Optical illumination apparatus and method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for detecting luminescence in a sample includes an optical system for illuminating a sample with a linear beam, having a light source (24), having an asymmetric intensity distribution, a beam shaper (30) which transforms the light beam from the light source into an intermediate astigmatic image, and an image forming system (L1, 26) for transforming the intermediate astigmatic image into a final astigmatic image. The beam shaper is arranged such that the beam at the output of the optical system is focused into a linear beam. The beam shaper (30) provides non-identical magnification in the lateral plane and in the transversal plane and comprises a toroidal input surface and a toroidal output surface, each having a finite radius of curvature and capable of making intensity distribution in the cone of light emitted by the light source more symmetrical.

EFFECT: reduced dimensions, high reliability of the device and simple design.

12 cl, 7 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to an optical system and method for illumination of the sample and the detecting device, which includes an illumination system and method of detecting includes the way of lighting. The optical illumination system and the detection applicable to systems and methods of detecting fluorescence for analysis.

Prior inventions

Detection of fluorescence is used, for example, in testing of nucleic acids (NAT). This is the main element of molecular diagnostics for detection of genetic predispositions to disease, to determine the levels of expression of RNA or the identification of pathogens, e.g. bacteria and viruses that cause infectious diseases.

In many cases, in particular, for the identification of pathogens, the number of target DNA present in a reasonable amount of sample is very small, which does not allow to detect it directly. To obtain the recorded amounts of the target material, methods of amplification. Different methods of amplification have been proposed and used in everyday practice. The most common methods are based on the so-called polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Amplification involves the denaturation of the double helix of DNA at high temperatures (usually is about > 90 degrees Celsius), specific binding of the primers with the DNA sample at low temperature (about 65 degrees) and a copy of the original sequence, starting with the position of the primer (at approximately 70 degrees). This procedure is repeated, and in each cycle the amount of DNA with a specific sequence is doubled (for 100% efficiency).

After amplification, the presence of the target DNA is detected by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled amplified DNA, for example, after electrophoretic separation in capillary or after hybridization with the so-called capture probes, which are superimposed spots on the surface, which carries the product of amplification.

This invention relates to a device used to provide illumination of the sample and how it is used.

The standard method of detecting fluorescence is to use a scanning confocal microscope. Usually, small (<1 μm), the spot of a diffraction limit is used for fluorescence excitation in the focal plane. In the detecting portion of the system is detected only light obtained from this single point of excitation.

Previously it was assumed that simultaneous excitation of multiple spots or a line allows led the s scanning speed, without noticeable damage to confocally detecting system. For detection of the fluorescent radiation can be used pixelenemy detector.

To generate the excitation beam with confocal line scanning, it was proposed to modify the optical device to produce scanning of the focused spot by adding optical element, for example, cylindrical lenses, which adds a so-called astigmatism. If the cross-section of the beam is set as the XY plane, each ray in the beam can be expressed by the coordinates (x, y). The beam is astigmatic, if the rays on the x-axis, with coordinates (x, 0), have a different focus than the rays on the y-axis, with coordinates (0, y).

The invention

Creating astigmatism with an additional component, for example, cylindrical lens, increases the complexity and cost of the above solutions. The task of this invention is to combine multiple functions in a single optical element to provide a better solution.

The invention is defined by the independent claims. The dependent claims define the predominant options for implementation.

According to the first aspect of the invention provides an optical system for illumination of a sample of the linear beam.

The invention allow the us to use an existing device forming beam, usually used for giving light output over a circular cross-section, together with a system of forming an image, which illuminates the sample, to control or analysis of the sample linear beam.

The optical system preferably includes a means for scanning the sample with a linear beam. Thus, the invention allows to create a much smaller and more compact scanning system with linear lighting based on the re-use of standard optical components of the storage device in the optical system.

This more compact optical system can significantly reduce the optical path on the basis of confocal optics and optical path used in the system CD or DVD, making the minimum number of changes to the standard optical path DVD. It provides a solution that can be easily implemented on existing DVD production lines.

The ratio of the length of one of the focal lines of the final astigmatic image to the distance between the beam shaper and the position of the beam shaper for which the astigmatic distance of the intermediate image are equal to zero, preferably, is defined as:

where n is the refractive index of the medium sample, NA is the output of the th numerical aperture of the image, M increase of the images, and Mxand Mythe first and the second increase of the beam shaper for the two focal lines of the intermediate image.

The final astigmatic image preferably contains a linear focus, as explained above. Line width can be limited by light diffraction, therefore there confocal system imaging. For example, the system may contain a confocal microscope based on absorption, reflection luminescence or combinations thereof. The light source may include a laser diode, but within the scope of the invention, it is possible to use any other light source, for example, an led, etc.

According to the second aspect of the invention, provided with a detector device comprising an illumination system that meets the invention, and the detecting system. In one embodiment, the detecting device is separated from the lighting system. Thus, the detection system and the lighting system may be located on opposite sides of the sample/substrate and can use separate optical elements and components. The advantage of this configuration is that you can use both sides of the substrate for optical access to the sample in the substrate.

Another is the version of the implementation, lighting system and collects the construction of the detecting device can share the exciting/collecting lens, and the detector may include a lens forming an image, which is focused on the surface of the detection. This provides a compact detection device, which advantages over others due to the advantages of the lighting system. It may be safer and cheaper because there are fewer parts and less complex structures.

