hans-Dieter Graf, Germany).

The prototype is the way to develop natural leather (the technique of making leather chrome tanning of different thicknesses and range for the uppers, ZNIIK, M., 1991), which is carried out by applying non-pigmented soil, pressing with a hydraulic press, and then applied three coats of finishing paint and hardener, the skin is pressed and dried.

The disadvantage is the small penetration depth of the paint, low adhesion, hygienic, aesthetic and physical - mechanical properties of the finished leather.

The task of the invention is to increase the depth of dye penetration, an increase in the adhesion hygienic, aesthetic and physical-mechanical properties of the finished leather.

This object is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing of leather, including serial Nan is giving all layers of primer and finishing paint on the skin, according to the invention the skin, before the process drum dyeing and after this process, is exposed to low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma of high-frequency discharge within 241-280, when the pressure in the discharge chamber 26,7-30,0 PA, with a flow rate of plasma gas argon 0,041-0.06 g/s, with power discharge 0.7 to 2 kW.

When processing leather, introduced in nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma, charged negatively relative to the plasma. The negative surface charge creates a potential barrier that prevents contact with the surface electrons, the energy of which is less than the barrier. As a consequence, near the skin surface is formed of a double layer, in which the broken condition quasineutrality. Double layer at the surface of the body is formed under all conditions of generation of plasma. In addition, the oscillations of the electron gas is relatively low mobility of ions in ostsilliruyuschimi electric field in a non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma of low pressure at the surface of the sample forms a layer of positive charge with a thickness of ~ 10-3m Ions of the plasma is accelerated in an electric field SDR gain additional energy up to 100 eV and shape the flow of ion current density of 0.3-0.9 a/m2.

Ions in the plasma bombard the surface of the material and interact with the atoms m is the molecules of collagen, lying in the surface layer of material. The energy of ions arriving at the surface, enough to break ties in the supramolecular structure of collagen, which leads to the emergence of free energy and conformational changes of molecules.

The main processes responsible for surface modification of capillary-porous material in a non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma of low pressure are bombarded by ions with energies up to 100 eV, the recombination of ions on the surface and thermal effect.

The influence of non-equilibrium low-temperature plasma of low pressure on natural leather is integrated: occurs simultaneously, the surface treatment material and the inner surface of the pores and capillaries. The interaction of charged particle fluxes arriving at the external surface of the plasma, and the inner volume of the pores and capillaries in the breakdown of the latter, leads to the splitting of the fibers of the dermis, the seal structure, the angle between the structural elements and okristallizovannymi amorphous phase, which is confirmed by electron microscopy and x-ray spectra.

The most dramatic change in the skin structure observed after treatment by low-temperature plasma: weaken and break intermolecular bonds, increasing the it restructuring in accordance with the deformation of the fiber, there are links in the new position of molecules in the material, i.e. the deformation patterns of the fibers in the new position is fixed, which leads to improvement of the quality of the skin.

The method is carried out on plasma installation of HF, which is created based on the industrial installation VCI 11-60/13.56MHz.

Installation (see drawing) includes a gas supply system (1), vacuum chamber (2), the electrodes (3), the pumping system (4), the vacuum unit (5), the discharge chamber (6), cooling system (7), high frequency (HF) generator (8), vacuum piping (9).

The method is as follows.

In a vacuum chamber (2) the workpiece is placed in the gap between parallel vertically spaced electrodes (3) along the flow of plasma gas. Produce the pumping of air from the vacuum chamber (2). In a vacuum chamber (2) putting the working gas. Adjustment of the valve connecting the vacuum chamber (2) to the pumping system (4), establish the set pressure. When applying to the electrodes (3) the RF voltage in a discharge chamber (6) by heating of the plasma gas to a plasma to form a plasma stream - processing tool.

Under the action of electromagnetic fields is heated plasma gas argon to the state of plasma deposited power into the plasma 0.7 to 2 kW. Working pressure in the vacuum unit 26,7-30,0 PA, the exposure time in soccertots plasma 241-280 C.

Were tested in industrial conditions in a Shoe factory JSC "Spartak" Moscow, JSC "ZEIK", Moscow. The tests were performed on the following equipment: breaking machine type RT-250 No. 1495 on HOST-69. Test methods: GOST 939-88 Skin. The method of determining the adhesion of emulsion and microemulsion the coating to the skin, the stability of the coating on the skin to repeated bending is determined according to GOST 138-68, GOST 938.22-71 "Skin. The method of determining vodopronitsaemosti and permeability in dynamic conditions".

The research results of the proposed method of processing workpieces are shown in table 1.

The advantage of this method compared with the prototype is to increase the depth of dye penetration, increase adhesion, hygienic, aesthetic and physical-mechanical properties of the finished leather.

