Optical system for semiconductor lasers

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system includes two channels, each of which consists of a collimating lens 1 and a refracting component 2, and a summation component 3, fitted behind refracting components 2 of both channels and having a surface with a polarisation coating. The channels are turned such that, the radiation polarisation planes of the lasers are mutually orthogonal and their optical axes intersect on the surface of the summation component with polarisation coating and coincide behind the summation component. The polarisation coating completely transmits radiation polarised in the plane of incidence on the given surface, and completely reflects radiation polarised in the perpendicular plane. Focal distances of the lenses, size of the illumination body in the semiconductor junction plane and angular divergence of the beam collimated by the lens are linked by expressions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: increased power density and uniformity of angular distribution of radiation intensity with minimum energy losses on components of the optical system and minimal overall dimensions.

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The invention relates to the field of optical instrumentation, and in particular to optical systems, collimating the radiation of the laser beam with simultaneous anamorphic correction of the shape of the cross section and angular distribution of the intensity of the laser beam, and summing the emission of two or more semiconductor (hereinafter - p/p) lasers on the same optical axis, and can be used in optical systems locations, optical communication, management and other

The advantages of p/p lasers over other lasers - small weight and dimensions, much higher efficiency, which does not require bulky cooling systems, simple systems of power and pumping, pulse and continuous modes of operation, the possibility of direct modulation of the electric current with a high frequency, wide range of operating wavelengths, mechanical reliability and long service life and so on[1].

For p/p lasers emitting more power in continuous mode at room temperature, a characteristic value of the angular divergence of the radiation δ 0.5 in a plane parallel to and perpendicular to the plane of the p/n junction, respectively:

The characteristic size of the body of the laser light in the respective planes is equal to:

Different angular divergence of radiation and different body sizes glow in a plane parallel to and perpendicular to the plane of the p/n junction, cause the collimated by lens beam there is no axial symmetry of the beam as in the near zone, i.e. directly behind the lens and in the far zone, i.e. at a large distance from the lens.

In the near zone of the transverse dimensions of the beam is proportional to the angular divergence of radiation δand δin the respective planes, and the cross section of the beam is an ellipse elongated in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the p/n junction.

In the far zone of the transverse dimensions of the beam are associated with body size glow andin a plane parallel to the plane of the p/n junction, and the presence of residual spherical aberration and defocus of the lens in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the p/n junction.

Radiation p/p lasers are linearly polarized predominantly in the plane of the p/n junction (type polarization - TE) and less polarized in the plane perpendicular to the p/p transition (type polarization - TM).

Known optical system [2], containing sequentially located along the rays spherical optical component and a cylindrical optical component, collimating and correcting the shape of the cross the wow section of the radiation beam p/p of the laser in the far zone. The disadvantage of this system is the use of cylindrical lenses for anamorphic correction of the shape of the beam, it is technically difficult to manufacture, and a large longitudinal dimension of the system.

Known collimating optical system for p/n lasers [3], containing sequentially located along the rays with lenses that are installed in front p/n lasers, optical axes of which are parallel to each other and lie in the same plane, and the group of refracting prisms that are common to all lasers. Ribs refractive dihedral angles of the prisms are oriented in parallel planes p/n transitions, while for odd and even in the course of the rays of the prisms they are located on different sides with respect to the optical axis of the laser beam. The effect of the prisms is reduced to decrease the lateral dimension of each beam in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms, and the summation of all radiation beams into a single powerful beam with a small angular divergence.

However, increases the size of the cross-section of the beam as the beams from each laser does not overlap each other, and are located next to each other, which leads to an increase of the dimensions of the subsequent components of the optical system.

Known system [4] output radiation of two p/n lasers on a single optical axis is made in the form of a polarizing cube. Linearly on risovannoe radiation from both lasers, plane p/p transitions are mutually orthogonal, getting on polarization floor of the cube, made on hypotenuses the bonding faces alternately displayed on one optical axis to form the optical field for meliorative managed objects.

The closest in technical essence is the embodiment of a collimating optical system for p/n lasers [5, 3], which includes two channels. Each channel includes a collimating lens made of two lenses. For the collimating lens along the rays is the refractive component, consisting of two refracting prisms arranged in series one after another.

