SUBSTANCE: hydroreactive mixture contains industrial aluminium ACD-1 powder and aluminium nanopowder with particle size of 70÷120 nm, as well as an activating additive in form of granular sodium hydroxide with the following ratio of components, in wt %: industrial ACD-1 powder 67÷79, aluminium nanopowder 30÷14, sodium hydroxide 3÷7.
EFFECT: faster heat release.
The invention relates to the production of fuel cells and hydrogen production, specifically the metal compounds that interact with water with evolution of heat and hydrogen, and can be used in combined elements in a fuel cell for generating electric power, industrial and domestic gas generators, chemistry, metallurgy and so on
Known formula for hydrogen (Ed. St. No. 1444295, IPC SI 3/08 publ. 15.12.1988, based powder containing Nickel powder (20-30 wt.%) and silicon (0.15 to 0.5 wt.%) and the mixture (avts No. 1134538, publ. 15.01.1985 g) on the basis of the Nickel powder (49-51,8 wt.%) and copper powder (3.0 to 6.0 wt.%).
The disadvantages of these mixtures are: relatively high cost, special storage conditions and low efficiency due to high content of Nickel, not giving hydrogen in the reaction with water.
Most similar in chemical nature of the present composition of the mixture, chosen for the prototype is a mixture gidrologiya (RF patent 2131841 C1, C1 IPC, publ. 20.06.1999 g), which contains aluminum powder particle size 1÷200 μm (90÷50 wt.%) and magnesium particle size of 50-500 μm, doped Nickel (10÷50 wt.%), the number of alloying of the Nickel powder is 0.5÷3.0 wt.%
The disadvantage of this structure is that when it is used is lovanii is relatively small, the value of the rate of growth temperature (25÷ 45°C/min). Alloying powder magnesium Nickel complicates the process of making hydroregime mixture, and the presence of a mixture of Nickel reduces the yield of hydrogen and heat for 10-15% and leads to a slight appreciation of the mixture. Aluminum and magnesium powders react with water with evolution of heat (Q)
According to the above thermochemical equations of the reactions in the oxidation of water to magnesium is allocated a smaller amount of heat, as well as for more of 22.4 l (1 mole) of hydrogen (H2) required 24 g of magnesium, whereas to obtain the same amount of hydrogen from aluminum have 18 grams of aluminum.
The main technical result of our proposed solution is to increase the speed of heat dissipation 2÷10 times.
The main technical result is achieved by the fact that gidrologiya mixture comprising a powder of aluminum and an activating additive, according to the proposed solution contains industrial powder of THE aluminum, the aluminum nanopowder with a particle size of 70÷120 nm and an activating additive in the form of sodium hydroxide in the following ratios, wt%:
|industrial powder "ASD-1"||67÷79|
|the aluminum nanopowder||30÷14|
In the known technical solutions do not have characteristics similar to the characteristics that distinguish the claimed solution to the prototype.
Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the claimed invention, have shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art.
Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known effect provided essential features of the invention transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, the invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".
An example of a specific implementation.
Components hydroregime mixture powder "ASD-1 with a particle size of 80 microns, the aluminum nanopowder particle size of 70÷120 nm, and granulated sodium hydroxide particle size of 1.0÷2.5 mm in the mass ratios shown in the table, with constant stirring simultaneously added to water at room temperature (21÷23°).
According to thermochemical equation for the oxidation reaction of aluminum with water PR is the interaction of aluminum with water allocated heat and molecular hydrogen, that is, the water temperature will rise as hydrogen. Therefore, the rate of temperature rise is directly proportional to the rate of hydrogen evolution.
The table shows data on the use of hydroregime mixture to produce heat and hydrogen
|No.||The composition of the mixture||The temperature of the water after adding the mixture to water, °C*||The interaction of Al powders with water|
|The content component, wt.%||Maxim. the rate of temperature rise, °C/min||Note|
|The SDA-1||the nanopowder Al||NaOH|
|89||0||8||39,2||1,2||The low rate of temperature rise|
|79||14||7||37,1||30,6||The inventive composition|
|64||34||2||28,6||of 5.4||The low rate of temperature rise|
|* - the temperature was determined using a chromel-alumaloy thermocouple and recorder PSC-4.|
Thus, as can be seen from table, the desired value of the speed of temperature increase is achieved by using a mixture comprising components in the following proportions: powder "ASD-1" - 67÷79 wt.%, the aluminum nanopowder - 14-30 wt.% and granulated sodium hydroxide in the amount of 7-3 wt.% Experimental results showed that, if the water, add the mixture with the other contents of the proposed components, the rate of temperature rise, and hence the rate of hydrogen is much lower.
