Collimating optical system for semiconductor laser

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: collimating optical system has a lens and two rectangular prisms arranged in series on a beam path. The edges of the refracting dihedral angles of the prisms are directed perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor junction. The refracting angles of the prism are the same and are selected in the range of 20…42°, α is the angle of incidence of radiation beams on the prism and β is the refracting angles of the prism, selected based on the relationship: where n is the refraction index of the material of the prism. The focal distance of the lens F is selected based on the relationship where φ is the required radiation divergence; a|| is the size of the emitting region of the semiconductor laser in a plane which is parallel to the plane of the semiconductor junction.

EFFECT: reduced size of optical-electronic devices using semiconductor laser radiation while preserving quality.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to opto-electronic distance measuring, locating, targeting, communications, and other devices that use radiation of semiconductor lasers.

Known laser rangefinders [A.I. Abramov and others in the Development of laser rangefinders binoculars on Krasnogorsk plant them. Sauerova // Optical journal, 2009. No. 8. P.18-19], in which for forming a radiation beam of a semiconductor laser used lenses. The radiating area of a pulsed semiconductor laser is a p-n junction, the length of which, a||~120...350 mcm [Handbook of laser technology. Translation from German Vinalopo. Ed. Aponeurotica. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1991. S.138]when the width of the transition (a) of the order of several microns. Lens rangefinder projects the image of the emitting region in the plane of the object, the distance is measured.

The minimum value of the divergence of the beam at the exit lens of the rangefinder on the orthogonal coordinates are defined by the formula

where F is the focal length of the lens.

Formula (1) fair, if F>>a||,that is usually performed in the optical systems of the finders.

Luminous dimension D||, ⊥lens rangefinder, in the absence of vignetting radiation, is determined by the formula

where θ||, ⊥the angles of divergence of the laser radiation in orthogonal coordinates.

Due to the difference of sizea||andathe cross-section of the radiation beam in the object plane, the distance is measured is a flat shape that is symmetrical relative to the center, the outline of a shape, in the General case, oval [RF Patent №2343413, IPC G01C 3/08, G01S 17/10, date of publication, 10.01.2009. 2], and the length of the oval is substantially greater than its width. For most opto-electronic distance measurement, location, etc. it is desirable that the boundaries of the above section were close to the circumference. For example, when nonaxisymmetric the cross section of the radiation beam rangefinder possible interference due to reflection of radiation from objects that are closer or farther from the object plane, which can lead to errors in distance measurement.

For correcting the shape of the cross section of the beam of radiation from a variety of technical solutions. The closest analogue to the claimed solution is a collimating optical system for a semiconductor laser [RF Patent №2101743, IPC G02B 27/30, publication date 10.01.1998]containing sequentially located along the ray lens and prisms. Ribs refractive dihedral angles of the prisms are oriented parallel to the plane of poluprovodnikov transition the refractive angles of the prisms are selected within 25...40°, the angular magnification G of the group of prisms is selected from the following equation:

where θand θ||the angles of divergence of the semiconductor laser in the planes perpendicular and parallel to the plane of semiconductor transition, respectively, the front focal plane of the lens is shifted relative to the subject plane at distance δ0defined value:

wherea||anda- body size glow of a semiconductor laser in planes parallel and perpendicular to the plane of semiconductor transition, respectively, and the longitudinal spherical aberration δ(U)lens is selected from the following equation:

where U is the aperture angle of the lens;

δ0- the distance from the front focal plane of the lens to the subject plane;

θthe angle of divergence of the semiconductor laser according to the level of 0.5 in the plane perpendicular to the plane of semiconductor transition.

The above optical system ensures the formation of an axisymmetric beam, in this case, as follows from figure 1 of the above patent RF №2101743, left the refractive g is Ani prisms 4 and 5 perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens. The size of the cross section of the radiation beam in the plane perpendicular to the refracting faces of the prism, after passing the radiation beam through a prism will decrease, i.e. the divergence of the beam will increase (angular magnification G≥1). Thus, the minimum divergence of the beam after the entire optical system (when G=1) can be defined by the formula (1); F is the focal length of the lens system consisting of lenses 2 and 3.