As follows from the description and formulas known optical systems [5], the edges of the dihedral angles formed by refracting faces of the prisms parallel to the plane of the p/n junction of each laser and lie on different sides of the optical axis of the beam. The angles between the refracting faces of the two prisms is made in the range of 25-40°. The entrance face of each prism is set perpendicular to the incident beam.

Each collimating lens has a residual spherical aberration, and its plane is misaligned relative to the focal plane. This ensures that osesimmetrichnoi angular distribution of the radiation intensity in d is Lina zone.

The refractive component known to the system [5] is an anamorphic telescopic system, known as the "Binoculars Brewster" [6], and serves to reduce the transverse size and a corresponding increase in the angular divergence of the collimated beam of laser radiation in the plane of the long axis of the ellipse perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles. The apparent increase in G is determined from the formula:

where α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms

n is the refractive index of the material of the prisms to the emission wavelength of the laser.

In the plane of the short axis of the ellipse parallel to the edges of the dihedral angles, the increase remains equal to unity, so that in the near zone after passing through the refractive component of the laser beam becomes more axisymmetric.

Proposed known to the system [5] method anamorphic correction of the cross-section of the laser beam is much easier technologically, than in the system [2] using cylindrical lenses, in addition, it significantly reduces the size of the system.

Due to the fact that the optical axis of the collimating lenses parallel to each other, and the lasers are close to each other in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles refracting prisms in the system [5] is the sum the of the radiation of two or more lasers.

However, two or more times according to the number of p/p lasers increases and the transverse size of the beam in the plane perpendicular to the p/p transition, which does not allow to increase the power density in the beam and results in an increase of the dimensions of the subsequent components of the optical system.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is the creation of an optical system collimating and at the same time anamorfose correcting the shape of the cross section of the beams in the near and far zones for s/p laser with linearly polarized radiation, as well as a sum of the radiation of the lasers on a single optical axis to form the optical field for meliorative managed objects that have compared with the prototype of the higher power density and higher uniformity of the angular distribution of the radiation intensity with minimum loss of energy to the components of the optical system and minimum dimensions.

To achieve the objectives of the proposed optical system for semiconductor (hereinafter - p/p) lasers, including two channel collimating lens in each of them and the refractive component, consisting of two refracting prisms arranged in series one after the other, with the edges of the dihedral angles formed by refracting faces of the prisms parallel to the plane of poluprovodnikov the transition and lie on different sides of the optical axis of the beam, the angles between the refracting faces of the two prisms is made in the range of 25-40°, the entrance face of each prism is perpendicular to the incident beam, each collimating lens has a residual spherical aberration, and its plane is misaligned relative to the focal plane. The optical system differs from the prototype in that it introduced the second refractive component is made the same as the first, and summing the component, the first and second refractive components are located one in each channel for the collimating lens along the rays, summing the component is installed for the refractive components of both channels in the course of the rays and has a surface with a polarized coating, a fully transmissive of laser polarized in the plane of incidence on the surface, and fully reflects the light polarized in the perpendicular plane, the channels of the optical system is rotated around its optical axis so that the plane of polarization of the radiation p/n lasers are mutually orthogonal, and mutual arrangement of the channels is such that their optical axes intersect at the surface of the summing component with polarization coating and match for summing component along the rays, and collimating lenses are made in such a way that the x focal length F aboutsatisfying the condition:

selected such that there is equality:

where a- body size glow in the plane of the p/n junction,

Θand Θ- the angular divergence of the collimated lens beam after refraction component along the rays in planes parallel and perpendicular to the p/p transition, respectively, the angular divergence Θdue to the total effect of the displacement plane of the subject and the residual spherical aberration collimating lens, and the action of the refractive component is determined by the ratios:

where ΘFokand ΘSF- the angular divergence of the collimated laser beam caused by the shift of the subject plane and the residual spherical aberration collimating lens, respectively,

Mr. discernible increase the refractive component in the cross section perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms,

α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms

n is the refractive index of material of prism for wavelength laser radiation,

and at least one of the refracting faces of each prism is made antireflection coating on the wavelength of the laser.

In the proposed optical system having the same refractive components in each channel allows not only to reduce the size of the cross-section and increase osesimmetrichnoi each laser beam in the near zone, but also to spatially separate beams to direct the optical axis of the channels by summing the component with the purpose of their application and removal on a single optical axis. This achieves the objective of increasing power density of laser radiation.