Adding in in the proposed composition hydroregime mixture rate of the temperature increase, consequently, the rate of hydrogen is increased by 2÷10 times compared with the values specified in the prototype. In addition, the components of the mixture do not require special storage (enough conditionally sealed container).
Gidrologiya mixture comprising a powder of aluminum and an activating additive, characterized in that the mixture contains industrial aluminium powder ASD-1 and the aluminum nanopowder with a particle size of 70÷120 nm, and as an activator - granular sodium hydroxide in the following ratio, wt.%:
|industrial powder "ASD-1"||67÷79|
|the aluminum nanopowder||30÷14|
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to chemical and electronic industry and can be used for obtaining highly pure silicon. Silicon containing substance is put into a melting pot with molten silicon through a system of pipes with 0.1-5 mm2 openings for obtaining gas bubbles. Thermal decomposition of the silicon bearing gas takes place. The obtained silicon replenishes the melt. The proposed invention allows for increasing output of the process and purity of the obtained silicon at a lower cost of the equipment and energy losses.
EFFECT: increased output of process and purity of obtained product at lower cost of equipment and energy losses.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used when making anode paste for aluminium electrolysis units. Oxidised graphite is saturated with solution, containing modifying additive in form of colloid solution of aluminium metahydroxide. An alternative is to saturate graphite with a water solution of an aluminium salt, chosen from a group, consisting of aluminium nitrate, chloride and sulphate. The aluminium metahydroxide is then precipitated at 70-90°C by adding an aqua ammonia solution in quantity, sufficient for attaining pH of 8-9. The mass ratio of the oxidised graphite to the solution of the modifying additive is 1:(1-2). The mass ratio of thermal expanded graphite to the solution of the modifying additive is 1:(50-100). The solid medium is separated from the particulate, dried and undergoes thermal processing at 300-850°C. The obtained material based on thermal expanded graphite contains 1-30 wt % γ - Al2O3 and particles of thermal expanded graphite constitute the remaining wt %. The obtained material has better adsorption and catalytic activity.
EFFECT: obtaining material with improved adsorption and catalytic activity.
16 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to synthesising gas, containing carbon oxide and hydrogen, and reduction of concentration of carbon dioxide, method of obtaining dimethyl ether, as well as furnace for gas synthesis. The gas synthesis method involves reforming a gas through incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon in space over a catalyst layer in a furnace. Temperature at the output of the catalyst layer is 1100-1300°C, and concentration of carbon dioxide in the gas synthesis is not more than 10% vol. Time for keeping the gas over the catalyst layer is 2 seconds or more. Dimethyl ether is obtained from the gas synthesis. The gas synthesis furnace allows for effusion of raw material containing, at least, hydrocarbon and oxidant, coming from a burner at the upper part of the furnace, incomplete combustion of the hydrocarbon in the space above the catalyst layer inside the furnace and synthesis of gas, containing carbon oxide and hydrogen in the catalyst layer. In the first alternative of the structure of the furnace, the space over the layer of catalyst satisfies conditions (1) and (2): (1) L≥D/2×cotanθ1 and (2) the time for keeping the gas in the space is 2 seconds or more, where L is the height of the space over the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1 is ½ the apical angle of the profile of the cone shaped width of the effusion stream into the furnace from the burner, and has values lying in the interval 6.5°≤θ1≤9°. In the second alternative of the structure of the furnace, the above mentioned space above the layer of catalyst satisfies the following conditions (1), (2) and (4): (1) L≥D/2×cotanθ1 and (2) the time the gas spends in the space is 2 seconds or more, and (4) L≥10d, where L is the height of the space over the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1 is ½ the apical angle of the profile of the cone shaped width of the effusion stream into the furnace from the burner, and lies in the interval 6,5°≤θ1≤9°, and d is the minimum diameter of a circle, encompassing all openings of the burner, through which the gas flows out.
EFFECT: synthesis of gas, which does not contain hydrocarbons, and with low concentration of carbon dioxide.