According to a third aspect of the invention, a method of lighting for illumination of the sample by a linear beam. The method allows for linear lighting using simple optics CDS and DVDs, as described above.

According to a fourth aspect of the invention provides a method of detection using the method of lighting that meets the invention, together with the method of detection according to which light emitted by the sample and generated a linear beam is collected and detected. Thus, according to this method of detection, a linear beam is used to illuminate the sample at which the light beam interacts with the sample. After interaction with this illuminating light generated by the light coming from the sample and emitted by the sample is collected and detected. The term 'gene is eremy light' means a light beam, which remains after absorption or scattering part of the light beam of the analyzed sample, i.e., the interaction here refers to the absorption or scattering of light by the sample. This remaining light to be collected, it is possible to collect and record using a transmissive or reflective optical device known in the art. Thus, in this case, the method of detecting includes measuring, for example, absorption, using linear lighting. In addition, the term 'generated light' implies the luminescence, which is a General term covering fluorescence and phosphorescence. In the latter case, the method of detecting includes measuring light resulting from excitation of the sample by a linear beam.

The method may include scanning the substrate or pattern.

Brief description of drawings

Examples of the invention are described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig.1 - known fluorescent scanner on the basis of an optical system of a DVD;

figure 2 is a detailed diagram of a known optical CD/DVD;

figure 3 is a first example of a confocal scanner that uses an optical scanning device that meets the invention;

4 is a second example of a confocal scanner, in which use is facilitated by the optical scanning device, conforming to the invention; and

figa-5s - for more examples of the optical scanning device conforming to the invention.

Detailed description of embodiments

The invention relates to an optical system for illumination of a sample of the linear beam. The beam shaper converts the light beam emitted by the light source, intermediate astigmatic image and the system image formation converts the intermediate astigmatic image in the final astigmatic image and illuminates the sample. The beam shaper provides nontrivial increase in the lateral plane and in the transversal plane, and contains a toroidal input toroidal surface and the output surface, each of which has a finite radius of curvature.

Known methods and devices for detection of fluorophores in the device by excitation of fluorophores by light radiation through the objective lens and collecting fluorescent radiation, for example, through the same lens in the reflective mode. The fluorescent radiation is projected onto the sensor after passing through the filtering device, selects the desired wavelength range. The lens is controlled to move in three directions using various means of the actuator, to provide scanning of the Finance of the investigated sample. Commonly used confocal forming device of the image.

Figure 1 shows the main components of a known fluorescent scanner optical system DVD. The sample is enclosed in this volume in the substrate 20.

The light generated by the light source 24, for example, a laser is used for excitation of fluorescence. Light collyriums collimating lens L1 and then focused onto the sample by exciting the lens 26.

The lens 26 can move relative to the sample, preferably in all three dimensions. This relative motion can be arbitrarily decomposing into components, for example, the sample can be moved in the XY plane, and the lens in the z-direction. Alternatively, the sample can be fixed, and the lens can have all three degrees of freedom (x-y-z). Possible any other design.

Laser light is reflected by a polarizing beam divider 21, i.e. the reflector, depending on the polarization, and passes through the quarter wave plate 22 and the first band-pass filter 23.

The dichroic beam divider 25, i.e. the reflector, depending on the wavelength, directs laser light for exciting the lens 26.

Fluorescence induced as a result of focusing the excitation light on the sample, is collected by the collecting lens, which in this example is the same what omponents, what and exciting lens 26, and is directed to the detector 28.

Any reflected laser light that has not experienced acquisitions, again reflected by the beam divider 25, while the fluorescent radiation passes through the beam divider 25. The second band-pass filter 27 provides additional filtering, and the light is then focused onto a detector 28 lens L2 forming the image, which displays the sample to the detector 28.

You can use many different types of detector, for example, photomultiplier tube, an avalanche photodetector, the detector is a CCD or a photodiode detector. It is preferable to use a detector, which provides spatial resolution, for example, pixelenemy detector. This allows linear registration and eliminates the need to scan detector illuminated region of the linear beam.

For confocal imaging, the amount of excitation should be kept to a minimum, ideally, should be a spot of a diffraction limit, which can create exciting lens 26. Typical confocal volume is of the order of cubic microns, depending on the strength (numerical aperture, NA) exciting lens 26. Fluorescent radiation generated in this volume, is going collecting lens and displayed on the detector. According confocal is th way the focal point of the confocal point on the path detection. At this point on the path detection point is usually located aperture, allowing you to filter out any light that is not coming from the focal point.

The light passing through the dot aperture is directed to the detector. The detector itself can play the role of point of the diaphragm, with the limitation that the transverse size of the detector should be the same size as the focal point, multiplied by the length of the focus of the collecting lens 26 and divided by the length of the focus lens L2 forming the image.

This confocal mode most suitable to study the surface immobilization of the sample, the resulting myexperiment endpoint. The surface is scanned for the analysis of the whole sample.

The lateral dimensions of the detector is chosen based on the fields collecting lens 26 and the lens L2 forming the image.

The control unit 29 focuses the lens on the inner surface of the analytical device; a surface of the substrate 20, which is in contact with the analyte, while scanning the surface. The focus of the objective lens can also be intentionally offset.

The invention can be implemented in the form of a modification of the system shown in Fig. 1, which is adapted to provide excitation beam in the form of confocal the second line, not the confocal spot. Preferred examples of the invention, again, based on the standard optics of the DVD (or DVD/CD).