The summation of the radiation of two p/n lasers on a single optical axis, proposed optical system, provides additional technical result is a significant increase of the overall uniformity of the radiation intensity in the cross section of the beam, since p/p transitions lasers in the channels are mutually orthogonal and the corresponding cross-sections of the beams are rotated relative to each other around a common optical axis by 90°.

The above choice of the focal length, the residual spherical aberration, and displacement of the subject plane collimating lenses, as well as the choice of the design parameters of refractive components that determine their apparent increase, provided the axial symmetry of the laser beam in the far zone is necessary for the formation of the control field.

A small transverse dimensions and the minimum elevation is nd the divergence of the laser beam make it possible to ensure the minimum dimensions of the optical system. Applying antireflection coatings to minimize energy losses due to Fresnel reflection in the optical system.

Summing the component can be made in the form of a plane-parallel plate made of transparent for radiation of a laser material located in such a way that the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the p/p of the laser and the angle of incidence equal to the Brewster angle and is determined from the relation [7]:

where γ is the angle of incidence of the radiation on the plate,

when this polarizing coating is performed on the second course of the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate, the second channel system is located relative to the first channel so that its optical axis lies in the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel plate and intersects the axis of the first channel on the surface with a polarized coating at an angle, defined from the relation:

where ε is the angle of intersection of the optical axes of the channels on the surface of the plate with a polarizing coating.

The radiation incidence of the first channel on the plate at the Brewster angle in the plane of polarization eliminates the Fresnel loss at first as the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate without applying the antireflection coating. Polarization on the freight made such what is completely missing is linearly polarized in the plane of incidence of the radiation of the first channel and reflects linearly polarized in the perpendicular plane radiation of the second channel, for summing component along the ray to the optical axis of the channels are identical and orthogonal polarized radiation from both lasers are summed without losses.

Summing the component can be made in the form of two plane-parallel plates located on the axis of each channel is inclined and parallel to each other, the optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays parallel to each other, the angles of incidence of radiation or lasers on the plate is equal to the Brewster angle, and the plane of incidence coincide with each other, with the first channel of the plane-parallel plate made from transparent to radiation of the laser material and is positioned in such a way that the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the p/p of the laser, and a polarizing coating is performed on the second go rays the surface of the plane-parallel plate, and the second channel plane-parallel plate made with an external mirror, while the second channel is the first channel so that its optical axis intersects the axis of the first channel on the surface of PLoS is parallelnoj plate with a polarizing coating at an angle, determined from the relationship:

The polarizing coating is performed in such a way that completely ignores the linearly polarized in the plane of incidence of the radiation of the first channel and reflects linearly polarized in the perpendicular plane radiation of the second channel, for summing component along the ray to the optical axis of the channels are identical and orthogonal polarized radiation from both lasers are summed without losses.

Performing a summation of the component in the form of two plane-parallel plates allows more compact and technologically to put both channels in parallel to a summing component along the rays.

Summing the component can be made in the form of a prism AR-90° prism - diamond BS-0°, glued together hypotenuse faces, one of which caused a polarizing coating.

The optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays parallel to each other and perpendicular to the input faces of the prisms. Inside summing component to the optical axis of the two channels intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component along the rays they coincide with each other.

Summing the component can be made in the form of a prism - (cube), consisting of two prisms AR-90°, glued together, the hypothesis is nuzhnymi faces, one of which caused a polarizing coating. The optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays perpendicular to each other, and the input faces of the prism - (cube). Inside summing component to the optical axis of the two channels intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component along the rays they coincide with each other.

All of the examples of how to perform a summation of the components of the system allow for a single optical axis without loss of radiation of two p/n lasers, while ensuring a high power density with a minimum loss of energy radiation by summing the component.

The system can be entered one or more telephoto lens, mounted on a common optical axis of the channels for summing component along the rays.

This will ensure the formation in the input plane of the system telecontrol spot of the laser radiation with the required parameters.

One of the prisms refracting component in each channel of the system can be configured to smoothly move along the optical axis. The value of the parallel displacement of the axis is determined by the formula:

where ΔY is the amount of displacement of the optical axis in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms,

ΔZ is the greates which on displacement of the prism along the optical axis,

α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms

β is the angle of deviation of the beam from the normal to the output face (angle of refraction).

Because the channels are rotated around its optical axis so that the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms in different channels are mutually orthogonal, the smooth longitudinal movement of one of the prisms in each channel allows you to combine the optical axis of the channels on the surface with a polarized coating with high accuracy on the two coordinate axes, providing simplicity and ease of alignment channels.