The way of dressing of leather, including the consistent application of all layers of primer and finishing paint on the skin, wherein the skin before the process drum dyeing and after this process is exposed to low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma of high-frequency discharge within 241-280, when the pressure in the discharge chamber 26,7-30,0 PA with a flow rate of plasma gas is argon 0,041-0.06 g/s, with power discharge 0.7 to 2 kW.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises eliminating defects representing damages sports (3) in layers (2) formed by recesses in skin (1) with natural grain patter. These defects are eliminated as follows, i.e. water or slightly foamed plastic suspension is forced into aforesaid recesses, the said suspension containing ultimate solid particles. Then skin (1) is dried, surface (4) of the layer of grain pattern (2) is subjected to pressure and thermal treatment with the help of pressure roller at least 100C. Note here that plastic mass is formed in aforesaid recesses that contains hollow tiny balloons (5) made up of solid particles to completely fill the said recesses (dwg. 1).

EFFECT: higher quality.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method, which is suitable for finishing chrome leathers, comprises consecutively applying coating layers followed by action with low-temperature plasma at generator lamp anodic current intensity 0.2-0.6 A. Action of low-temperature plasma is effected for 180-240 sec at pressure 13.3-26.6 Pa in discharge chamber and consumption of plasma-forming gas (argon) 0.035-0.04 g/sec. Method is implemented on high-frequency plasma installation.

EFFECT: increased adhesion of coating to dry and wet leather, dye penetration depth, resistance to repetitive bends, and strength at better quality of leather.

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wax emulsions used in coating pain composition designed for finishing genuine leathers and provides a wax emulsion component, which represents polyvinylacetate dispersion containing non-plasticized polyvinylacetate in amount at least 45 wt %, content of polyvinylacetate dispersion in wax emulsion ranging from 40 to 80%. Proposed component when used in wax emulsion allows leather coatings to be obtained manifesting good organoleptic properties, high temperature resistance, low tackiness, and agreeable leather to the touch at moderate cost of wax emulsion.

EFFECT: improved consumer's quality and enlarged resource of wax emulsion components.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: preparation of composition is conducted on vertical-type bead mill. Induline, kerosene, and diesel fuel are consecutively charged into mill before stirring mechanism is energized, after which apparatus and contents thereof are slowly heated. Stirring is then stopped for 1 h while slow heating of mill contents is continued. When specified time expires, carboxylic acid or acid mixture, white spirit, fat additive, and aluminum oxide or hydroxide are added. Mechanic stirring is then switched on and contents of the bead mill are ground and the process is carried out at spontaneously fixed temperature caused by heat effects of the processes and natural cooling. When temperature is lowered to 85-120°C, desired product is discharged.

EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.

1 tbl, 19 ex

FIELD: light industry; methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article is intended for usage in light industry at forming volumetric and curvilinear details for articles made out of a leather, predominantly - clothing. The method consists that on the surface of the flesh side of hide of the flat component of the article made out of leather deposit the polymeric composition containing the following elements (in mass %): - polyvinyl acetate homopolymeric coarse-dispersed plasticized dispersion - 20-35; - dibutyl phthalate (DPHT) - 1.5-15; - water - the rest. The composition may be deposited in the form of a net on in advance prepared templates. After that the component of the article is dried at an indoor temperature. Then the component of the article is formed, for example, by hot pressing at 70-90°C during 1.5-2.0 minutes. And fix the gained form by chilling. The invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

4 cl

FIELD: tanning industry.

SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.

1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to finishing of various-destination leathers made from various types of raw skins and consists in consecutively applying layers of soaking ground, covering paint, and fixing agent. After applying each layer, leather is dried for 5 to 50 sec in microwave fields at field intensity 10000-15000 v/m and power 300-3500 W.

EFFECT: expanded technological possibilities and improved quality of coating.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: powdered thermoplastic polyurethane with reduced melting point is applied on fur article parts in most wear place, said polyurethane being prepared from 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate, poly(butylene glycol adipate) and 1,4-butanediol serving as chain extension agent. Thus treated part is then pressed at 64-75°C and remained to lie.

EFFECT: improved quality of fur articles due to increased hair-to-skin tissue binding strength, resistance of hair coat against wear, and increased lifetime of clothes.

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: semifinished product is degreased, neutralized, dyed, and lubricated. Dyeing is performed in two washing-interrupted steps with anionic black dye consumed in amount 0.5-0.6% of the weight of semifinished product in each dyeing step. Lubrication is followed by retannage with chrome tanner in amount 0.6-1.0% of the weight of semifinished product (calculated for chromium oxide) and treatment with 0.8-1.0% of spindle oil.

EFFECT: achieved deep black color and high performance characteristics.

1 tbl, 5 ex

The invention relates to the technology of black ink compositions on the basis of indoline and soot, which is an intermediate in the production of pigmented oiling compositions, and can be used in leather industry

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: semifinished product is degreased, neutralized, dyed, and lubricated. Dyeing is performed in two washing-interrupted steps with anionic black dye consumed in amount 0.5-0.6% of the weight of semifinished product in each dyeing step. Lubrication is followed by retannage with chrome tanner in amount 0.6-1.0% of the weight of semifinished product (calculated for chromium oxide) and treatment with 0.8-1.0% of spindle oil.

EFFECT: achieved deep black color and high performance characteristics.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: light industry.