Evaluate the dimensions of the optical system according to the technical solution of the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2101743 in relation to the range finder binoculars LDB 7×40, discussed in [A.I. Abramov and others in the Development of laser rangefinders binoculars on Krasnogorsk plant them. Sauerova // Optical journal, 2009. No. 8. P.19]. The divergence of the radiation beam at the exit of the lens rangefinder is about 8' and, as stated in this article on page 21, to enable measurement of the distance to the small size of the subject it is necessary to increase the angular resolution of the rangefinder, i.e. to reduce the divergence of the radiation beam. The laser type SPL90-3 by OSRAM, used range finder binoculars, the length of the emitting region is equal to 200 μm [OSRAM Optpo Semiconductors. Product Catalog. 2004]. The calculation by the formula (1) shows that reducing a divergence in two times (up to 4'), you will need a lens with a focal length of about 170 mm, the divergence of the laser radiation is (25×11)°, and so the calculation by the formula (2) light lens diameter D≥70 mm (for divergence 25°). A lens with such dimensions unacceptable for placement in small devices like binoculars.

The task, which is aimed by the invention is the creation of a system forming an axisymmetric beam of laser radiation, with the required divergence from a semiconductor laser with minimum dimensions collimating optical system.

The technical result is to reduce the dimensions of opto-electronic devices that use radiation of semiconductor lasers, while maintaining the quality.

This technical result is achieved by using a collimating optical system for a semiconductor laser containing sequentially located along the ray lens and two straight prism, in contrast to the known edges refractive dihedral angles of the prisms are oriented perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor junction, and the refractive angles of the prisms are the same and are selected within 20...42°, and α is the angle of incidence of radiation beams in the prism and β - refracting angles of the prisms is selected from the formula:

where n is the refractive index of the material of the prism, and F is the focal length of the lens is selected from the formula:

where φ is the required divergence of the radiation output object is VA,

a||- the size of the emitting region of a semiconductor laser in a plane parallel to the plane of semiconductor transition.

Figure 1 shows the functional diagram of the device (top view), figure 2 shows a view of the device from the side. Figure 3-5 explain the principle of changing the divergence of the radiation beam by passing the beam through a prism.

Collimating optical system (Fig 1, 2) contains a semiconductor laser 1, the lens 2, the first prism 3 and the second prism 4. Emitting region of the laser 1 is located in the focal plane of the lens 2. Further, on the optical axis of the lens 2 of the first prism 3 and in series with it, the second prism 4. Both prisms are straight, perpendicular cross-sections parallel to each other and parallel to the longest side of the p-n junction of the laser. Ribs refractive dihedral angles of the prisms are oriented perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor junction. The angles between the refracting faces of the prisms 3 and 4 are identical in size, within 20...42°. Prisms are made from the same optical material such as optical glass brand TF10. The entrance face of the prism is set with respect to the incident beam so that the output of each of the prisms of the beam perpendicular to the output face of the prism.

Figure 3 illustrates the passage of the učka optical radiation (the linear dimension of the cross section of the beam L1) through the prism with an angle at the vertex β. The geometric axis of the radiation beam is oriented at an angle α relative to the normal to the entrance face of the prism. When the condition of formula (6) axis of the radiation beam will be oriented at a 90° angle to the output face of the prism, the linear dimension of the cross section of the beam at the exit of the prism will be L2.

As an example, figure 4 shows the dependence of α(β) for optical glass brand LC (n=1,47) and optical glass brand TF10 (n=1,806). Almost all common brands of optical glasses have refractive indices in the range between the above values. Thus, for a prism with known parameters β and n is uniquely determined by the angle α at which the axis of the radiation beam makes an angle of 90° relative to the normal to the output face of the prism.

The angular magnification of the prism G

Graphics G(β) for the above brands of glasses is shown in figure 5.

From the figure it follows that the parameter G can reach values of 0.2 or less, i.e. the lens reduces the divergence of the optical beam to five times (one coordinate). The maximum angle at the vertex of the prism is limited by the angle of total internal reflection (glass brand LK ~42°), and at angles less than 20°, the parameter G is for various brands of glasses, 0,85 0,9...and decrease the beam divergence at the exit of the prism will be naznacite is Ino. Therefore, the angle β for almost used grades of optical glasses, as follows from figure 4, should be selected in the range from 20° to 42°, unlike the prototype, where this angle is chosen in the range 25° to 40°.

Since the optical beam after the prism changes the direction of propagation, in the apparatus shown in figure 1, in series with the first prism 3 with the second prism 4, is made of the same material and with the same angle at the vertex. In this case the axis of radiation beams at the input and output system of the prisms 3 and 4 are parallel, which is useful when linking optical devices. The angular magnification of the two prisms in the scheme of figure 1 will be G2where G is the angular magnification of a single prism.

To assess the dimensions of these units are useful when the same data source, which are used in the analysis of the prototype: the length of the emitting region of the laser is 200 μm, the divergence of the laser radiation (25×11)°. If you take the focal length of the lens 2 is equal to 35 mm, the divergence of the radiation beam in the coordinate parallel to the longest side of the p-n junction laser, according to the formula (1):

- the value of the divergence of the beam at the entrance of the first prism in a plane parallel to the plane of semiconductor transition.