In one of the channels of the system can be introduced a pair of optical wedges located on the optical axis for the optical component along the rays, and the wedges are installed with the possibility of rotation of each wedge around the optical axis.

This helps to ensure high accuracy parallelism of the optical axes of both channels after their combination on the surface with a polarized coating.

In the proposed system the angles α between the refracting faces of the prisms refracting component can be performed such that comply with the conditions:

This condition should be carried out in the case, if used in the system, p/n laser type polarization - TM, that is, the plane of polarization is perpendicular to p/p is arejob. On the second along the rays refracting faces of the prisms are completely absent of a Fresnel reflection loss and ar coating should be done only on the first along the beam refracting faces of the two prisms.

Thus, the proposed invention allows to solve the task of creating an optical system for forming and summing on one optical axis of the radiation of two p/n lasers with a high degree of axial symmetry of the beam in the near and far zones of minimum cross-sectional dimension of the beam and the minimum angular divergence, as well as higher power density and higher uniformity of the radiation intensity in the cross section of the beam compared to the prototype with minimal loss of energy to the components of the optical system and minimum dimensions.

The essence of the proposed invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the optical system for p/n lasers summing component in the form of a single plate with a polarizing coating.

Figure 2 shows the optical system for p/n lasers summing component in the form of two plates.

Figure 3 shows the optical system for p/n lasers summing component in the form of glued prisms AR-90° and BS degrees.

Figure 4 shows the optical system for p/n lasers summarizing what omponents in the form of a prism - cubic

Figure 5 shows a possible alignment position of the optical axis of the channel due to the smooth movement refracting prism along the optical axis.

Figure 6 shows the curves of the relative angular intensity distribution of the laser radiation in the far zone.

Optical system for semiconductor (hereinafter - p/p) lasers (1-4) includes two identical channel. Each channel includes a collimating lens 1 and the refractive component 2.

For refractive components 2 in the course of the rays is a summation component 3, after which the common optical axis of both channels is telephoto lens 4.

In the second channel system between refracting and sum of components is a pair of optical wedges 5.

Collimating lens 1, in the front focal plane of which is a body glow n/n laser contains three lenses that can be made of quartz glass to improve thermal stability of the system, and serves to callmerobbie radiation p/p of the laser. The angular divergence of the radiation on the level of decrease in the intensity 0.1 and the corresponding numerical aperture of the lens 1 in the plane of the p/n junction is equal to: δ=12°, sin(δ/2)=0.1; in the orthogonal plane: δ=60°, sin (δ/2)=0.5; and the cross-section of the collimated beam in Bliznatsi is an ellipse, elongated in the plane of maximum aperture, perpendicular to the p/p transition.

This collimating lens 1 has a residual spherical aberration, and its plane is misaligned relative to the focal plane.

The refractive component 2 consists of two refracting prisms arranged in series one after the other. Prism is installed on the optical axis of each channel (1 - 4) so that the edges of the dihedral angles formed by refracting faces of the prisms are parallel to the plane of the p/n junction laser and lie on different sides of the optical axis. The angles α between the refracting faces of the two prisms is made in the range of 25-40°, and the input face of each of the prisms is perpendicular to the incident beam of laser radiation.

The refractive component 2 is an anamorphic telescopic system, known as the "Binoculars Brewster" [6], and serves to reduce the transverse size and a corresponding increase in the angular divergence of the collimated beam of laser radiation in the plane of the long axis of the ellipse perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles.

Summarizing component 3 (1-4) is a refractive components 2 both channels along the rays and has a surface with a polarized coating, a fully transmissive of laser polarized in the plane of incidence on the surface, and totally reflecting the light polarized in the perpendicular plane.

The channels of the optical system is rotated around its optical axis so that the plane of polarization of the radiation p/p lasers are mutually orthogonal, and mutual arrangement of the channels is such that their optical axes intersect at the surface of the summing component 3 with a polarizing coating and match for summing component along the rays.

Collimating lens 1 is made such that its focal length Faboutdefined value:

selected so that there is equality:

where a- body size glow in the plane of the p/n junction,

Θand Θ- the angular divergence of the collimated lens beam after refraction component 2 along the rays in planes parallel and perpendicular to the p/p transition, respectively.

