Method for obtaining synthetic gas (gas synthesis), method for obtaining dimethyl ether through gas synthesis (versions), and furnace for gas synthesis (versions)

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to synthesising gas, containing carbon oxide and hydrogen, and reduction of concentration of carbon dioxide, method of obtaining dimethyl ether, as well as furnace for gas synthesis. The gas synthesis method involves reforming a gas through incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon in space over a catalyst layer in a furnace. Temperature at the output of the catalyst layer is 1100-1300°C, and concentration of carbon dioxide in the gas synthesis is not more than 10% vol. Time for keeping the gas over the catalyst layer is 2 seconds or more. Dimethyl ether is obtained from the gas synthesis. The gas synthesis furnace allows for effusion of raw material containing, at least, hydrocarbon and oxidant, coming from a burner at the upper part of the furnace, incomplete combustion of the hydrocarbon in the space above the catalyst layer inside the furnace and synthesis of gas, containing carbon oxide and hydrogen in the catalyst layer. In the first alternative of the structure of the furnace, the space over the layer of catalyst satisfies conditions (1) and (2): (1) L≥D/2×cotanθ1 and (2) the time for keeping the gas in the space is 2 seconds or more, where L is the height of the space over the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1 is ½ the apical angle of the profile of the cone shaped width of the effusion stream into the furnace from the burner, and has values lying in the interval 6.5°≤θ1≤9°. In the second alternative of the structure of the furnace, the above mentioned space above the layer of catalyst satisfies the following conditions (1), (2) and (4): (1) L≥D/2×cotanθ1 and (2) the time the gas spends in the space is 2 seconds or more, and (4) L≥10d, where L is the height of the space over the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1 is ½ the apical angle of the profile of the cone shaped width of the effusion stream into the furnace from the burner, and lies in the interval 6,5°≤θ1≤9°, and d is the minimum diameter of a circle, encompassing all openings of the burner, through which the gas flows out.

EFFECT: synthesis of gas, which does not contain hydrocarbons, and with low concentration of carbon dioxide.

13 cl, 14 dwg, 7 tbl, 4 ex

 

The text descriptions are given in facsimile form.

1. Method for production of synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen as main components, which consists in reforming gas by partial combustion of a hydrocarbon in the space above the catalyst bed in the furnace intended for the generation of synthesis gas, the temperature at the outlet of the catalyst layer comp is made 1100-1300° With, and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the synthesis gas is not more than 10 vol.%, moreover, the retention time of gas from the top of the catalytic layer is 2 or more.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the produced synthesis gas is quickly cooled to 600°or lower immediately after completion of the catalytic reaction.

3. The way of dimethyl ether from synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, consisting in the use of the synthesis gas obtained by the method according to claims 1 and 2.

4. The way of dimethyl ether from synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the ratio of 1:0,8-1,2, consisting in the use of the synthesis gas obtained by the method according to claims 1 and 2.

5. Furnace for the production of synthesis-gas, providing for the travel of the raw materials containing at least a hydrocarbon and an oxidant, coming from the burner, located in the upper part of the furnace; incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon in the space above the catalyst bed within the furnace; and obtaining a synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the catalytic layer, in which the space above the catalyst layer satisfies the conditions (1) and (2):

(1) L≥D/2·cotan θ1and

(2) the retention time of the gas in the space is 2 or more, where L denotes the height of the space above the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter is ECI, θ1representsthe angle at the vertex of the vertical cross-section tapered width effusing of the flow inside the furnace from the burner, and has a value in the range of 6.5°≤θ1≤9°.

6. Furnace according to claim 5, characterized in that the upper part of the furnace is made conical and provided with the additional condition (3):

(3) θ2≥25°,

where θ2representsthe angle at the vertex of the vertical section of the conical upper part of the furnace.

7. Oven to obtain a synthesis gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed as a result of effusion flow of raw materials containing at least a hydrocarbon and an oxidizing agent supplied from the burner installed in the upper part of the furnace, and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in the space on the catalytic layer formed inside the furnace, and the specified space above the catalyst layer satisfies the following conditions (1), (2) and (4):

(1) L≥D/2·cotan θ1and

(2) the retention time of the gas in the space is 2 or more, and

(4) L≥10d,

where L denotes the height of the space above the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1representsug is and at the top of the vertical cross-section tapered width effusing thread coming inside of the furnace from the burner, and has a value in the range of 6.5°≤θ1≤9°, a d is the minimum diameter of a circle, covering all the holes of the burner through which the gas flows.

8. Oven to obtain a synthesis gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the catalyst bed, the effusion flow of raw materials containing at least a hydrocarbon and an oxidizing agent supplied from the burner installed in the upper part of the furnace, and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in the space on the catalytic layer formed inside the furnace, and the specified space above the catalyst layer satisfies the following conditions(1), (2), (3) and (5):

(1) L≥D/2·cotan θ1and

(2) the retention time of the gas in the space is 2 or more, and

(3) θ2≥25°

(5) D≥3d,

where L denotes the height of the space above the catalyst layer, D is the inner diameter of the furnace, θ1representsthe angle at the vertex of the vertical cross-section tapered width effusing of the flow inside the furnace from the burner, and has a value in the range of 6.5°≤θ1≤9°, θ2representsthe angle at the vertex of the vertical section of the conical upper part of the furnace, a d - m is the minimum diameter of a circle covering all the holes of the burner through which the gas flows.