In a preferred example of the invention, the standard beam shaper is used at the output of the laser source, and is typically used to make the intensity distribution in the cone of light emitted by the laser is more symmetrical. However, in a system that meets the invention, the beam shaper is located differently relative to the laser to generate the necessary amount of astigmatism. This can be used to form a narrow line of the diffraction limit in the focus of the collecting lens 26 instead of the usual round spot of diffraction limit.

The use of traditional beam shaper allows you to apply the optical system based on the optics of the standard play/record CD/DVD. Known optical system is shown schematically in figure 2, with components corresponding shown in figure 1, uses the same legend.

For reader DVD uses a red laser diode 24. The angular distribution of the intensity of the emitted cone of light is very asymmetrically; the angular width in one direction orthogonal to the optical axis in two to three times greater than the width in the direction orthogonal to the optical axis. This asymmetry is compensated by the driver 30 of the beam.

Shaper beam 30 has an input surface, an output surface, located opposite each other, and an optical axis coinciding with the Z axis of a three-dimensional rectangular coordinate system XYZ. Shaper 30 beam is designed to convert beam having the first relationship between the first angular aperture in the YZ plane of the coordinate system, and a second, smaller angular aperture in the XZ-plane, the beam having a second, lesser relationship between the angular aperture, and this element provides the angular increase in these two planes.

Thus, the beam shaper is designed to convert elliptical laser output in a more uniform round exit.

The beam shaper used in the system, responsive to the invention, preferably, provides the angular magnification in the lateral plane and the angular reduction in the transversal plane.

The difference between the angular magnification provided by the driver 30 of the beam in the transversal plane with one hand and in the lateral plane on the other hand, is almost completely provided by the input surface, which changes the divergence of the beam, as in the transversal plane and the lateral plane. If formirovanie the beam is in an environment that having a refractive index of n1and if the refractive index of the material of this element is equal to n2then the angular reduction in the transversal plane is equal to n1/n2and the angular magnification in the lateral plane is equal to n2/n1and the power of beam approximately equal to (n1/n2)2.

Since the two imaginary image generated by the input surface, are in different positions along the Z-axis, the output surface should be slightly toroidal shape to combine these images into one image. The radius of curvature in the XZ-plane is larger than in the YZ plane. The toroidal shape means that the radius of curvature of the surface in the lateral plane other than in the transversal plane.

In the center of the input surface is provided, essentially cylindrical section, the cylindrical axis parallel to the Y-axis and makes an angle a decrease in the YZ plane and the angular magnification in the plane XZ. The power of the beam shaping is now determined by two components, i.e. the angular increase of n2/n1in the lateral plane and the angular reduction of n1/n2in the transversal plane. Each of these components can be implemented with less stringent tolerances than those that apply to the driver of the beam in which the beam done what is just in one of those planes.

Variant of the beam shaper described in more detail in US 5467335, which is included here by reference.

Diffraction grating 32 is located on the trajectory of the beam to generate spots satellites.

A polarizing beam divider 21 reflects light, and a collimating lens L1 is used to form a collimated beam. He reflected folding mirror 34, a quarter-wave plate 22 converts linearly polarized light into light with circular polarization, and this light is then focused by lens 26 to the data layer in the substrate 20. Of course, for the optical system used in the medical diagnostic device, the data layer is the surface on which the immobilization of capture probes.

Then the light is reflected and collected by the same collecting lens 26. Then light again passes through the quarter wave plate 22, into linearly polarized light, the polarization direction of which is perpendicular to the original polarization. After passing through the folding mirror 34, the light is focused collimator lens L1.

Then the light passes through the polarizing beam divider 21. Then the light, for the most part, passes through the dichroic mirror 36. Servalina L2 imaging adds some astigmatism, which is used in conjunction with the detector 40, the focusing and tracking for the enerali signals erroneous focus to adjust and/or positioning of the focus and thus, providing feedback, for example, during scanning of the sample or substrate.

The optical path for the light CD is almost identical to the above described tract to DVD. For CD, the DVD laser is turned off, and the infrared laser diode 43, together with the beam shaper 44 provide illuminating light. Again, use a diffraction grating 42 for generating spots satellites. Light, for the most part, is reflected by the dichroic mirror 36 and then, for the most part, passes through the polarizing beam divider 21. Again, the light is focused on the data layer lens 26. The reflected light is again collected by lens 26. This light is again partially passes through the polarizing beam divider 21 and the dichroic beam divider 36 and returns to the detector 40, the focusing and tracking.

In one example of the invention, the trajectory of the beam is changed so that it becomes suitable for sensitive detection of fluorescence. As mentioned above, when there is a sufficiently powerful laser, it is advantageous to distribute the exciting light on a larger area to increase throughput and gain full program signal without compromising confocality. For this purpose, usually a round spot of diffraction limit can be extended in one direction, leaving the diffraction limit in the perpendicular voltage is the making.

This can be done by giving some type of astigmatism of the beam, a part of the lens 26.

The applicant has considered different ways of making such astigmatism, for example, by using a cylindrical lens or a phase plate. The phase plate can be used to provide a linear array of focal spots or a continuous line of light, and a cylindrical lens can be used to ensure a continuous line of illumination.