When a=100 μm and Fabout=8 mm is provided by the angular divergence of the collimated beam Θ=12.5 mrad.

The angular divergence Θdue to the total effect of the displacement plane of the subject and the residual spherical aberration of the collimating lens 1, and the action of the refractive component 2, is determined by the ratio:

where ΘFokand ΘSF- the angular divergence of the collimated laser beam caused by the shift of the subject plane and the residual spherical aberration collimating lens, respectively,

Mr. discernible increase the refractive component 2 in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms defined by the formula:

where α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms

n is the refractive index of the material of the prisms to the emission wavelength of the laser.

If the angle α=33° and the material of the prisms K8 value G=0.46 times, when the conditions (1)-(3) ΘFokSF=6 mrad this allows the axial symmetry of the angular distribution of the radiation intensity of each laser in the far zone.

To avoid loss of energy to the Fresnel reflection at the two refracting faces of each prism refracting component 2 has ar coating on the wavelength of the laser.

Example 1 (figure 1). Summarizing component 3 made in the form of plane-parallel plates made from transparent to radiation of the laser material and located so that the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the p/p of the laser and the angle of incidence equal to the Brewster angle and is determined from the relation [7]:

where γ is the angle of incidence of the radiation on the plate.

For glass K8 angle γ=56°. This allows you to eliminate the Fresnel loss at first as the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate without applying antireflection coatings([7], [8]).

The polarizing coating is performed on the second course of the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate.

The second channel system is located relative to the first channel so that its optical axis lies in the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel plate and intersects the axis of the first channel on the surface with a polarized coating at an angle, defined from the relation:

where ε is the angle of intersection of the optical axes of the channels on the surface of the plate with a polarizing coating.

Example 2 (figure 2). Summarizing component 3 made in the form of two plane-parallel plates located on the axis of each channel is inclined and parallel to each other. The optical axis of the channels before summing component 3 along rays parallel to each other, the angles of incidence of radiation or lasers on the plate is equal to the Brewster angle and is defined by the formula (5), and the plane of incidence coincide with each other.

In the first channel plane-parallel plate made from transparent to radiation of the laser material and is therefore about what atom, the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the p/p of the laser.

The polarizing coating is performed on the second course of the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate.

In the second channel plane-parallel plate made with an external mirror. The second channel is the first channel so that its optical axis intersects the axis of the first channel on the surface of the plane-parallel plate with a polarizing coating at an angle, defined from the relation (6).

Example 3 (figure 3). Summarizing component 3 is made in the form of a prism AR-90° [9] and prism - diamond BS-0° [9], glued together hypotenuse faces. On one of the bonding faces of the applied polarizing coating.

The optical axis of the channels before summing component 3 along rays parallel to each other and perpendicular to the input faces of the prisms. Inside summation of the component 3 to the optical axis of the two channels intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component 3 in the course of the rays they coincide with each other.

Example 4 (figure 4). Summarizing component 3 is made in the form of a prism is a cube consisting of two prisms AR-90°, glued together hypotenuse faces. On one of the bonding faces caused a polarizing coating. The optical axis to the signals before summing component 3 along rays perpendicular to each other, and the input faces of the prism - cubic Inside summation of the component 3 to the optical axis of the two channels intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component 3 in the course of the rays they coincide with each other.

All proposed in figure 1-4 examples of summary system components allow for a single optical axis of the emission of two p/n lasers, while ensuring a high power density with a minimum loss of energy radiation by summing the component.

The system can be entered telephoto lens 4 (1-4), mounted on a common optical axis of the first and second channels after summing the component 3 in the course of the rays.

Focal length Fllens 4 is selected such that the spot size of the laser radiation And•And in the plane of the entrance window telecommand systems to satisfy the conditions:

where a is the spot size corresponding to the size of the input window system remote control,

Fl- focal length lens 4.

When A=2 mm and Θ=12.5 mrad focal length of the lens Fl=160 mm

Each refracting component 2 is one of the prisms can be made with smooth movement along the optical axis (figure 5), which smoothly changes the axial distance between the prisms. This provide is ensured smooth parallel to the optical axis of the channel in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms, in accordance with the formula:

where ΔY is the amount of parallel displacement of optical axis,

ΔZ is the amount of displacement of the prism along the optical axis,

α is the angle between the refracting faces of the prism,

β is the angle of deviation of the beam from the normal to the output face (angle of refraction).