SUBSTANCE: powdered thermoplastic polyurethane with reduced melting point is applied on fur article parts in most wear place, said polyurethane being prepared from 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate, poly(butylene glycol adipate) and 1,4-butanediol serving as chain extension agent. Thus treated part is then pressed at 64-75°C and remained to lie.

EFFECT: improved quality of fur articles due to increased hair-to-skin tissue binding strength, resistance of hair coat against wear, and increased lifetime of clothes.

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to finishing of various-destination leathers made from various types of raw skins and consists in consecutively applying layers of soaking ground, covering paint, and fixing agent. After applying each layer, leather is dried for 5 to 50 sec in microwave fields at field intensity 10000-15000 v/m and power 300-3500 W.

EFFECT: expanded technological possibilities and improved quality of coating.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: tanning industry.

SUBSTANCE: process is conducted in vertical mill to which soot, induline, kerosene and diesel fuel are introduced. Then components are mixed and slow heating the apparatus and its content is started after which mixing is switched off and slow heating of mill content is continued. Upon expiration of said time, acids or their compositions, white spirit and fatty additive are introduced and chemical mass-exchange process is performed at spontaneously fixed temperature due to thermal effects of this process and natural cooling at the beginning and at the end, as well as due to forced cooling at intermediate stage characterized by high rates of temperature at maximum of 140-150°C. At the moment when forced cooling is discontinued, 0.5-1.5 h before discontinuation of mixing and beginning of withdrawal at temperature of 80-115°C, 43-52-% solution of aluminum salts and C10-C20 of carboxylic acids is introduced into product being prepared.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.

1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: light industry; methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of light industry, in particular, to the methods of forming of volumetric and curvilinear details for an article is intended for usage in light industry at forming volumetric and curvilinear details for articles made out of a leather, predominantly - clothing. The method consists that on the surface of the flesh side of hide of the flat component of the article made out of leather deposit the polymeric composition containing the following elements (in mass %): - polyvinyl acetate homopolymeric coarse-dispersed plasticized dispersion - 20-35; - dibutyl phthalate (DPHT) - 1.5-15; - water - the rest. The composition may be deposited in the form of a net on in advance prepared templates. After that the component of the article is dried at an indoor temperature. Then the component of the article is formed, for example, by hot pressing at 70-90°C during 1.5-2.0 minutes. And fix the gained form by chilling. The invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of quality of the articles made out of leather due to increased the form stability of components of the article.

4 cl

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: preparation of composition is conducted on vertical-type bead mill. Induline, kerosene, and diesel fuel are consecutively charged into mill before stirring mechanism is energized, after which apparatus and contents thereof are slowly heated. Stirring is then stopped for 1 h while slow heating of mill contents is continued. When specified time expires, carboxylic acid or acid mixture, white spirit, fat additive, and aluminum oxide or hydroxide are added. Mechanic stirring is then switched on and contents of the bead mill are ground and the process is carried out at spontaneously fixed temperature caused by heat effects of the processes and natural cooling. When temperature is lowered to 85-120°C, desired product is discharged.

EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.

1 tbl, 19 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wax emulsions used in coating pain composition designed for finishing genuine leathers and provides a wax emulsion component, which represents polyvinylacetate dispersion containing non-plasticized polyvinylacetate in amount at least 45 wt %, content of polyvinylacetate dispersion in wax emulsion ranging from 40 to 80%. Proposed component when used in wax emulsion allows leather coatings to be obtained manifesting good organoleptic properties, high temperature resistance, low tackiness, and agreeable leather to the touch at moderate cost of wax emulsion.

EFFECT: improved consumer's quality and enlarged resource of wax emulsion components.

1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: leather industry.

SUBSTANCE: method, which is suitable for finishing chrome leathers, comprises consecutively applying coating layers followed by action with low-temperature plasma at generator lamp anodic current intensity 0.2-0.6 A. Action of low-temperature plasma is effected for 180-240 sec at pressure 13.3-26.6 Pa in discharge chamber and consumption of plasma-forming gas (argon) 0.035-0.04 g/sec. Method is implemented on high-frequency plasma installation.

EFFECT: increased adhesion of coating to dry and wet leather, dye penetration depth, resistance to repetitive bends, and strength at better quality of leather.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises eliminating defects representing damages sports (3) in layers (2) formed by recesses in skin (1) with natural grain patter. These defects are eliminated as follows, i.e. water or slightly foamed plastic suspension is forced into aforesaid recesses, the said suspension containing ultimate solid particles. Then skin (1) is dried, surface (4) of the layer of grain pattern (2) is subjected to pressure and thermal treatment with the help of pressure roller at least 100C. Note here that plastic mass is formed in aforesaid recesses that contains hollow tiny balloons (5) made up of solid particles to completely fill the said recesses (dwg. 1).

EFFECT: higher quality.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: all layers of undercoat and finish paint are applied on leather subjected, prior to drum painting, to low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma of high-frequency discharge. Exposure is performed for 241 to 280 seconds in discharge chamber at 26.7 to 30.0 Pa, flow rate of plasma-forming argon making 0.041 to 0.06 g/s at discharge power of 0.7 to 2 kW.

EFFECT: increased depth of paint penetration, improved quality of ready leather.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

Up!