Hydroreactive mixture

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: hydroreactive mixture contains industrial aluminium ACD-1 powder and aluminium nanopowder with particle size of 70÷120 nm, as well as an activating additive in form of granular sodium hydroxide with the following ratio of components, in wt %: industrial ACD-1 powder 67÷79, aluminium nanopowder 30÷14, sodium hydroxide 3÷7.

EFFECT: faster heat release.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of fuel cells and hydrogen production, specifically the metal compounds that interact with water with evolution of heat and hydrogen, and can be used in combined elements in a fuel cell for generating electric power, industrial and domestic gas generators, chemistry, metallurgy and so on

Known formula for hydrogen (Ed. St. No. 1444295, IPC SI 3/08 publ. 15.12.1988, based powder containing Nickel powder (20-30 wt.%) and silicon (0.15 to 0.5 wt.%) and the mixture (avts No. 1134538, publ. 15.01.1985 g) on the basis of the Nickel powder (49-51,8 wt.%) and copper powder (3.0 to 6.0 wt.%).

The disadvantages of these mixtures are: relatively high cost, special storage conditions and low efficiency due to high content of Nickel, not giving hydrogen in the reaction with water.

Most similar in chemical nature of the present composition of the mixture, chosen for the prototype is a mixture gidrologiya (RF patent 2131841 C1, C1 IPC, publ. 20.06.1999 g), which contains aluminum powder particle size 1÷200 μm (90÷50 wt.%) and magnesium particle size of 50-500 μm, doped Nickel (10÷50 wt.%), the number of alloying of the Nickel powder is 0.5÷3.0 wt.%

The disadvantage of this structure is that when it is used is lovanii is relatively small, the value of the rate of growth temperature (25÷ 45°C/min). Alloying powder magnesium Nickel complicates the process of making hydroregime mixture, and the presence of a mixture of Nickel reduces the yield of hydrogen and heat for 10-15% and leads to a slight appreciation of the mixture. Aluminum and magnesium powders react with water with evolution of heat (Q)

2Al+6N2O→2Al(OH)3+3H2↑,Q=918,2 kJ/mol,
Mg+2H2O→Mg(OH)2+H2↑,Q=354,1 kJ/mol

According to the above thermochemical equations of the reactions in the oxidation of water to magnesium is allocated a smaller amount of heat, as well as for more of 22.4 l (1 mole) of hydrogen (H2) required 24 g of magnesium, whereas to obtain the same amount of hydrogen from aluminum have 18 grams of aluminum.

The main technical result of our proposed solution is to increase the speed of heat dissipation 2÷10 times.

The main technical result is achieved by the fact that gidrologiya mixture comprising a powder of aluminum and an activating additive, according to the proposed solution contains industrial powder of THE aluminum, the aluminum nanopowder with a particle size of 70÷120 nm and an activating additive in the form of sodium hydroxide in the following ratios, wt%:

industrial powder "ASD-1"67÷79
the aluminum nanopowder30÷14
sodium hydroxide3÷7

In the known technical solutions do not have characteristics similar to the characteristics that distinguish the claimed solution to the prototype.

Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the claimed invention, have shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art.

Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known effect provided essential features of the invention transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, the invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

An example of a specific implementation.

Components hydroregime mixture powder "ASD-1 with a particle size of 80 microns, the aluminum nanopowder particle size of 70÷120 nm, and granulated sodium hydroxide particle size of 1.0÷2.5 mm in the mass ratios shown in the table, with constant stirring simultaneously added to water at room temperature (21÷23°).

According to thermochemical equation for the oxidation reaction of aluminum with water PR is the interaction of aluminum with water allocated heat and molecular hydrogen, that is, the water temperature will rise as hydrogen. Therefore, the rate of temperature rise is directly proportional to the rate of hydrogen evolution.

The table shows data on the use of hydroregime mixture to produce heat and hydrogen

No.The composition of the mixtureThe temperature of the water after adding the mixture to water, °C*The interaction of Al powders with water
The content component, wt.%Maxim. the rate of temperature rise, °C/minNote
The SDA-1the nanopowder AlNaOH
890839,21,2The low rate of temperature rise
884839,21,2
857839,26,0
8210839,215,9
7914737,130,6The inventive composition
7618635,453,4
73225to 33.879,2
7026431,5111,6
6730329,272,6
6434228,6of 5.4The low rate of temperature rise
6138125,0-
* - the temperature was determined using a chromel-alumaloy thermocouple and recorder PSC-4.

Thus, as can be seen from table, the desired value of the speed of temperature increase is achieved by using a mixture comprising components in the following proportions: powder "ASD-1" - 67÷79 wt.%, the aluminum nanopowder - 14-30 wt.% and granulated sodium hydroxide in the amount of 7-3 wt.% Experimental results showed that, if the water, add the mixture with the other contents of the proposed components, the rate of temperature rise, and hence the rate of hydrogen is much lower.

Adding in in the proposed composition hydroregime mixture rate of the temperature increase, consequently, the rate of hydrogen is increased by 2÷10 times compared with the values specified in the prototype. In addition, the components of the mixture do not require special storage (enough conditionally sealed container).

Gidrologiya mixture comprising a powder of aluminum and an activating additive, characterized in that the mixture contains industrial aluminium powder ASD-1 and the aluminum nanopowder with a particle size of 70÷120 nm, and as an activator - granular sodium hydroxide in the following ratio, wt.%:

industrial powder "ASD-1"67÷79
the aluminum nanopowder30÷14
sodium hydroxide3÷7



 

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