In the second channel system can be installed a pair of optical wedges 5 (1-4)located on the optical axis between the refractive component 2 and summing component 3. The wedges 5 are installed with the possibility of rotation of each wedge around the optical axis, which allows to ensure high accuracy in mutual parallelism of the optical axes of both channels.

In a refracting component 2 angles α between the refracting faces of the prisms (Fig.1-5) can be performed such that comply with the conditions:

For glass K8 angle α=33°.

These conditions should be carried out in the case, if used in the system, p/n laser type polarization - TM, that is, the plane of polarization is perpendicular to the p/p transition. On the second along the rays refracting faces of the prisms are completely absent of a Fresnel reflection loss and ar coating should be done only on the first paragraph the course of the beam refracting faces of the two prisms.

The system works as follows (Fig.1-4).

Linearly polarized radiation p/p of the laser in each of the two channels of the system, passing through the collimating lens 1, is formed in a slightly divergent beam, the cross section of which is an ellipse elongated in the plane perpendicular to the p/p transition. The axes of the ellipse is proportional to the angular divergence of the laser radiation δand δin the respective planes and focal length of the lens 1.

Further, the radiation falls on the input face of the first prism refracting component 2, perpendicular to the optical axis of the channel, and no refraction takes place in the glass prism, refracting output face and leaning to the base of the prism. Through the second prism refracting component 2 radiation is similar.

Fin dihedral angles α formed by the refracting faces of the two prisms that lie on different sides of the optical axis. If the two prisms are made of the same material, the radiation does not change its direction after refraction of the two prisms, and is only shifted in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles and the p/p transition.

While the cross-section of the beam is reduced and the angular divergence of the increases in G times in the plane perpendicular to the ribs Durango and p/p transition. The apparent increase in G is determined from the formula (4).

In a plane parallel to the edges of the dihedral angles and the p/p transition, the increase remains equal to unity, so that in the near zone after passing through the refractive component 2 cross-section of the laser beam decreases along the long axis of the ellipse and becomes more axisymmetric.

Further, the radiation of both channels gets on summing component 3 (1-4), which contains a surface with a polarizing coating. Because the canal system is rotated around its optical axis so that the plane of polarization of the radiation p/p lasers are mutually orthogonal, the polarizing coating is completely skips the radiation of the first channel, polarized in the plane of incidence on the surface, and fully reflects the radiation of the second channel, polarized in the perpendicular plane. Thus the optical axis of radiation beams of the two channels intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating and match for summing component along the rays.

Thus, after summing component 3 the emission of two p/p of the laser is reduced to a single optical axis, the energy of the radiation is practically doubled, because the loss on the optical elements of the system are negligible due to their optimum location and application kachestvennostju and polarizing coatings.

Thus, the location of the sum of the 3 components in examples 1-2 (1-2) at the Brewster angle [7] in the plane of polarization of the laser radiation of the first channel eliminates the loss of radiation on the Fresnel reflection at the first as the rays of the surface without applying the antireflection coating. On enlightened surfaces of the objective lens 1, the prisms refracting component 2, the sum of the component 3 and other optical elements of the system loss does not exceed 0.3%, a polarizing coating, they constitute less than 2%. Losses due to depolarization of the beam on the objective lens 1 is almost palpable.

The same density of the radiation power increases more than 4 times because due to the action of the refractive components of the 2-section of the beam is reduced by 2.2 times.

Thanks to the conditions (2) and (3) is provided with axial symmetry of the angular distribution of the radiation intensity of each laser in the far zone, while the angular divergence of the radiation level does not exceed 0.1 12...14 mrad.

The proposed method is the summation of the radiation of the two lasers on a single optical axis allows to solve the problem not only fourfold increase power density, but also increase the total uniformity of the radiation intensity in the cross section of the beam (6).

The distribution of intensity of halogen with exceptiona the radiation p/n lasers in different orthogonal planes.

In the plane perpendicular to the p/p transition, it represents both in the near and far field of the Gaussian curve PP, shown in the top graph 6. Form gaussoin adjusted by the shift of the plane of the subject and the residual spherical aberration collimating lens 1 for partial equalization of the intensity from the axis to the edge.

In a plane parallel to the p/p transition, the intensity distribution of the radiation is U-shaped curve Ps, shown in the middle graph 6. It has 10 to 12 of the periodic dips depth of 10...15% of the average intensity values.