In one example of the invention, the above-described imaging unit 30 of the beam is moved along the optical axis. It does not require any special components. The position of the beam shaper is usually in advance precisely aligned during Assembly and is able to slide back and forth.

Thus, the invention provides for the offset of the driver beam optical scanning device in which the output beam is focused to a line, which can scan plane. We can say that the beam shaper system that meets the invention, converts the light beam emitted by the light source, intermediate astigmatic image, and then the system imaging, for example, the combination of a collimator lens and objective lens, converts the intermediate astigmatic image in the final astigmatic image.

Astigmatic the images (light-emitting points is defined as consisting of two focal lines, which are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the optical axis and which are spaced along the optical axis by a certain distance, the astigmatic distance. The sample is scanned one of the two focal lines in a direction essentially perpendicular to the line and the optical axis. The focal length of the lines is proportional to the astigmatic distance. If astigmatic length approaches zero, the focal lengths of the two lines will also approach zero, i.e. the line will be pulled together in one point.

To implement the above functions, beam shaping, beam shaper has a first refractive surface, the radii of curvature in which the first and second directions perpendicular to the optical axis, are substantially different, the second refractive surface, the radii of curvature in which the first and second directions perpendicular to the optical axis, are substantially different, the thickness and refractive index.

In General, there is in the first position of the driver beam relative to the light source for which the astigmatic distance of the intermediate image is zero. The beam shaper is positioned relative to the first position. In particular, the position of the driver beam relative to the light source moves relative to the first location is at a distance of Av, defined by the formula:

where L is the length of (one of) the focal lines of the final astigmatic image, NA - output numerical aperture of the image, n is the refractive index of the sample, and Mxand Mythe first and the second increase of the beam shaper, with respect to the two focal lines of the intermediate image.

The increase is defined as sinα/sinβ, where α and β - the largest angle of the rays in the system; α - angle of the input beam, and β is the angle of the output beam. Numerical aperture is defined as sinα for the input numerical aperture, and sinβ for the output numerical aperture. If the side of the object and/or image is in a medium with refractive index n, the numerical aperture is equal to n×sinα or n×sinβ, respectively.

In this configuration, the length of the focal line, which is used for scanning, can be adapted to the requirements of scanning, changing the position of the beam shaper. Thus, one optical design suitable for various types of scanning devices.

However, the movement of the imaging unit 30 of the beam to control the shape of the exciting beam leads to a defocusing. This may not lead to any problems. However, in any case, such a defocusing can be compensated, either by changing the position of the laser 2, or, in a preferred embodiment, by changing the optical thickness of the component that replaces the diffraction grating 32.

Figure 3 shows the optical path used in the first example system according to the invention, which is used for excitation and detection of fluorescence. Most of the components remain unchanged and are indicated by the same symbols. The beam shaper is the same that is commonly used, but it moves forward. Diffraction grating 32, generating spot satellites, replaced by a bandpass filter 50, which spectral cleans the laser light. The thickness of this filter can be used to fine tune the defocus introduced by the movement of the beam shaper.

By moving the imaging unit 30 of the beam of light after the collimator lens will have a fairly large astigmatism. In one direction the light beam parallel, whereas in the perpendicular direction a bit at odds. This leads to the formation of the linear focus after the objective lens 26.

On the sample surface is generated fluorescent radiation. This fluorescent light is collected by the objective lens 26 and partially passes through the polarizing beam divider 21. Dichroic mirror 36 reflects most of the fluorescent light detector 52 after PR is going through an additional filter 54 to rejectee remaining excitation light. The detector is preferably implemented in the form of pixelearning detector. The dichroic mirror may be the same as in figure 2, or you can use the other mirror is optimized to reflect the fluorescent radiation.

The reflected stimulating light still passes through the dichroic mirror 36. Modified servalina 56 is used to correct the most part previously made astigmatism. Residual astigmatism can be used in conjunction with (standard) quadrant detector 40 to generate signals wrong focus.

The direction of the line in the focal plane must be perpendicular to the direction of fast scanning. This can be achieved by rotation of the Assembly of the laser and the beam shaper or rotation only OPU relative to the axis of motion.

On the return path of the reflected light, the astigmatism in the beam is almost completely compensated by certainty 56. The remaining astigmatism is used in conjunction with standard quadrant detector 40 to generate signals wrong AF. The residual astigmatism of the light beam means that changing the focus position leads to a change in the relative proportion of light falling on different quadrants of the detector. From these signals it is possible to output the signal erroneous AF.

The second variant of realization of the device is as, meets the invention shown in figure 4. Use the same method of excitation, as figure 3, but the detector is moved to another position. By replacing the folding mirror 34 dichroic mirror 60, the fluorescent light can pass through this element. Behind the dichroic mirror, the light is filtered by the filter 62 and is then focused by the lens 64 to the detector 66.

This implementation requires more modifications of the optical path of the DVD described with reference to figure 2. However, the sensitivity of this method of implementation is higher than the version shown in figure 3, since the fluorescent light is not divided into two parts on the polarization beam divider 21. In addition, in this embodiment, it is possible to place the filter 62 in a parallel part of the beam. When using interference filters this will provide improved rejection of the exciting light, resulting in reduced background noise.

In standard OPU, the glue that usually fixes the beam shaper, you can simply delete that allows you to move the shaper beam to the laser and from him. System that meets the invention was tested and it was found that it provides the desired lengthening of the confocal excitation beam, simply by adjusting the relative positions of the driver beam and laser standard OPU.

