Method of controlling smelting of matte in vanyukov's furnace at discrete delayed control over melted product quality
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises control over copper content in matte and stabilisation of matte composition by maintaining reset melting conditions by correcting control effects. Note here that correction of said control effects is carried out continuously by compensating disturbances in discrete delayed control over copper content in matte corresponding to equivalent delay defined by mathematical expression.
EFFECT: matte quality stabilised in time and composition.
The invention relates to the field of automation of technological processes and productions, and particularly to a method of controlling the quality of products smelting of Nickel-copper sulfide raw materials in Vanyukov furnace, and can be used in the production of non-ferrous metals, in particular when managing the quality of products melting in a melting unit with selectable delayed control of the composition of the products of melting.
There is a method of process control low-temperature deep obestsenivaya aluminate solution (A.S. SU # 1034995 D.P. from 29.05.1973). The essence of the invention consists in the following. In the reactor comes aluminate solution and the milk of lime fed from the collector. Lower level management is a local system of automatic stabilization dosage milk of lime, which consists of a flow meter aluminate solution, the flow meter lime milk, the ratio controller and the actuator that changes the flow of milk of lime. Upper level management is a computing machine that calculates the dosage of lime milk per unit volume aluminate solution according to data from the analyzer of the quality of milk of lime. In the computing machine is set to the numerical value of flint module, which should be maintained after re is Chora. The calculated dose is delivered to the ratio controller as a job.
The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of control and lack of responsiveness.
A known method of controlling the refining process of the metal flow in the steelmaking unit (patent No. 2017830 D.P. from 27.12.1990). The method includes measuring the costs of gaseous oxygen and natural gas, the carbon content in the liquid metal and the provisions of the blowing lances, the definition until the end of the refining process of the temporal sequence of changes in the supply of oxygen, natural gas, number of additives solid oxidizer and the provisions of the blowing lances on the basis of the error predicted for the end of the refining process temperature of the metal from its specified value. Information from the sensors is fed to the computing unit, which adjusts the amount of graphitemoderated material introduced into the working space of the steelmaking unit, depending on the magnitude of the predicted values of temperature and metal content of carbon. Computing unit depending on the error between the predicted value of the temperature of the metal and its set value changes the number of graphitemoderated material introduced into the working space stalprofil the th unit.
The disadvantage of this method is to narrow the application of this method without taking into account the discrete delayed control of the composition of the melt.
A known method of controlling the decomposition process (collection of "alumina". Proceedings of YOU, No. 77, Leningrad, 1971, str-186), which are as follows. In the process of decomposition stabilize the temperature input aluminate solution and the value of the bare relationship. In this case, applying the mathematical model of the process of decomposition, which determines the influence of the perturbation process (the number and composition of the input aluminate solution, temperature) on the output process indicator. As the output measure adopted caustic module decomposing pulp (the content of the aluminum hydroxide), which value should be the maximum for a given size of particles of the hydroxide. Using a mathematical model count set value temperature input aluminate solution and the value of the bare relationship. To improve the accuracy of management periodically measure the value of the output parameter (the content of the aluminum hydroxide) and adjust the coefficients of the mathematical model. This trick aims to compensate the inaccuracy of the applied mathematical model, errors of measurement (instrumentation and chemical is erodov analysis), changes the characteristics of the control object in time (covering equipment, inlay heat transfer surfaces), uncontrolled perturbations (level change in decomposer, changing conditions of mixing, etc.)
Among the disadvantages of this method it should be noted the lack of compensation for delayed discrete control of the content of the aluminum hydroxide.
Known way to control the blast furnace (Applied fuzzy systems: Lane. with jap. Kasai. Dated. Sevai and other edited Thereno. Kasai, Magano. - M.: Mir. 1993, p.70-88). The system consists of a control computer, which collects data from sensors and their pre-processing for presentation in a form suitable for inference processor of artificial intelligence using knowledge base, makes conclusions about the heating furnace, and digital instrumentation, control heating by the results of the findings.
CPU artificial intelligence contains software support expert systems and machine findings, interpreting knowledge. The control computer, in addition to the functions of preliminary data from sensors, equipped with functions for data analysis and diagnostics of heating according to the mathematical model. On the basis of information from sensors and knowledge base in the system is done in the waters about the current level of heating period of 20 min and about the increase or decrease of heat; according to the results of the output using the control rules are determined by the amount of blast and other parameters.