9. Furnace according to claim 8, characterized by the fact that provides the condition (4):

(4) L≥10d

10. Oven according to one of pp.5-9, characterized in that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the synthesis gas obtained at the outlet temperature of the catalyst layer 1100-1300°is 10 vol.% or less.

11. Furnace according to claim 10, characterized in that after completion of the catalytic reaction of synthesis gas is rapidly cooled to 600°With or below.

12. Oven according to one of pp.5-9, characterized in that dimethyl ether is produced from synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are formed in the furnace for preparing the synthesis gas.

13. Oven according to one of pp.5-9, characterized in that dimethyl ether is produced from synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the ratio of 1:0.8 and 1.2, which are formed in the furnace, designed to produce synthesis gas.

Priority points

06.03.2003 - claims 1 to 4;

04.03.2004 - pp.5-13.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention claims methods for obtaining calcinated zirconium dioxide extrudates (variants) for application as carrier or catalyst containing zirconium and one or more other elements selected out of IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB and VIII groups of periodic element system, or lanthanides and actinides, involving the following stages: a. Obtaining formed paste by mixing and plastifying of fine dispersed zirconium dioxides and source of one or more other elements selected out of IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB and VIII groups of periodic element system, or lanthanides and actinides, and solvent, to obtain mix containing 50 to 85 wt % of solid substances, b. extrusion of formed paste to obtain zirconium dioxide extrudate containing zirconium and one or more other elements selected out of IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB and VIII groups of periodic element system, or lanthanides and actinides, and c. Drying and calcination of zirconium dioxide extrudate formed on b. stage, with fine dispersed zirconium dioxide containing under 15 wt % of zirconium dioxide other than monocline zirconium dioxide. Also invention claims calcinated zirconium dioxide extrudates obtained by the described method, and cobalt-saturated extrudate and its application in method for obtaining higher olefins in Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

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16 cl, 3 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to advanced method of hydrocarbon gas conversion to liquid hydrocarbons using Fischer-Tropsch method. And specified method implies that liquid hydrocarbons and residual gas are produced, and the latter contains at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons of carbon number not more than 6. Residual gas is PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) separated, using PSA separator. Additionally at least one gas flow is performed containing mainly hydrogen and resulting in: at least one gas flow containing methane, for which hydrogen and carbon monoxide extraction level is equal to at least 60%, at least one gas flow containing methane, for which carbon dioxide extraction level is equal to at least 40%, and at least one additional gas flow containing mainly hydrocarbons with carbon number at least 2. Method allows for considerable reduction of CO2 atmospheric emission.

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18 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

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14 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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15 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: petroleum chemistry.

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8 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry; petrochemistry; gas chemistry.

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17 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: catalytic gas treatment.

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8 cl, 5 tbl, 9 ex

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6 cl, l tbl, 1 ex

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59 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemical engineering.

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17 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

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5 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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17 cl, 2 tbl, 24 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

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EFFECT: inventions allow to intensify the process and to prepare shielded arc atmosphere of triple composition.

4 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve industrial and economic characteristics.

18 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: way of syngas cleaning includes: introduction of the flow of initial syngas, into the feed zone of the distillation column, flow expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column by means of a dilator of liquids with the extraction of work for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling of the upper vapour flow in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming the of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of the purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases and the irrigation of distillation column by the flow of condensate. By the first variant the method of production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling the flow of initial syngas, expansion of the cooled flow of initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid forming the flow of cooled waste liquid, according to the first variant the method of the production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling of a stream initial syngas, expansion of the cooled stream initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone in the distillation column for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling the upper flow of vapour in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, the separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, the irrigation the distillation column by the flow of condensate, heating the flow of the purified vapour of syngas in the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow, heating the flow of partially heated waste liquid in the heat exchanger with a cross-section flow, the supply of the flow of the purified vapour of syngas from the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow into the outline of synthesis of ammonia. According to the second variant the method of the production of ammonia includes the reforming hydrocarbon with excess air for forming the flow of initial syngas, removal of nitrogen and inert gases from the flow of the syngas by distillation, thus provide cooling with the aid of the expansion of the liquid by means of the dilator-generator, and the upper flow partially condense the waste flow, cooled by means of expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column, and the supply of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases from distillation into the contour of the synthesis of ammonia at which the liquid remainders expand by means of the dilator of liquid with the extraction of work.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve industrial and economic characteristics.