Above it was about what isana two examples based adaptation optics DVD/CD. The invention is not limited to this approach. Figure 5 shows several embodiments based on other combinations of components that can be used to implement the present invention.

If you need only mode linear lighting, you can use the simplest form of implementation shown in figa. The designation of the components is the same as used in figure 3 and Fig. 4, and the system contains the driver 30 of the beam, the laser 24 and the lens 26. Linear lighting can be used not only in systems for detecting fluorescence, but also, for example, in scanning microscopes for measuring cell or pathological preparations.

For the system shown in fig.5b, is added to the AF system, which uses a polarizing beam divider 21 together with a quarter-wave plate 22 for separating incident and reflected light.

To combine linear lighting with fluorescence detection requires adding a dichroic mirror 34, which is shown in figs, together with the filters 50 and 62 to separate the excitation light from the fluorescence.

The invention provides a modification of the optical path in such a way that it becomes suitable for sensitive detection of fluorescence together with the regime of linear light is Oia. In a preferred implementation, the “standard” beam shaper moves to solve this problem. However, there are other ways of solving the same problem.

The following are two examples:

(i) the standard collimator shown in figure 4 as L1, it is possible to replace the special new component to implement the functions of beam, and thus to replace the imaging unit 30 of the beam.

(ii) the beam shaper can be replaced with a special new feature, which adds the desired astigmatism in the exciting beam. This can be done at the output of the laser diode, which itself may include a built-in shaper beam.

In the above example, the lens 26 is used for excitation light and fluorescent light, and it also can be used for signals for focusing and tracking. For the exciting light and the fluorescent light can be used separate lenses, for example, when not perpendicular directions lighting, or mode of transmission.

The invention is not limited to the examples described here. There are various modifications. Thus, for example, the invention is described with reference to the sample, which is fluorescent by fluorophores. However, the invention, in General, can be used in any device that will generate the optical signal. the thus, the it is possible to measure samples that absorb part of the linear illuminating beam, resulting in a remaining linear light beam is collected and provides evidence regarding the structure of the sample in relation to the presence, identity and/or concentration of one or more of its components or additives that facilitate the registration of components, for example, markers. Similarly, in the process of detection, you can use the reflection effect of the linear beam caused by the sample. Alternatively, the linear beam can act as a driving source for the excitation of one or more components of the sample or additives, which leads to the generation of fluorescent radiation, which you can collect and record. Here, under the luminescence we understand a generic term covering fluorescence and/or phosphorescence.

In General, the invention relates to the generation line for illumination of the sample. Line lighting provides the above-described advantage of the detecting device. The invention is of particular interest for linear scanning or confocal line scanning in speeding up the detection process. However, in some cases, scanning for coverage of the surface area may not be required. The invention in this case provides its own advantages.

The invention is generally applicable in the analysis of samples, where the samples to be investigated in the volume or on the surface. Thus, the invention can be used in analytical methods requiring line excitation. They also include the analysis of gaseous, liquid and/or solid samples.

Thus, the invention can be used for chemical analysis of samples, for example, to determine their composition, or can be used to control the environment or the progress of chemical, biochemical or biological processes. Increased scanning speed allows us to collect more data elements per unit of time, providing improved dynamic measurements.

Not limited to the area of bioanalysis, the preferred application of the invention relates to the field of molecular diagnostics based on the detection of, for example, nucleic acid after amplification, protein or other biochemical or biological entities. Other preferred applications include clinical diagnosis, in situ diagnostics, advanced biomolecular diagnostic studies and optical biosensors, particularly related to methods of detecting DNA in conjunction with the amplification, for example, PCR, q-PCR, etc. of the Invention can also be used as a linear scanner is La imaging of cells and/or tissues, for example, in pathological purposes. The invention can also be used for detection in immunoassay for the detection of proteins.

The above options for implementation are intended to illustrate but not to limit the invention, and specialists in the art may devise numerous alternative implementation, without going beyond the scope of the claims. In the claims, any symbols in parentheses are not to follow to be considered in the order of its limitations. The word “comprising” does not exclude the presence of elements or steps other than those mentioned in the claims. The use of the name element in the singular does not exclude the presence of a combination of such elements. In paragraph devices, which lists several tools, some of these tools can be implemented in the same piece of equipment. Only the fact that some of the measures mentioned in various dependent clauses, not to say that the combination of these measures cannot advantageously be used.

1. A detecting device for detecting luminescence in biological or mineral sample and the detecting device includes an optical system for illumination of a sample of a linear beam, and the optical system includes:
the light source (24), with AU metricname the intensity distribution;
the imaging unit (30) of the beam, which is positioned in such a way as to convert the light beam emitted by the light source, intermediate astigmatic image; and
system (L1, 26) forming the image to convert the intermediate astigmatic image in the final astigmatic image, and the position of the beam shaper is such that the beam output from the optical system is focused into a linear beam, and the system imaging is used to illuminate the sample (20),
moreover, the imaging unit (30) beam provides nontrivial increase in the lateral plane and in the transversal plane, and contains a toroidal input toroidal surface and the output surface, each of which has a finite radius of curvature, and the ability to make the intensity distribution in the cone of light emitted by the light source, more symmetrical.

