Device to control passive spacecraft orientation

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and may be used in approach, buzzing, hovering, docking jobs etc using robotic systems. Device comprises casing, radiation source, flat diffraction gratings and outlets. Four planes of flat diffraction gratings are perpendicular in pairs, two of them intersect at right angle to axis extending through common radiation source and parallel with passive spacecraft construction axis while remaining two make the angle of 0 to 90 degrees with the axis.

EFFECT: decreased loads at docking assemblies.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to space technology and can be used when running in space operations convergence, flight, freezing, docking with the docking of SPACECRAFT (SC), as well as for positioning actuators when performing construction and Assembly operations and other operations with robotic means.

As taken similar laser visual planting proposed in the U.S. Navy for landing deck aircraft (LA) on an aircraft carrier [1]. There are two laser systems designed to facilitate the landing deck of the aircraft.

Laser pointer planting rate (Laser Localizer Centerline - LCL) allows to enter the landing pattern at a distance of more than 10 nautical miles.

Lasers that emit red, green and yellow, help the crew of LA to keep landing course and glide path when landing on the deck of a moving ship. To denote deviations of the left and right are used lasers with different wavelengths, continuous and modulated radiation. Deviation to the right is green, left is red. With increasing deviation from the course green and red lights begin to flash. Flash rate increases with the deviation. In strict keeping boarding rate is only visible flame yellow. The total power of light sostavljaet CD.

The laser beams are visible in the sector of 21.9°. At the distance of 0.5 mile of the setting on the USS LA goes out of range of the LCL and focuses on optical landing system on the Fresnel lenses.

Laser glide slope indicator (Laser Glideslope Indicator - LGD) allows the crew to LA to get on the glide path with a distance of 10 miles. Also use different wavelengths and modulation of radiation with a significant deviation from the glide path. At a distance of less than 0.5 mile LGD ceases to vary, and the orientation is performed on the optical landing system on the Fresnel lenses.

With the right approach, the pilot LA sees on the aircraft carrier two yellow lights on the left (LCL and right LGD. The accuracy rate for LCL is in the range of 0.25°, line LGD is determined with accuracy of 0.1°.

Maximum detection range of LGD is 12 miles. Tests have shown that these devices make it easy to detect the slightest deviation in the landing approach and can be used in carrier-based aircraft.

The disadvantage of analog is a large number of radiation sources, which increases the weight and size of equipment consumed her power, as well as direct observation by the operator emitting laser apertures, which requires careful calculation of laser safety.

As a prototype adopted is designed to control the rendezvous and docking of SPACECRAFT is mehanicheskij target convergence [2].

Mechanical target includes a base (round or asymmetrical) and external cross black with applied white cross and labels. Coverage targets are produced according to special technologies, as they need a long time to maintain optical performance during space flight. As the primary means of visual inspection with the approach used cameras or optical aiming device.

On the target (or target complex) visually determined by the position of the line of sight of the active SPACECRAFT during rendezvous respect to passive SPACECRAFT pitch and yaw, as well as the position of the axes of the passive SPACECRAFT relative to the active pitch, yaw and roll.

The corners of the active SPACECRAFT are determined by the offset of the front cross target relative to the crosshairs cameras or optical viewfinder, and the corners passive KA - offset front cross about cross Foundation.

Most of the existing targets require the blowout at run time mode mooring. On the night side of the orbit of the target is exposed headlight installed on the active CA.

On the sunlit side of the orbit is imposed on the position of the Sun relative to the target axis, excluding the shading body both active and passive KA and specifies the minimum angle saswad the base of the target.

The disadvantages of the prototype are the complexity and the lack of accuracy of determining the relative angular position of the SPACECRAFT at the site of the mooring due to the fact that for small angles of deflection corresponds to a small shift of the cross of the target relative to its Foundation, the definition of which can be difficult, and serious restrictions on lighting conditions at the time of closing.

The objective of the invention is to reduce the total angle between the longitudinal axes of the active and passive SPACECRAFT by increasing the accuracy of estimating the angles of deflection of the passive SPACECRAFT from the line of sight mode orientation, in addition, requirements are reduced lighting conditions during approach, but it is not required organization blowout at run time mode mooring.

The problem is solved using the monitoring device orientation passive SPACECRAFT, comprising a housing, a radiation source and two planar reflective diffraction grating, and plane and In a plane diffraction gratings perpendicular to the planes C and D, respectively, intersecting at right angles on the axis "X"which passes through the common radiation source and a parallel construction to the axis "X" passive KA, with pleskot the planar diffraction gratings a and b, accordingly, forming the axis ofXthe angle α of 0° to 90°.