18 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrogenation or reforming of alcohols, in particular to a method of dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, for obtaining hydrogen, in particular for use in a fuel element with the purpose of obtaining electrical energy. In the method of dehydrogenation a catalyst containing copper is used, which includes a metallic carrier. To solve the given challenge the method includes bringing to contact of the initial raw mixture of the gases containing alcohol, with the catalyst of reforming in order to obtain a mixture of products of reforming, containing hydrogen, and the catalyst for reforming the contains a metallic spongy carrier and a coating on copper, at least, partially covering surface of the given metal spongy carrier where the given metal spongy carrier is obtained by means of the method including the leaching of aluminium from an alloy, containing aluminium and the main metal.

EFFECT: increased activity in the gas-phase reforming of primary spirits and increased stability.

129 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrogenation or reforming of alcohols, in particular to a method of dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, for obtaining hydrogen, in particular for use in a fuel element with the purpose of obtaining electrical energy. In the method of dehydrogenation a catalyst containing copper is used, which includes a metallic carrier. To solve the given challenge the method includes bringing to contact of the initial raw mixture of the gases containing alcohol, with the catalyst of reforming in order to obtain a mixture of products of reforming, containing hydrogen, and the catalyst for reforming the contains a metallic spongy carrier and a coating on copper, at least, partially covering surface of the given metal spongy carrier where the given metal spongy carrier is obtained by means of the method including the leaching of aluminium from an alloy, containing aluminium and the main metal.

EFFECT: increased activity in the gas-phase reforming of primary spirits and increased stability.

129 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of obtaining porous substances on a substrate for catalytic applications, to the method of obtaining porous catalysts for decomposition of N2O and their use in decomposing N2O, oxidising ammonia and reforming methane with water vapour. Description is given of the method of obtaining porous substances on a substrate for catalytic applications, in which one or more soluble precursor(s) metal of the active phase is added to a suspension, consisting of an insoluble phase of a substrate in water or an organic solvent. The suspension undergoes wet grinding so as to reduce the size of the particles of the substrate phase to less than 50 mcm. The additive is added, which promotes treatment before or after grinding. A pore-forming substance is added and the suspension, viscosity of which is maintained at 100-5000 cP, undergoes spray drying, is pressed and undergoes thermal treatment so as to remove the pore-forming substance, and is then baked. Description is also given of the method of obtaining porous catalysts on a substrate for decomposing N2O, in which a soluble cobalt precursor is added to a suspension of cerium oxide and an additive, promoting treatment, in water. The suspension is ground to particle size of less than 10 mcm. A pore-forming substance, viscosity of which is regulated to approximately 1000 cP, is added before the suspension undergoes spray drying with subsequent pressing. The pore-forming substance is removed and the product is baked. Description is given of the use of the substances obtained above as catalysts for decomposition of N2O, oxidation of ammonia and reforming of methane with water vapour.

EFFECT: obtaining catalysts with homogenous distribution of active phases and uniform and regulated porosity for optimisation of characteristics in catalytic applications.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: converter includes housing and devices for input oxygen enriched air, fed of vapour-hydrocarbon mix and bleeding of converted gas. The housing is provided with inner fikking designed as two cylindrical tubes installed one inside the other and forming with the converter housing two radial clearances: the outer clearance for input vapour-hydrocarbon mix and inner one for output of converted gas. At that the packing made of channeled plates is provided for inner fikking, this packing forms the channels of square section; the upper part (1/20-1/25) of channels is provided with perforation track, the middle part (1/5-1/6) of channels height located lower than perforation track is filled with catalyst used for primary and secondary hydrocarbon conversions; and the lowest part (1/6-1/8) of channels height is filled with catalyst used for preliminary hydrocarbon conversion. The device for input oxygen enriched air is positioned in the upper part of channels. The method is implemented in converter. Hydrocarbon material heating and converted gas cooling are carried out by the way of its passing through heat exchanger and mixing of hydrocarbon material with water vapour, then vapour-hydrocarbon mix is fed downstream through outer radial clearance and further it is delivered up the channels through catalyst bed for implementing of preliminary and primary conversions. Then through perforation track it is fed down the channels for converted gas oxidizing and secondary vapour conversion with subsequent converted gas upflow takeoff through inner radial clearance.

EFFECT: increasing of hydrocarbon material conversion and reduction of probability of free carbon formation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to two methods (two variants) of reforming process using oxidizing gas at temperature 980-1000°C. The recirculation of the flow part outgoing from the autothermic reformer to the flowrate vapour-hydrocarbon is described at that the said recirculation is implemented throught the instrumentality of thermocompressor ejector using heated beforehand supplied mix as operative fluid. For the optimization of general configuration the mole ratio of recirculating synthesis gas and operative fluid was chosen in the range 0.2-1.0. In order to prevent the carbon black formation in the reforming process recirculated hydrogen and vapour are fed to the input flow and the temperature of feeding is increased. Since there is a certain pressure drop between initial mixture of vapour and natural gas and the mix fed to reformer it is necessary to increase the pressure of initial mixture but it is compensated with the lower pressure drop in the heater and other equipment laid out upstream and downstream because of decreasing of vapour capacity.

EFFECT: reforming process is carried out without carbon black formation.

27 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

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