2. The detecting device according to claim 1, in which the imaging unit (30) of the beam has an optical axis coinciding with the Z axis of a three-dimensional rectangular coordinate system XYZ, and configured for forming an asymmetric beam provided by the source (24)having a first relationship between a first angular aperture in the YZ plane, and a second, different angular apertures the XZ plane in the narrow line of the diffraction limit, having the angular magnification in the lateral plane and the angular reduction in the transversal plane.

3. The detecting device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the beam shaper includes a beam shaper optical reader CD/DVD.

4. The detecting device according to claim 1, in which the line width is equal to the diffraction limit.

5. The detecting device according to claim 1 or 2, in which the ratio of (a) the length of one of the focal lines of the final astigmatic image to (b) the distance between the beam shaper and the position of the beam shaper for which the astigmatic distance of the intermediate image are equal to zero, expressed in the form
NA(Mx2-My2)1-NA2/n2M2
where n is the refractive index of the medium sample, NA - output numerical aperture of the image, M is the magnification of the images, and Mxand Mythe first and the second increase of the beam shaper for the two focal lines of the intermediate image.

6. The detecting device according to claim 5, in cat the rum optical system further comprises a collimating lens (L1) and stimulating the lens (26) between the imaging unit (30) of the beam and the sample.

7. The detecting device according to any one of claims 1, 2, 6, optionally containing optical collecting structure (26) for collecting light emitted from the sample and generated a linear beam; and a detection system (40) for detecting the collected light.

8. The detecting device according to claim 7, further containing dichroic mirror (34) for separating light from the optical system of the light source and light emitted from a sample.

9. The detecting device according to claim 7, in which the system (26) imaging and optical collecting structure (26) share the exciting/collecting lens.

10. The detecting device of claim 8 or 9, in which the detection system (40) includes a lens (56) imaging, which is focused on the surface of the detection.

11. The detecting device according to any one of p or 9, in which light emitted from the sample and generated line bundle, contains fluorescent light.

12. The way lighting for illumination of biological or mineral sample linear beam and detecting luminescence in the sample containing phases in which
generate a beam of light using a light source (24), convert the light beam into an intermediate astigmatic image using the imaging unit (30) of the beam, which is within the with the ability to make the intensity distribution in the cone of light, emitted by the light source, more symmetrical, and the beam shaper positioned in such a way as to convert the light beam into an intermediate astigmatic image; and
convert astigmatic intermediate image into the final astigmatic image using the images; collecting light emitted by the sample and the generated light beam, and detects the collected light,
moreover, the imaging unit (30) beam provides nontrivial increase in the lateral plane and in the transversal plane, and contains a toroidal input toroidal surface and the output surface, each of which has a finite radius of curvature, and the position of the beam shaper is such that the beam output from the optical system is focused into a linear beam.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: objective lens has a housing, a drive for rotating the housing about an axis, an objective lens mounted on a stand on two bearings, and three lenses, the first of which a negative spherical fixed lens which expands a parallel laser beam entering the objective lens, a second lens and a third lens which are positive and cylindrical with mutually perpendicular edges which define dimensions of the oval laser spot focused on a substrate independent of each other. The second lens controls the value of the larger axis of the oval spot during operation and the third fixed lens defines the value of the smaller axis of the oval spot through preliminary setting of the distance from the objective lens to the substrate. The objective lens has two mini-motors. One mini-motor provides the spatial position of the larger axis of the oval laser spot at a tangent to outline of the cut component and the second mini-motor varies the length of that axis during processing by moving the second lens along the optical axis of the objective lens.

EFFECT: controlling the shape of the spot of focused laser beam during operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of varying neck diameter of an output laser beam at a fixed distance from the laser is realised by a device having a laser which emits a beam with neck diameter 2hp1 and a confocality parameter zk1, a two-component optical system which forms, in the initial position of components, an output neck with diameter 2hp20' at a distance L0 from the laser, each component of the optical system being capable of moving along an optical axis. Matched displacement of components is carried out along the optical axis according to the law s2(s1)=a·y(s1)-Δ0+s1, where: s1 and s2 are displacements of the first and second components of the optical system; a=f1'2/zk1; Δ0 is the distance between the rear focus F2 of the first component and the front focus F2 of the second component in the initial position. Parameter y is determined by solving the cubic equation a2(x2+1)y3+a[2axb(x2+1)]y2+[a(a2bx)+f2'2(x2+1)]y+xf2'2ab=0, where x=zp10s1zk1;b=zp20'+Δ0s1; zp10 is the position of the neck of the input beam relative the front focus F1 of the first component in the initial position; zp20' is the position of the output neck relative the rear focus F2' of the second component in the initial position; f1' and f2' are the back focal distances of the components.

EFFECT: enabling formation of a laser beam with a variable neck diameter at a fixed distance from the laser.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: collimating optical system has a lens and two rectangular prisms arranged in series on a beam path. The edges of the refracting dihedral angles of the prisms are directed perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor junction. The refracting angles of the prism are the same and are selected in the range of 20…42°, α is the angle of incidence of radiation beams on the prism and β is the refracting angles of the prism, selected based on the relationship: where n is the refraction index of the material of the prism. The focal distance of the lens F is selected based on the relationship where φ is the required radiation divergence; a|| is the size of the emitting region of the semiconductor laser in a plane which is parallel to the plane of the semiconductor junction.