To obtain after prism with the system divergence 4' necessary to the angular magnification of the two prisms 0.2, for this purpose, the angular magnification of one of the prisms should be. The parameter G is determined by the formula (7). As follows from the graphs shown in figure 4, for glass brand TF10 angle at the vertex of the prism β≈32°, respectively, from figure 3, the angle α≈65°.

The linear dimension of the cross section of the beam after the lens 2 (figure 1), the formula (2), D1≥2·35·tg5,5°≈7 mm After the passage of radiation through the prisms 3 and 4, this amount will increase by approximately 5 times, i.e. of approximately 35 mm, taking into account technological tolerances can be taken linear size of the lateral edges of the prism 4-coordinate lying in the plane of the drawing figure 1, is equal to 50 mm

On the second coordinate (figure 2) the size of the emitting region of the laser is 10 microns [OSRAM Optpo Semiconductors. Product Catalog. 2004], the corresponding calculations give values of D⊥1≈1', D2≈16 mm After the passage of radiation through the prisms 3 and 4, this size will not increase (this is the coordinate of the prism is equivalent to a plane-parallel plates) and can take the size of the ribs of the prism 4-coordinate lying in the plane of the drawing of figure 2, equal to 20 mm

As can be seen from the comparison of the dimensions of the optical system shown in figures 1 and 2, with dimensions of the prototype (with the same output characteristics), the latter much more, for example the prototype of the diameter you the one lens, as was calculated above, not less than 70 mm (an area of more than 38 cm2), and the proposed device 20×50 mm2(area 10 cm2). The total length of the optical system from the emitting region of the laser to the output edges of the prism 4 (figure 1) will be about 105 mm, the prototype of this size, as defined above, 170 mm

Thus, the proposed solution allows to considerably reduce the dimensions of the electro-optical device and to obtain the claimed technical result.

Collimating optical system works in the following way. Diverging radiation beam of a semiconductor laser is converted by the lens in slightly divergent light beam (20×1)'. Next, the beam passes through the first and second prisms and the divergence of the output for one coordinate will be: & Phi;||2||1·G2≈20'·0,2=4', and the second coordinate is not changed, because for the coordinates of the prism is equivalent to a plane-parallel plates.

As a result, the output of the collimating optical system is formed by the radiation beam with a divergence of the order of (4×1)'. To achieve the axial symmetry of the emitting area of the laser must be offset relative to the focal plane of the lens. When removing the emitting region of the laser at a distance z from the focal plane of the linear spot size of the radiation in this flat the STI will be

Deciphering the signsaθand their numerical values given above.

The calculation shows that for the above numerical values of the parameters z offset will be about 0.15 mm, and the radiation divergence in the second coordinate will not change. As a result, the output of the prisms is formed axially symmetric light beam with a divergence of ~4' in both coordinates.

In practice, the position show the emitting region of the laser relative to the focal plane of the lens is in the process of configuring fibre channel forming a beam of radiation, so the inclusion relation (10) in the claims is inappropriate.

Thus, in the proposed solution solves the problem of the formation of axisymmetric beam of laser radiation from a semiconductor laser, with the required divergence, while ensuring the technical result - the reduction of the dimensions of opto-electronic devices that use radiation of semiconductor lasers.

Collimating optical system for a semiconductor laser containing sequentially located along the ray lens and two straight prism, characterized in that the ribs refractive dihedral angles of the prisms are oriented perpendicular to the plane on provodnikov transition the refractive angles of the prisms are the same and are selected in the range of 20÷42°, α - angle of incidence of radiation beams in the prism; β - refracting angles of the prisms is selected from a ratio

where n is the refractive index of material of prism
a F is the focal length of the lens is selected from a ratio

where φ is the required radiation divergence;
a||- the size of the emitting region of a semiconductor laser in a plane parallel to the plane of the semiconductor junction.



 

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FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: laser lighting device for lighting band or linear portion S on object B, primarily on sheet material includes source 2,2' of laser radiation, optical system 4 for expanding the beam, spatially expanding fan-shaped laser beam L2 in two mutually perpendicular directions, and also an astigmatic lens 6, upon which fan-shaped laser beam L2 falls, focal distance f2 of which is shorter than distance A from beginning of fan-shaped laser beam L2 and focal plane of which lies on object B or close to it.

EFFECT: generation of a beam on surface, with high intensiveness, with low light losses; human eyes are protected from laser radiation.

8 cl, 3 dwg

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