The disadvantage of this method is the discrete control (every 20 minutes) basic parameter - level heating furnace, so as the temperature of the process is a factor in determining the composition of the products of melting.
Known way to control melting of copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace (Melting in the liquid bath / Vanyukov A., Bystrov VP, Vaskevich A.D. and others / edited Avenula. M.: metallurgy, 1988, p.122-123), taken as a prototype. In this case, the smelting of copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace lead to Stein. The purpose of the control of the smelting process of copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace is to stabilize the copper content in the matte by stabilizing the temperature of melting. As the main parameter of the selected melting temperature, because the temperature of the process is a factor in determining the composition of the products of melting.
The calculation of the technological mode of smelting copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace is carried out on the basis of the program of the forecast. During process control melt temperature regulate the adjustment of control actions. This trick aims to compensate the effects of various factors.
To fake who headed the remainder of the method is, first of all, low control accuracy, because the change of control actions has a very strong influence on the composition of the products of smelting, which violates the stability of the furnace, that is not provided by the specified quality matte. In addition, no provision is delayed discrete product quality control heat.
Technical task control method smelting of Nickel-copper sulfide raw materials in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control is melting the creation of such a control method, which is compensated discrete lagging quality control of the products of melting due to the replacement of discrete control loop continuous control system, operating in real time, which allows you to manage the process continuously and to stabilize the quality of a Stein.
The technical result of the invention is the stabilization of the quality matte in time.
The technical result of the invention is achieved in that in the method of control of the heat, copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting, which includes the determination of the copper content in the matte, the stabilization of the composition of the matte by maintaining a given mode of fusion due to the adjustment of governors of the impact is of textbooks, according to the invention as a main parameter take the copper content in the matte; the adjustment of the control actions carried out continuously by compensation of the amount of perturbation of the discrete delayed main control parameter corresponding to the equivalent amount of lag (τEQ), which is determined by the formula:
where τβ- laboratory measurements, the samples are matte; Tβthe period of sampling products.
The method of control of the heat, copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a diagram of an automated control system (ACS) process for implementing the method.
The sequence of technological processes 1 processing of materials from one state to another forms the pyrometallurgical production of 2. Information from the object enters the programmable l is logical controllers (PLC) 3, automated workplaces (AWP) operators and system data visualization (SCADA system). In addition, samples of materials and products from the process are received in the laboratory 6 for chemical analysis.
Job setpoint the process, the correction of the coefficients of the control devices, indicators of production costs, the optimal values of the process and manufacturing, technical and economic parameters and other inputs to the system are made via the manual input unit 8 in a virtual module 7 and the computer unit 5. Then it goes on a shared server 4, which is stored in the form of graphs, tables, trends, etc. There is a primary statistical processing of data, namely the data is validated against actual values screenings of random variables, addressing data gaps and other errors. The created database is sent for further processing in the computing unit 5, which is the calculation of the compensation of perturbations of discrete delayed control.
The essence of the compensation of disturbances spare wheel bracket illustrated by figure 2, which shows: 1 and 2 - clamps zero order f1and f2accordingly, 3 - linear model of technological process with the transfer function Fµ(jω), 4 - perturbation compensator (controller) from the front of the full-time function f β(jω), V1 and L keys, simulating discrete operations of sampling (the delay time τβ), µ is the control signal, ξ - signal neocomposite, β - managed value.
Compensation for delayed discrete control is carried out as follows. The closure of key KL1 and CL with the holders of the zero order f1and f2simulate discrete operations of sampling, input the results of its analysis in the computer memory (with delay time τβand implement the control action generated by algorithm fβ. Keys locked in phase and synchronous with a period of Tβsampling of products.