EFFECT: reduced size of optical-electronic devices using semiconductor laser radiation while preserving quality.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: matching laser optical system is configured to ensure constancy of the size and position of the output waist during variation of the size of the input waist and comprises a laser, the beam of which, with a confocal parameter Zk, has an initial waist with radius varying in the range [hp,min; hp,max] with nominal value hp0, as well as an optical system consisting of first and second mobile components configured to form in the plane of the irradiated object, the output waist of the laser beam with constant size hp and at a constant distance L from the initial waist.

EFFECT: ensuring constant size and position of the output waist relative the initial waist.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of an initial converging laser beam and converting it to a beam with polarisation mode distributed on the aperture using a birefringent element, polarisation filtering of the beam with a polariser, adjustment of the spatial profile of intensity of the beam by rotating the birefringent element, or the polarisation vector of the initial converging beam, or polariser. The birefringent element is a birefringent plate lying between telescopic lenses and enables creation of a non-identical angle between the axis of the birefringent plane and the wave vector of an extraordinary ray for identical angles of deviation of the rays from the axis of the beam, which enables formation of a parabolic spatial profile of intensity after polarisation filtering, identical in one of the planes along the direction of propagation and all planes parallel to the said plane on the entire aperture of the beam.

EFFECT: formation of a laser beam with a parabolic spatial profile of intensity with controlled level of intensity of radiation at the centre of the parabola, as well as controlled position of the parabola on the aperture of the beam.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser beam source, a transmitting element in form of a tube placed on the path of beam and filled with air at atmospheric pressure, and a recording unit. On both ends of the tube there are optically transparent end caps which reduce uncertainty of the spatial coordinates of the axis of the beam at the output of the tube. The tube with end caps acts as a high-Q cavity resonator and under the effect of external broad-band (white) noise, a standing wave having natural frequency and overtones is initiated in the tube, under the effect of which equalisation of optical refraction coefficients of air inside the tube takes place.

EFFECT: maximum spatial localisation of the laser beam to enable its use as an extended coordinate axis.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system includes two channels, each of which consists of a collimating lens 1 and a refracting component 2, and a summation component 3, fitted behind refracting components 2 of both channels and having a surface with a polarisation coating. The channels are turned such that, the radiation polarisation planes of the lasers are mutually orthogonal and their optical axes intersect on the surface of the summation component with polarisation coating and coincide behind the summation component. The polarisation coating completely transmits radiation polarised in the plane of incidence on the given surface, and completely reflects radiation polarised in the perpendicular plane. Focal distances of the lenses, size of the illumination body in the semiconductor junction plane and angular divergence of the beam collimated by the lens are linked by expressions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: increased power density and uniformity of angular distribution of radiation intensity with minimum energy losses on components of the optical system and minimal overall dimensions.

9 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method aims at producing light homogenisation device comprising at least one substrate (1) that features at least one optically functional surface with large amount of lens elements (2) that, in their turn, feature systematic surface irregularities. At the first stage aforesaid lens elements (2) are formed in at least one optically functional surface of at least one substrate (1). At the second stage at least one substrate (1) is divided into at least two parts (3, 4). Then at least two aforesaid parts of substrate (1) are jointed together again, provided there is a different orientation of at least one of aforesaid parts (4). The said different orientation of one of at least two parts allows preventing addition of light deflections caused by aforesaid systematic surface irregularities after light passage through separate lens elements.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of light homogenisation.

16 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics; optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for control of partially coherent or incoherent optical radiation wave or waves field intensity distribution at final distance from its source or in far-field region and device that realises the stated method. At that in realisation of the stated method, optical element is used, which is installed in mentioned field and comprises diffraction grid arranged as periodical by one or two coordinates x, y that are orthogonal in relation to direction of falling optical radiation distribution, with the possibility to separate the mentioned field into partially colliding beams aligned in relation to directions of diffraction order directions.

EFFECT: even distribution of intensity in multimode laser beam with the help of diffraction element.

11 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: the proposed invention refers to the field of technical physics and may be used in quality of a plane converter of electromagnetic radiation into a coherent form.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a substrate on which there are two adjoining topologies having common axles of fractalization and a center, the modules of each of them are similar to the corresponding modules of the first adjoining topology. At that additionally on the substrate the third adjoining topology whose radius R3 of the basic circumference equals R1√3 is formed.

EFFECT: increases bandwidth of the received coherent radiation and also increases the degree of radiation coherence.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: laser lighting device for lighting band or linear portion S on object B, primarily on sheet material includes source 2,2' of laser radiation, optical system 4 for expanding the beam, spatially expanding fan-shaped laser beam L2 in two mutually perpendicular directions, and also an astigmatic lens 6, upon which fan-shaped laser beam L2 falls, focal distance f2 of which is shorter than distance A from beginning of fan-shaped laser beam L2 and focal plane of which lies on object B or close to it.

EFFECT: generation of a beam on surface, with high intensiveness, with low light losses; human eyes are protected from laser radiation.

8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: collimating optical system has objective disposed in series along beam path, which objectives are mounted in opposition to semiconductor lasers, and first group of prisms. Ribs of refracting two-faced angles of lasers are oriented in parallel to planes of semiconductor junctions. First positive component is mounted one after another along beam path behind group of prisms. Second group of prisms is disposed close to back focal plane of first positive component. The group of prisms separates input light beam along line being perpendicular to planes of semiconductor junction to two bundles. Polarization prism is disposed on the way of mentioned light beams to bring them into coincidence to one common light beam. Second positive component of the system has front focal plane brought into coincidence with back focal plane of first positive component.