13 cl, 14 dwg, 7 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: in water suspension of caolin solutions of acidified aluminium sulfate and powder-like starch or carboxymethylcellulise in amount 2-3% wt are introduced. Amount of caolin in mixture is 75-85% wt. Amount of produced synthetic alumosilicate in mixture is 15-25% wt. Suspension is subjected to dispersive drying at temperature 350°C. Dry microspherical granules are calcinated. Then calcinated granules are crystallised in alkaline aluminate solution. Crystallised microspherical zeolite of A type is washed with water from excessive alkali and dried.
EFFECT: zeolite granules have high wear resistance, phase frequency and adsorption capacity.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: mixture from source of carbon - graphite and metal-solvent based on nickel-manganese alloy in ratio 40:60 of weight respectively is prepared. 3.73-33.55 wt % of manganese carbide powder Mn7C3 and 2.27-20.45 wt % of nickel powder are introduced into mixture on condition that ratio of nickel and manganese in metal-solvent is preserved. Obtained charge is pressed into tablets, put into alundum crucible and thermally processed in vacuum.
EFFECT: increase of diamond crystals output and increase of grainularity part without using expensive inoculating diamond crystals.
SUBSTANCE: as metal-containing substance wastes of non-ferrous metallurgy production is used - metallurgical dust, obtained as result of roasting of magnetic fractions and nickel concentrate, containing oxides of cobalt, nickel, copper, sulfides of nickel and copper. In presence of water mixture of metallurgical dust and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is prepared in ratio 1 mole of NiO contained in metallurgical dust per 1-4 moles of PVA. 5-10% PVA solution or dry PVA, which is crushed together with metallurgical dust with addition of minimal water amount for moistening and "connecting" components, can be used. Obtained mixture is dried on glass padding at 50°C, after which thermal processing with step-by-step heating to 400°C is carried out. Tubular, fused, sphere-shaped nanostructures are obtained, which can be hollow or filled with metals and their compounds: Ni, Cu, CoO, NiO, Cu2O are obtained.
EFFECT: reduction of energy consumption and cost of target product; use of cheap raw material and metallurgical production wastes.
8 dwg, 12 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: device for production of carbon nanotubes by method of arc discharge includes chamber 5, filled with inertial gas, carbon-containing cathode 1 and anode 2, installed axially symmetrically with the possibility of displacement in relation to each other in longitudinal direction, and heating element 3. Anode 2 is separated into working and supplying sections. Supplying section of anode 2 is arranged with axially symmetrical blind channel 6, at the end of which several radial holes 7 are provided for inertial gas flow into chamber 5 from the side of working section. On the other side supplying section is connected with pipeline 4 to device of inertial gas cooling. Working section of anode 2 is installed with gap inside heating element 3, arranged in the form of annular inductor of high frequency currents. Carbon nanotubes are produced in arc discharge between cathode 1 and anode 2. Simultaneously with heating of working section of anode 2 by current of high frequency up to 800-2000°C, inertial gas is extracted into cooling device, then it is supplied back to channel 6 for cooling of supplying section of anode 2.
EFFECT: increase of carbon nanotube content in cathode deposit by expansion and regulation of temperature effect zones.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is catalyst of purification of hydrogen-containing gas mixture from CO, including metal copper and/or copper oxide and cerium dioxide, applied on carbon carrier, as such mezoporous graphite-like carbon material is used, which represents three-dimensional matrix with pore volume 0.2-1.7 cm3/g, formed with ribbon carbon layers 100-10000 A thick and curvature radius 100-10000 A, having true density equal 1.80-2.10 g/cm3, X-ray density 2.112-2.236 g/cm3, porous structure with pore distribution with additional maximum within the range 200-2000 A or biporous structure with pore distribution with additional maximum within the range 40-200 A and specific surface 50-500 m2/g, catalyst having the following composition, wt %: Cu - 5.0-10.0; Ce - 15.0-20.0; O - 4.8-7.2; C - 75.2-62.8. Also described is method of catalyst preparation by subsequent or simultaneous impregnation of said carrier with cerium and copper solutions.