Including in the control system of smelting copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting link equivalent lag GEQthat depends on the parameters of discrete delayed path diagram in figure 2, can be converted in the control scheme shown in figure 3, which shows: 1 - the link is equivalent to the lag, 2 - linear model of technological process with the transfer function of
Compensation of perturbations of discrete delayed product quality control melting in the management of Vanyukov process is that the control circuit smelting of Nickel-copper sulfide raw materials in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting link equivalent lag GEQthat depends on the parameters of discrete delayed path. Asking linear operator GEQ(s)
Array processing units find a description of the dependencies of the parameters of the operator GEQ(s) on the parameters of discrete delayed control is determined by the function
The effectiveness of quasi-system with discrete delayed control of the composition of the products of fusion is to determine the dependence of the spectral density function Sβ(ω) from period Tβcircuit key KL1 and CL and parameters of the linear model of the control object, the transfer function which has the form
When this preset is a function of the spectral density Sξ(ω) and assume that the results of discrete measurements of the composition of the matte is converted into control actions. In this case, it is advisable to use a PI controller with transfer function:
where Kpand Tp- the settings of the controller.
Thus, to obtain the transfer function fβ(jω) to compensate for perturbations of discrete delayed control in the management of smelting copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting, you must:
1. To determine the estimated or experimental method the parameters of the control object (Vanyukov furnace).
2. To determine the parameters of discrete delayed control, that is, to set forth Amazon practically possible values of the period of sampling matte T βand laboratory measurements, the samples matte τβ.
3. To calculate the equivalent link delay GEQby the formula (1) and the transfer function of the control object by the formula (3).
4. To calculate the settings of the regulator with regard to the level equivalent to the delay by the formula (4).
After this mathematical apparatus continuously receives the request to process control to improve the control accuracy, which in turn leads to the stabilization of matte composition. This cycle of the calculation for a period of sampling is completed. For the next period of the sampling cycle is repeated again.
For the implementation of the proposed control method smelting of Nickel-copper sulfide raw materials in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed product quality control melting first, you need to take a range of values of Tβand τβand the number N of points in this range, which will be optimized control object and identified the operator GEQ(s).
For Vanyukov furnace PV-2, operating at the Copper plant of the polar division of OJSC MMC Norilsk Nickel, which is the pyrometallurgical object with discrete delayed control of the composition of the products of fusion (matte), defined write expressions for calculating quivalente lag τ EQ:
Thus, the analytical form of the expression for τEQthat link is equivalent to the lag GEQand functions of the spectral density of fluctuations depending on the parameters of the control object (the period of sampling matte Tβand laboratory measurements, the samples matte τβand spare wheel bracket allows you to create a continuously operating control system when replacing open loop control (figure 2) closed (3), which leads to stabilization of the quality of matte and optimization of process control.
The method of control of the heat, copper-Nickel sulfide raw material in Vanyukov furnace at discrete delayed control the quality of products smelting, including the control of the copper content in the matte, the stabilization of the composition of the matte by maintaining a specified mode of the heat by adjusting the control actions, wherein the adjustment control actions carried out continuously by compensatively perturbations of discrete delayed control the copper content in the matte,
the corresponding equivalent amount of lag (τEQ), which is determined by the formula:
where τβ- laboratory measurements, the samples are matte;
Tβ- period of the sampling matte.
SUBSTANCE: said air suspension and reducing agent are placed inside isolated vessel provided with perforated branch pipe located at vessel bottom to make air suspension and communicated with external pipeline for feeding compressed air at excess pressure of 0.1-0.6 kgf/cm2. Raw stock 0.02-1.0 mm-dia particles filled some 20-40% of the volume of said vessel. Said reducing agent represents carbon-bearing compounds contained in compressed air fed to make suspension of particles inside said vessel. Said suspension and reducing agent are subjected to effects of variable rotary magnetic field with intensity in treatment zone of 1.5×103÷1×106 A/m and frequency of 40-70 Hz. Reduction brings about copper particles. Components for generation of aforesaid field are composed of interconnected plates made from permeable material and shaped to rectangle inside which three windings-coils are arranged. Every said coil is electrically connected with appropriate phase of external three-phase power supply. One of said components has through groove that allows fitting into said vessel of cover arranged atop said vessel to inhibit communication with surroundings.
EFFECT: lower costs, simplified design.