The summation of the radiation of the two lasers, p/n transitions are orthogonal, substantially improves the uniformity of the radiation intensity, as the respective cross-sections of the beams are rotated relative to each other around a common optical axis by 90° and the Gaussian distribution curve of the intensity of one section is folded U-shaped curve of the other section. Total curve Pp+Ps are presented in the bottom graph 6, the decrease in the intensity from the center to the edge at the 0.1 level does not exceed 25%.

After summation on the component 3 radiation strikes a telephoto lens 4 (1-4), passes through it and in its rear focal plane coincident with the input plane of the system of telecontrol focuser who is in the spot of laser radiation, the appropriate size of the input window telecommand systems.

In the absence of a long-focus lens 4 continuous emission of two p/n lasers is far zone system slightly divergent powerful axisymmetric beam with a high degree of uniformity of intensity in cross-section, suitable for various technical applications as forming optics, and without it.

As shown in figure 5, one of the prisms refracting component 2 can be performed with a smooth movement along the optical axis. When the magnitude of the displacement ΔZ any of the prisms of the beam of laser radiation is shifted parallel to the optical axis of the channel by the amount ΔY in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms, in accordance with the formula (8). Since the first and second channels is rotated around its optical axis so that the edges of the dihedral angles of refractive components 2 in them mutually orthogonal, then moving one of the prisms in each channel allows you to combine both of the radiation beam on the surface with a polarized coating with high accuracy on the two coordinate axes. This ensures ease of alignment channels.

A pair of optical wedges 5 (1-4) installed in the second channel system with the possibility of rotation of each wedge around the optical axis. Each to the Institute during the rotation changes the direction of the beam of laser radiation in the second channel at a small angle [6]. Mutual rotation of the wedges 5 can be provided with high accuracy mutually parallel beams of both channels.

If used in the system, p/n laser type polarization - TM, that is, the plane of polarization is perpendicular to the p/p transition, it is advisable to perform refractive component 2, the angle α between the refracting faces of the prisms (Fig.1-5) so that it matches the conditions (9) and (10). Then the laser radiation polarized in the plane of incidence on the prism, and exits each prism refracting component at an angle β equal to the Brewster angle [7]. On the second along the rays refracting faces of the prisms fully no loss of radiation on Fresnel reflection, and the linearity and the azimuth of polarization of the laser beam is completely preserved [7], thanks to the polarizing coating summing component 3 radiation from two lasers is displayed on a single optical axis without loss.

Literature

1. Handbook of laser technology. / Ed. by Prof. Aponeurotica, M.: Energoizdat, 1991, s.

2. Patent EP N 0100242, IPC G01 13/00, H01S 3/00, publ. 1983

3. Patent RU 2148850, IPC G02 27/30, 27/09, publ. 2000

4. Patent RU 2228505, IPC F41G 7/26, publ. 2004

5. Patent RU 2101743, IPC G02 27/30, publ. 1998 - the prototype.

6. Computational optics. The Handbook. / Under the General editorship of Prof. You. L.: engineering, 1984, pp.118 217.

7. JM Klimov Applied laser optics. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1985

8. Al Bulls "Optics". M.: Higher school, 1986

9. Magruder, Vaganov and other "Handbook of designer optical-mechanical devices". Leningrad, Mashinostroenie, 1968, str, 230.

1. Optical system for semiconductor lasers, including two channel collimating lens in each of them and the refractive component, consisting of two refracting prisms arranged in series one after the other, with the edges of the dihedral angles formed by refracting faces of the prisms parallel to the plane of semiconductor transition and lie on different sides of the optical axis of the beam, the angles between the refracting faces of the two prisms is made in the range of 25-40°, the entrance face of each prism is perpendicular to the incident beam, each collimating lens has a residual spherical aberration, and its plane is misaligned relative to the focal plane, characterized in that in the optical system entered the second refractive component is made the same as the first, and summing the component, while the first and second refractive components are located one in each channel for the collimating lens along the rays, summing the component is installed for the refractive components of both channels on the ode rays and has a surface with a polarized coating, fully transmissive of laser polarized in the plane of incidence on the surface, and fully reflects the light polarized in the perpendicular plane, the channels of the optical system is rotated around its optical axis so that the plane of polarization of semiconductor lasers are mutually orthogonal, and mutual arrangement of the channels is such that their optical axes intersect at the surface of the summing component with polarization coating and match for summing component along the rays, with collimating lenses are designed so that their focal distances Faboutsatisfying the condition:
Fabout=a,
selected such that there is equality:
Θ,
where a- body size glow in the plane of the semiconductor junction;
Θand Θ- the angular divergence of the collimated lens beam after refraction component along the rays in planes parallel and perpendicular to semiconductor transition, respectively;
the angular divergence Θdue to the total effect of the displacement plane of the subject and the residual spherical aberration of each collimating lens, and the action of the refractive component is determined is by the ratios:
Θ=(ΘFokSF)/G, '
G=(1-n2·sin2α)/(1-sin2α),
where ΘFokand ΘSF- the angular divergence of the collimated laser beam caused by the shift of the subject plane and the residual spherical aberration of each collimating lens, respectively;
Mr. discernible increase the refractive component in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms;
α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms;
n is the refractive index of material of prism for wavelength laser;
and at least one of the refracting faces of each prism is made antireflection coating on the wavelength of the laser.