EFFECT: high efficiency, selectivity and enhanced mechanical strength of catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain microsherical zeolite of A type with high phase purity, solutions of sodium silicate and acidified aluminium sulfate are introduced in water kaolin suspension and powder-like zeolite NaA with crystal size 0.5-2.0 mcm in amount 5-10% wt, per total weight of kaolin and formed synthetic alumosilicate, is introduced. Hydrogen index (pH) of prepared suspension constitutes 9.5-10.5. Amount of kaolin in mixture - 75-85% wt. Amount of formed synthetic alumosilicate in mixture - 15-25% wt. Suspension is subjected to dispersion drying in smoke gases flow at temperature 350°C, tempered in "boiling" layer at temperature 600°C; tempered granules are crystallised in alkaline aluminate solution, washed with water from excess of alkali and dried.
EFFECT: invention allows to obtain zeolite with high adsoption and strength characteristics and with high phase purity.
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention allows to obtain memorial diamond from pale-yellow to light-blue tint depending on content of admixture in it, which is identified with exact person and is an object, which reminds of him/her. Method includes processing of biological material belonging to exact individual, and growing on its basis artificial diamond by acting on it with high pressures and temperatures. Processing is performed by mechanical grinding, preliminary drying, chemical processing in hydrochloric acid, chemical processing with complex-former Trilon-B, chemical processing with mixture of mineral acids - hydrofluoric and nitric or sulfuric acids, repeated washing after each chemical processing with said reagents to neutral reaction, filtration and drying until pure highly-dispersive carbon of biological origin is obtained.
EFFECT: obtaining carbon of high purity with characteristic microelements for exact individual.
6 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: vertical structure of semiconductor device includes substrate forming essentially horizontal plane, gate electrode with vertical side wall and vertically protruding from substrate, washer attached from one side from vertical side wall, semiconductor nanotube between gate electrode and washer and essentially vertically protruding between its opposite first and second ends, gate dielectric on vertical side wall between nanotube and gate electrode, source electrically connected with first end of nanotube, and drain electrically connected with second end of nanotube. Each nanotube is grown by chemical vapour deposition accelerated with catalyst platform mounted in foundation of elongated passage formed between washer and gate electrode.
EFFECT: allows for application of technology compatible to die mass production technology.
37 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed is sorbent, made in form of granules of highly-porous aluminium oxide with pore volume not less than 0.55 cm3/g, specific surface not less than 200 m2/g, representing assembly of nanofibres, connected together into rigid spongy structure and containing nano-sized particles of iron oxides, formed as layer on the surface of said granules in amount 2-10% from granules weight. Sorbent is obtained by impregnation of porous base with solution of iron compounds with further processing with alkali.
EFFECT: sorbent has high capacity and mechanical strength.
17 cl, 2 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, phototechnics.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns electronic technics, particularly devices converting electromagnetic emission energy into electric energy, and technologies of their manufacturing, particularly semiconductor photoelectric generators. Semiconductor photoelectric generator takes form of a matrix of commuted microphotoconverters with one or two linear dimensions comparable to diffusion length of secondary current carriers in base area; p-n transition planes are perpendicular to working surface of generator; microphotoconverter surface free of n-p transitions carries a 10-30 nm thick insulating film with 10-40 nm metal clusters positioned on it at 60-120 nm distance from each other; and dielectric layer of passivating antireflection coating is laid over nanoclusters. Two more embodiments of photoelectric generator are claimed.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of photoelectric generator and electromagnetic radiation conversion for single emission.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining nanotubular structures includes mixing of oxygen-containing organic compound - oxalic acid hydrate with vanadium oxide gel or oxygen-containing compound of respective metal. As oxygen-containing compound of respective metal, peroxide molybdenum or tungsten oxides are used.
EFFECT: reduction of interlayer distance in structure of nanotubular structures of said oxides due to absence in structure of extraneous radicals of organic compounds.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in structures of photocathode in optoelectronic systems, secondary emission photocells, detector modules of ionising radiations, systems of images recognition, etc. According to invention, in heterostructure for photocathode that contains diamond layer of p-type conductivity with nanodimensional topological irregularities on its surface, as nanodimensional topological irregularities auto-emissive diamond points or diamond crystalline nanoparticles are used that are regularly positioned, surface of layer, except for the said irregularities, being covered with conducting amorphous carbon or nanocarbide film. Heterostructure may be installed on wafer, in which cavity is provided.