2 cl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out in two stages - melting and further reduction of a slag melt, sending the slag melt from the melting stage to the reduction stage is carried out in a direction opposite to motion of gaseous and dusty products, gaseous products of the melting and reduction stage are burnt above the melt of the reduction stage. The amount of oxygen in a wind supplied into the melt at the melting stage makes 0.9-1.2 from the theoretically required one to oxidise fuel carbohydrates to CO2 and H2O, amount of oxygen in a wind supplied for afterburning of gases above the slag melt of the melting stage makes 0.9-1.2 from the one theoretically required to oxidise components of effluent gases to CO2 and H2O, amount of the oxygen-containing wind supplied into the melt at the melting stage makes 500-1500 m3/m3 of the slag melt, the amount of the oxygen-containing wind supplied to the melt at the reduction stage makes 300-1000 m3/m3 of the slag melt. A furnace by Vanyukov is disclosed, in which a gas flue for joint removal of gases of melting and reducing chambers is installed in the end of the melting chamber dome at the distance of the reducing chamber above tuyeres of the upper row of the melting chamber along the vertical line in gauges of the lower row tuyere relative to the plane of the lower row tuyeres, the melting chamber bottom is arranged by 5-30 gauges below, the horizontal plane of upper row tuyere installation is by 30-80 tuyeres higher, the horizontal plane of lower row tuyeres installation in the reducing chamber is arranged below the upper edge of the vertical partition between the melting and reducing chambers by 40-85 gauges of the reducing chamber tuyeres.
EFFECT: lower mechanical dust carryover and toxic substances exhaust with effluent gases, reduced power and capital expenses, higher reliability, safety and operation life of melting and gas-cleaning equipment.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in charging wastes of zinc into crucible of furnace, in their re-melting at temperature equal or higher, than temperature of melting at presence of anhydride of boric acid produced in furnace at thermal decomposition of boric acid. The distinguished feature of the procedure is charging boric acid on a bottom of the furnace crucible before charging wastes of zinc. Weight of boric acid is calculated by formula: y=25.1(100-x), where y is weight of boric acid per 1000 kg of zinc wastes, kg, x is content of metal zinc in wastes, %. When temperature of melt of zinc wastes reaches 700-750°C, it is conditioned in the furnace for 45 min. Also, height of melt of zinc wastes in the crucible of the furnace is maintained as 800 mm. The furnace consists of a case, of lining with refractory bricks, of the crucible for melting wastes of zinc laid with refractory bricks, of gas dead-end burners positioned in chambers and communicated with the crucible of the furnace through channels in mason-work of furnace crucible, of a cover of the furnace crucible, of two notches, one of which is located at height of 80 mm from the bottom of the furnace crucible designed for casting refined melt of zinc into moulds, while the second one is located at the level of the bottom of the furnace crucible and is designed for casting melt of zinc containing inter-metallic compounds or true solutions of impurity metals in melt of zinc into moulds.
EFFECT: reduced capital and operational expenditures.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: wastes are treated in Vanyukov's furnace with slag melting, supplying charge and oxygen containing gas through tuyeres into slag melting. Charge is melted and slag is generated at temperature 1250-1400°C. The procedure is implemented in the furnace wherein height of tuyeres can be changed. With growth of the lowest working heat-producing capacity of charge height of axis of tuyeres arrangement from a bottom of the furnace is increased. Value of ratio of blast of oxygen containing gas (nm3/hour per 1 m2 of cross section of a furnace) and the lowest working heat-producing capacity of charge (kJ/kg) is maintained within the ranges of 0.07-0.12 facilitating degree of carbon burning-out in charge to its residual content in slag at the level of 0.1-0.15%.
EFFECT: environmental safety of produced liquid and gaseous products of processing for their further utilisation, also maximal low combustible charge components under-burning for maximal utilisation of energy of processed waste.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: furnace has an outer cover, a reaction chamber inside the cover, a heating system and a system for circulating the reagent gas. The outer cover of the furnace and the reaction chamber bound a first volume between the inner side of the cover of the furnace and the outer side of the reaction chamber and a second volume inside the reaction chamber. The first volume is divided into a first part which forms the heating zone which accommodates the heating system and a second part in which the reagent gas is present. The heating zone is hermetically insulated from the second part. The furnace also has a system for circulating inert gas which is made and placed with possibility of feeding inert gas into the heating zone at a rate which provides positive differential pressure relative the pressure of the reagent gas inside the second part of the first volume in which the reagent gas is present in order to prevent passage of the reagent gas into the heating zone.