Thus, each flat diffraction grating allows to separately determine the angles in the plane of the pitch or yaw.

Figure 1-3 shows the construction of the device in three dimensions, where:

1 - body;

2 - radiation source;

3 - flat diffraction grating;

4 - output apertures.

Figure 4 shows to explain the design of the ISO.

Enclosure 1 provides protection of structural elements from external effects of space flight factors, as well as shielded from the observer to the source (having a greater brightness compared to dragirovaniya beam radiation) and has outlet openings 4, servants output apertures for the diffracted radiation.

The radiation source 2 is used to receive optical radiation with the required parameters.

Flat diffraction grating 3 decompose the radiation source 2 in range and are indicators of deviation from the line of sight.

Outlet openings 4 are designed to monitor the diffracted radiation in a predetermined range of angles.

Line of sight is a flat diffraction grating 3 coincides with the direction inwhich is maximum for wavelengths from 0.50 to 0.56 μm (green). The deviation from the line of sight corresponds to the shift of the luminescence in a more short - or long-wavelength region (blue or red). The principle of orientation is to maintain the direction corresponding to the green glow of both planar diffraction gratings 3. On the area of the green light (from 0.50 to 0.56 μm) also has a maximum sensitivity of the human eye (0,38-0,76 µm).

In the variant represented in figure 1-4, the deviation to the right corresponds to the red glow of the first planar diffraction grating 3, and the deviation to the left is blue. Deviation up corresponds to the blue glow of the second planar diffraction grating 3, and down - red.

With little care to the left of the green glow of the outlet 4 is replaced by blue, with the increase of angle - passing in blue, and at large angles becomes purple. Care to the right is indicated by changing the green glow on the yellow, passing into alternating orange and red. Each corner has its own wavelength.

Unlike mechanical targets, where for determining small changes passive corners it is necessary to detect the deviation of the front cross about cross Foundation, the proposed device, changing the angle corresponds to the color change, which facilitates the determination of the angular misalignment of the longitudinal axes of the active and passive the CSOs CA.

As the radiation source 2 can be used incandescent lamp or led lamp with a continuous spectrum in the visible region.

When installing the unit on a passive object to bind the lines of sight planar diffraction gratings 3 building axes. For precise alignment device may be provided with adjustable fastenings, are installed in the housing is a flat diffraction grating 3.

The zone of action of the device is determined by the near-simultaneous observations of the two outlet openings 4 without spontaneous changes color based on the base length is the distance between the planar diffraction gratings 3.

Each of the two output holes 4 has its line of sight, which are parallel to each other, so while their observation, a small parallax, increasing in the near zone. When approaching to a certain distance determined by the length of the base, the parallax increases, which causes a noticeable color change, complicating the orientation.

The maximum distance is limited resolution of optical or television system that allows separately to observe both outlets 4, and also depends on the length of the base.

The solution to this problem is the use of multiple is komplektov flat diffraction grating 3 with different length of the base for orientation in the far and the near zone, or joint application of the described device with traditional mechanical target. The use of planar diffraction gratings will not require an increase in power (they use only a small part of the light source, and in principle, their number is limited only by the proper detection and identification) and considerable design complexity.

The application of the invention can reduce the load on the connecting nodes and structures of active and passive SPACECRAFT during docking by reducing the total angular misalignment of the longitudinal axes of the active and passive SPACECRAFT pitch and yaw, which is achieved by increasing the accuracy of determining the angles of deflection of the passive SPACECRAFT from the line of sight.

The device described in the present invention can also be used for visual control of orientation of the interacting products in industry, construction and engineering fields that require precise control of the relative position of the interacting machines and mechanisms. In addition, the device can be used in aircraft for a visual approach aircraft on landing in low visibility conditions, refueling LA in flight using the pin-cone and other similar tasks.

Literature

1. Nordwall, Bruce D. Navy Tests Lasers To Help Carrir Pilots. Aviation Week & Space Technology, Nov. 19, 1990, pg.46.

2. Device control the orientation of the observed object. Patent No. 2093432.

The control device orientation passive spacecraft, comprising a housing, a radiation source, a flat diffraction grating and output apertures, characterized in that plane and In a plane diffraction gratings perpendicular to the planes C and D, respectively, intersecting at right angles on the axisX,which passes through the common radiation source and the parallel construction of the X-axis passive KA, with the plane of the planar diffraction gratings a and b respectively form with the axis ofXthe angle α of 0° to 90°.



 

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