2. The optical system according to claim 1, wherein the summarizing component is made in the form of a plane-parallel plate made of transparent for radiation of a laser material located in such a way that the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the semiconductor laser, and the angle γ is equal to the Brewster angle, with a polarizing coating is performed on the second course of the rays of the surface of the plane-parallel plate, the second channel of the optical system situated relative to the first channel so that its optical axis lies in the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel plate and p is rescued with the axis of the first channel on the surface with polarizing coating at an angle, determined from the relation:
ε=180°-2γ,
where ε is the angle of intersection of the optical axes of the channels on the surface of the plate with a polarizing coating.

3. The optical system according to claim 1, wherein the summarizing component is made in the form of two plane-parallel plates located on the axis of each channel is inclined and parallel to each other, with the optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays parallel to each other, the angles of incidence of radiation of semiconductor lasers on the plate is equal to the Brewster angle, and the plane of incidence coincide with each other, with the first channel of the plane-parallel plate made from transparent to radiation of the laser material and is positioned in such a way that the plane of incidence of radiation of the first channel on the plate coincides with the plane of polarization of the semiconductor laser, and a polarizing coating is performed on the second course of the rays to the surface of the plane-parallel plate, and the second channel plane-parallel plate made with an external mirror, and the second channel is the first channel so that its optical axis intersects the axis of the first channel on the surface of the plane-parallel plate with a polarizing coating at an angle, defined from the relation:
ε=180°-2γ.

4. The optical system p is 1, wherein the summarizing component is made in the form of a prism AR-90° prism-diamond BS-0°, glued together hypotenuse faces, one of which caused a polarizing coating, while the optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays parallel to each other and perpendicular to the input faces of the prisms inside the summarizing component they intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component along the ray to the optical axis of both channels coincide with each other.

5. The optical system according to claim 1, wherein the summarizing component is made in the form of a prism is a cube consisting of two prisms AR-90°, glued together hypotenuse faces, one of which caused a polarizing coating, while the optical axis of the channels before summing component along rays perpendicular to each other and the input face of the prism is a cube, inside a summing component they intersect on the surface with a polarizing coating, and for summing the component along the ray to the optical axis of both channels coincide with each other.

6. The optical system according to claim 1, characterized in that the system at least one telephoto lens, mounted on a common optical axis of the channels for summing component along the rays.

7. Optical is theme according to claim 1, characterized in that one of the prisms refracting component in each channel is configured to smoothly move along the optical axis, the value of the parallel displacement of the optical axis in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms is determined according to the formula:
ΔY=ΔZ·sin(β-α)·cosβ/cosα,
where ΔY is the amount of displacement of the optical axis in the plane perpendicular to the edges of the dihedral angles of the prisms;
ΔZ is the amount of displacement of the prism along the optical axis;
α is the angle between the refracting faces of prisms;
β is the angle of deviation of the beam from the normal to the output face (angle of refraction).

8. The optical system according to claim 1, characterized in that one of the channels introduced a pair of optical wedges located on the optical axis for the optical component along the rays, and the wedges are installed with the possibility of rotation of each wedge around the optical axis.

9. The optical system according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle α between the refracting faces of the prisms refracting component made of such a value that corresponds to the conditions:
sinα=sinβ/n
tgβ=n
this ar coating is performed only on the first along the beam refracting faces of the two prisms.



 

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