EFFECT: design prevents contact between the reagent gas and the heating system, which increases reliability and longevity of the device.
13 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of cylinder case with cover equipped with internal refractory coating. Also, inside the case there is installed a graphite crucible in form of truncated cone facing the bottom with smaller base. An orifice in the base is closed with a pusher. Further, the device consists of a striking appliance. The device is equipped with a located in the cover branch for exhaust of volatile products of metal thermal reaction from a working reservoir into a neutralising installation and with a branch for blasting with compressed air.
EFFECT: simplified removal of cake from crucible, reduced time intervals between working charges of device due to elimination of crucible complete cooling, its cleaning and restoration, raised efficiency of device and prevention of air pollution with gases generated in metal-thermal reaction.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: caisson consists of plate out of heat conducting material with imbedded into it coil, and of connecting pipes for input and output of coolant. Ratio of total area of the coil of the caisson calculated by its external diametre (F1, m2) to area of the caisson (F2, m2) from flame side is F1: F2-0.90-2.2. The caisson can be made with an orifice for insertion of air tuyere into it.
EFFECT: increased operational resistance and safety of caisson operation of row and tuyere caissons under forced mode of melting and at raised temperature of procees.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: furnace consists of caisson shaft divided with cross partition into melting and reducing chambers equipped with low and upper tuyeres, of sole, of siphon for accumulation and tapping metal and slag via corresponding channels with orifice in lower part of end wall, of device for loading charge and solid materials into melting and reducing chambers and of pipe for fume extraction. The siphon is equipped with at least one bushing for insertion and transfer of an electrode in it, with a block for electrode manipulation, with a power source, and with a block of control-measuring facilities and automation. Also an upper part of the electrode is connected to the power source and to the block of control and measuring facilities and automation; the output of the latter is coupled with an input of the manipulation block ensuring vertical reciprocal motion of the electrode via its drive and its deviation from vertical axis.
EFFECT: ensuring long-term furnace operation maintaining minimal level of mechanical losses of metals and increased safety and reliability of operation.
8 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: furnace consists of lined jacket with electrodes, and of bell installed inside with charge chamber and central vertical channel, with vertical webbing, overflow channels and bottom between two of ribs and two branches with removable funnels. An orifice of diameter bigger, than diameter of a charging branch and of cross section less, than cross section of the overflow channels in vertical ribs near the charging branch is made in the bottom under the charging branch. The removable charging funnel is ended with a cup-like guide of flow at depth of 0.1-0.5 of height of the bell from its top. Also diameter of the guide is 30-80 mm bigger, than diameter of the end of the charging funnel. Working electrolyte of electrolytic cells is used as heating salt.
EFFECT: simplified furnace maintenance, reduced losses of magnesium and elimination of harmful components from composition of heating salt.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: furnace consists of case with installed therein melting section equipped with facility for charge supply and burner and electro-thermal section divided from melting section with partition not reaching hearth; also melting section is equipped with electrodes, electric holders, devices for metal and slag tapping and with gas duct. A lower edge of the partition is positioned above the level of the slag tapping device thereby forming a gas-overflow port of alternate cross section with the level of melt. The metal tapping device is equipped with a well communicated with an overflow zone of the partition via a channel. Section of the port is chosen according to specified ratio of furnace width to inter-axis distance between electrodes. The charge supply facility has a chute superposed on a stepped hearth with incline to a partition side.
EFFECT: treatment of lead concentrate of current production of raised humidity (up to 4-6%) ensuring additional recovery of metal from volatile dust-gas components by transmitting them through electro-thermal section; reduced exhaust of lead containing dust.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy and may be used for making bars and tubular blanks of whatever shape. Proposed method comprises melting copper at 1084°C with copper surface coated by burnt charcoal layer and carbon monoxide atmosphere above the melt. Then, copper is refined and reduced at 1180-1200°C to oxygen content of not over 8 ppm. Melt temperature and chemical composition are stabilised to extract light-end products of the reaction. Casting is performed through graphite casing mould with stepwise drawing of article. Rate, step and frequency of steps are calculated subject to type of articles to be cast. Cast products are prepared for further transportation and storage.
EFFECT: higher quality, better operating properties of cast parts.
1 tbl, 1 ex