EFFECT: possibility to obtain efficient photocathodes with expanded spectral area of radiation reception on the basis of suggested heterostructure, at that obtained photocathodes being resistant to thermal and radiation loads.
FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention refers to biocompatible wearproof nanostructure thin-film materials on the basis of titan carbonitride, used as membranulas for manufacturing imlants, working under load. Total concentration of the basic and additional elements in a covering has the following ratio: where Xi - total concentration of basic elements Ti, Ta, C, N in the covering, Yj - total concentration of additional elements Ca, Zr, Si, K, Mn, O, P in a covering, concentration of elements in the covering being chosen at the following ratio of components, at.wt%: Ti - 30-50; Ta 6-50; C - 15-40; N - 0-35; O - 5-25; Ca - 0-7; Zr - 0-20; Si - 0-30; P - 0-1.5; Mn - 0-1.0; K - 0-1.0.
EFFECT: high hardness of covering; low elasticity module; high durability of coupling with a substrate; low factor of friction and rate of deterioration; high firmness to elastic deformation of destruction and plastic deformation; low roughness of the surface; negative charge of the surface in physiological mediums; bioactive surface; biocompatibility and absence of toxicity.
16 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns nanotechnologies and is designed for production of nanocomposite materials with efficiently adjustable optic properties, which can be applied in non-linear optics, IT, optic memory device development etc. Nanocomposite material contains nanoparticles, intermediary link molecules (particles changing their spatial configuration under the influence of external light source), and linked molecules (particles exhibiting some optic properties in vicinity of nanoparticles), all three components linked in sequence in a spatial cluster structure. Intermediary link molecules, changing their spatial configuration under the influence of external light source, can include additives - functional substitutes increasing their linking properties.
EFFECT: production of nanocomposite materials capable of efficient changing optic properties under the influence of external light source.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: lockout device consists of base, clamping device and lockout device working surface, produced from nanostructural material. In the base piezoelectric elements are installed in mesh-like order.
EFFECT: invention allows to expand functionality and to neutralise harmful adhesive components.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of sheet organic glass production by means of polymerisation in mass of ethers of (meth)acrylic acid, which is used for production of neutral light filters that are used in personal protection gear (glazing of protective helmets of pilots) and in glazing of sport airplanes. Method is suggested to produce sheet organic glass for neutral light filters by means of (co)polymerisation in mass of methyl methacrylate or its mixtures with methacrylic acid or its ethers in the presence of UV-absorber, initiator of radical polymerisation and light-absorbing additive - product of methane pyrolysis, which includes prepolymerisation of monomer, realisation of ultrasonic effect at prepolymer with light-absorbing additive and depolymerisation of prepared mixture in plane-parallel form until full conversion, at that as light-absorbing additive functionalised carbon nano-tubes are used with implanted COOH groups, and prepolymerisation is performed in the presence of light-absorbing additive, and prior to depolymerisation to prepared prepolymer additionally monomer is added in mass ratio 1:(0.5-1.5) accordingly.
EFFECT: production of sheet organic glass for light filters with increased mechanical properties with preservation of its spectral characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to polymer composite materials for anti-frictional purposes, which can be used for making component parts of friction assemblies of machines and equipment. Description is given of the polymer composition, containing polytetrafluoroethylene and aluminium oxide with particle size of 9-11 nm as filler material, with the following ratio of components: nano-size aluminium oxide - 0.1-2.0 mass %, polytetrafluoroethylene constitutes the remaining percentage.
EFFECT: increased wear resistance, carrying capacity, reduction of coefficient of friction with retention of stress-strain properties of the composite material based on polytetrafluoroethylene.
1 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of powders of highly purified refractory metals, valve sub-oxides of refractory metals and valve metals or their alloys suitable for making large number of electric, optical and rolled articles/parts.
SUBSTANCE: above mentioned electric, optical and rolled parts are produced from their respective oxides by thermal reduction in solid or liquid oxides with use of reducing agent which sustains after inflammation highly exothermic reaction preferably realized at continuous or cyclic feed of oxide, for example moved by gravity action. Method comprises steps of collecting metal in receptacle; removing oxide of reducing metal in the form of gas or in other suitable state and removing non-reacted derivatives of reducing agent by leaching or by other similar processes.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, continuous controlled process for producing powders of refractory metals with improved morphology and high purity.
32 cl, 10 dwg, 8 tbl, 16 ex