EFFECT: increased brightness of output bundle of beams.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Beam former // 2301435

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: beam former intends for using together with one or more individual quazi-monochrromatic light sources. Beam former is made of essentially transparent material in form of transmitting element influencing on propagation of light to receive light beam or beams having round, elliptical, collimated, converging, diverging or/and other shape. Transmitting element of beam former which directs beam or beams of light, is provided with structure made at least partially of binary diffraction gratings with surface relief. Local periods d(r) of gratings, where r is distance from optical axis of beam former, are optimized at longitudinal and lateral directions as well as in relation to optical axis, essentially, according to Bragg's diffraction geometry to provide maximal efficiency of diffraction.

EFFECT: maximal efficiency of beam modification; ability of creating of simple, efficient optical systems with prolonged service life.

12 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to optical technique.

SUBSTANCE: the lens has in-series installed the inner down the way of radiating of light diode, and the exterior surface. The inner surface of the central zone adjacent to the axle of the lens, has an optical force providing transfer of the image of the radiating site of the light diode on more remote distance from the exterior surface. The exterior surface has a form of a funnel turning with its peak from the radiating site of the light diode. The profile of the exterior surface is such that at first interaction of radiating with the exterior surface full inner reflection takes place and at the second interaction of radiating with the exterior surface refraction of light takes place in the direction primarily perpendicular to the optical axle of the lens.

EFFECT: reduces part of the radiating flow emergent of the forming lens near its axle, increases intensity of emergent beam of light and provision of more uniform distribution of intensity of light falling on the screen.

5 dwg

FIELD: technical physics, possible use for expanding arsenal of devices for transformation of electromagnetic field to coherent form.

SUBSTANCE: the device contains semiconductor substrate, on which in slits self-affine topology is formed on basis of fractalizing module, consisting of a set of circles with radius R, where first circle is geometrical locus of positions of centers of other circles of the set with equal distances between adjacent circles, center of first circle coincides with the center of circle with radius equal to 2R and is the center of the whole self-affine topology, and fractalization of module occurs along axes, passing through the center of the first circle and centers of other circles of the set. Self-affine architecture is grounded.

EFFECT: creation of planar source of device for transformation of electromagnetic radiation to coherent form.

6 dwg

FIELD: the proposed invention refers to the field of technical physics and may be used in quality of a plane converter of electromagnetic radiation into a coherent form.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a substrate on which there are two adjoining topologies having common axles of fractalization and a center, the modules of each of them are similar to the corresponding modules of the first adjoining topology. At that additionally on the substrate the third adjoining topology whose radius R3 of the basic circumference equals R1√3 is formed.

EFFECT: increases bandwidth of the received coherent radiation and also increases the degree of radiation coherence.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics; optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for control of partially coherent or incoherent optical radiation wave or waves field intensity distribution at final distance from its source or in far-field region and device that realises the stated method. At that in realisation of the stated method, optical element is used, which is installed in mentioned field and comprises diffraction grid arranged as periodical by one or two coordinates x, y that are orthogonal in relation to direction of falling optical radiation distribution, with the possibility to separate the mentioned field into partially colliding beams aligned in relation to directions of diffraction order directions.

EFFECT: even distribution of intensity in multimode laser beam with the help of diffraction element.

11 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method aims at producing light homogenisation device comprising at least one substrate (1) that features at least one optically functional surface with large amount of lens elements (2) that, in their turn, feature systematic surface irregularities. At the first stage aforesaid lens elements (2) are formed in at least one optically functional surface of at least one substrate (1). At the second stage at least one substrate (1) is divided into at least two parts (3, 4). Then at least two aforesaid parts of substrate (1) are jointed together again, provided there is a different orientation of at least one of aforesaid parts (4). The said different orientation of one of at least two parts allows preventing addition of light deflections caused by aforesaid systematic surface irregularities after light passage through separate lens elements.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of light homogenisation.

16 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system includes two channels, each of which consists of a collimating lens 1 and a refracting component 2, and a summation component 3, fitted behind refracting components 2 of both channels and having a surface with a polarisation coating. The channels are turned such that, the radiation polarisation planes of the lasers are mutually orthogonal and their optical axes intersect on the surface of the summation component with polarisation coating and coincide behind the summation component. The polarisation coating completely transmits radiation polarised in the plane of incidence on the given surface, and completely reflects radiation polarised in the perpendicular plane. Focal distances of the lenses, size of the illumination body in the semiconductor junction plane and angular divergence of the beam collimated by the lens are linked by expressions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: increased power density and uniformity of angular distribution of radiation intensity with minimum energy losses on components of the optical system and minimal overall dimensions.

9 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser beam source, a transmitting element in form of a tube placed on the path of beam and filled with air at atmospheric pressure, and a recording unit. On both ends of the tube there are optically transparent end caps which reduce uncertainty of the spatial coordinates of the axis of the beam at the output of the tube. The tube with end caps acts as a high-Q cavity resonator and under the effect of external broad-band (white) noise, a standing wave having natural frequency and overtones is initiated in the tube, under the effect of which equalisation of optical refraction coefficients of air inside the tube takes place.

EFFECT: maximum spatial localisation of the laser beam to enable its use as an extended coordinate axis.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

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