Method detection light objects in the breed
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended to separate the transmission and nproposals light objects, in particular for separation from accompanying rock diamonds and other precious and semi-precious minerals. The term "objects" refers to substances of organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic crystals and glass. The inventive irradiated mineral light beam, whose diameter on the surface of the object is less than the cross-section of the object. Optical system carry the image of the luminous object in the image plane. In the image plane "Foucault knife" overlap image of the light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the surface of the object, while highlighting of the light flux image of the light source formed by light scattering on inhomogeneities inside the object and on its surfaces. By using the photodetector three-dimensional light source is converted into an electrical signal, which is compared with the prescribed threshold value. The invention allows to expand the Arsenal of tools to register transmits light objects and provides the basis for creating the bookmark which nproposals light objects and can be used to separate from underlying rocks light (i.e., transparent and diffuse scattering volume and surfaces of objects, in particular diamonds. The term "objects" refers to substances of organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic crystals and glass.Currently, the number of known ways of detecting light transmissive objects.Photoabsorbtion method is based on transmission through samples of optical radiation and reception values of attenuation . The weakening passed through the crystal light is the classification of objects (particularly minerals). The method can be used to highlight transparent objects are of good quality, but almost unusable in cases of strong differences of color and sizes of the minerals and surface quality.Another method based on the analysis of the reflectance spectra of objects (particularly minerals), proposed in . It allows to distinguish the minerals on their spectral characteristics. For the separation of minerals, moving in the flow of ore required spectral apparatus simultaneously recording the entire reflection spectrum and produces the analysis of this spectrum in the millisecond time that is distinct="ptx2">Here are some ways to detect light objects on the example of the enrichment of diamond-bearing rocks.Laseraltimetry method is based on excitation of objects (in particular, the minerals contained in the diamond-bearing rock) laser radiation and subsequent registration of luminescence . It is proposed to use continuous or pulsed ultraviolet (UV) lasers. The use of expensive UV lasers significantly complicates the process. In addition, the luminescence intensity is lower the less content of impurities (crystals with a small amount of impurities may be lost). In addition, the presence of intense luminescence accompanying rock reduces the enrichment factor.X-ray method  is used in practice, enrichment of diamond-bearing ores. Its main disadvantage is the possible loss of quality of diamonds, as a quality samples lumines cent or lumines cent weakly. There is also a difference of luminescence spectra of diamonds of different quality and the same as in lazaroramirezsalazar method, the presence of intense luminescence accompanying rock.The method of using for Sep the optical methods. This method is especially attractive for a sample of diamonds from diamond-bearing ore, because the spectrum of the Raman spectra of diamond consists of a single line 1332 cm-1. The positive aspects of the method: the intensity of Raman scattering is greater than the higher quality diamond , i.e. a high probability sampling diamond high quality; bandwidth Raman scattering is very narrow (1.6-3 cm-1), so it is easy to distinguish from relatively broadband luminescent radiation, i.e., there is a possibility hundred percent enrichment; the application scan in thin section (~1 mm) of the laser beam, which is practically impossible to carry out under x-ray irradiation, it is possible to identify on the surface of the stone diamonds of size equal to the cross section of the beam (or less), with a sample of diamond ore, you can access other precious minerals. The technique of Raman scattering is limited by the fact that the Raman intensity is 10-7-10-9from the primary radiation, which requires expensive and not always reliable high-power lasers, as well as relatively complex spectral equipment.The closest solution to the proposed method is photoabsorbtion method, the COI is erede fall within the zone of measurement inspection camera, and then after some time - zone shooting separating mechanism. When flying minerals through the measurement area on photometric receive the light pattern of the transmitted light, which is converted to its elements into electrical signals. Thus, the stream of particles is directed light, and passed through the object light recorded by the sensor.The proposed method consists in the following. Irradiated mineral light beam, whose diameter on the surface of the object is less than the cross-section of the object. Optical system carry the image of the luminous object in the image plane. In the image plane "Foucault knife" overlap image of the light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the surface of the object, while highlighting of the light flux of the three-dimensional light source formed by light scattering on inhomogeneities inside the object and on its surfaces. By using the photodetector three-dimensional light source is converted into an electrical signal, which is compared with the prescribed threshold value. The term "optical system" means the combination of optical components - lenses, prisms, plates, mirror image is the first image - this is a picture obtained as a result of passing through the optical system of rays propagating from the object, and reproducing its contours and details; "image plane" is the plane in which the optical system forms the image of the object; "Foucault knife" refers to an opaque object that does not pass the image light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the surface of the object.New features of the proposed method of detection light objects are: the transfer of the image of the luminous object in the image plane, the selection in this plane by means of the Foucault knife" volumetric image of the light source formed by light scattering on inhomogeneities inside the object and on its surfaces, and comparing the signal from the bulk of the light source with the standard.The method allows to extend the Arsenal of tools to register transmits light objects and provides the basis for the creation of reliable and relatively inexpensive devices.The technical result that can be obtained by implementation of this method lies in the ability to detect light objects regardless of their spotakova, which leads to the possibility of using low-power cheap semiconductor lasers, as well as inexpensive and easy-to-use photodiodes as photodetectors.The proposed method is illustrated by the following graphic materials:
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a detection light transmissive object;
Fig.2,a - specular and diffuse reflection light from the opaque object; b - light reflected from the transparent object and the formation of the bulk of the light source due to reflection from the defect volume and surface of the sample; the redistribution of light on the matte surface of the sample;
Fig.3 - scheme of registration of volumetric image of the light source.The proposed method for the detection of light of interest in the breed is illustrated in Fig.1.Object 1 light beam of light. The cross section of the light spot 2 on the sample surface must be smaller than the cross section of the sample; the shape of the light spot and the angle between the direction of radiation and the axis of the optical system (a common axis of symmetry all included in the optical system of the elements) is arbitrary. Of the reflected object light flux through an optical system 3 in the image plane is formed the surface of the object, and volumetric image of the light source 5, formed by light scattering on inhomogeneities inside the object and on its surfaces. In the image plane "knife Foucault" 6 overlap the image of the light spot 4, and three-dimensional source 5 is projected on the photodetector 7. Using the device registration and comparison 8 compare the values W and W0, where W is the amplitude of the electrical signal from the photodetector, a W0is the value specified in advance.The physical principle of the proposed method of separation of light objects is to use the features of the reflection of light from the transparent and partially transparent (frosted) substances compared to opaque. These features are as follows. On the surface of the illuminated object at the expense of diffuse and specular reflection of a light beam formed by the light source the size of a light spot (point source) with a pattern that is close to spherical. Specular reflection from the surface also forms a point source, but with a narrower pattern (Fig.2,a). When a light on a transparent sample size bigger than the size of the light spot, trainig.2,b). The redistribution of light in the sample volume can also occur when the scattering by inhomogeneities in the sample volume or matte surfaces (Fig.2).To separate the image of the luminous object from the image of the light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the surface of the object, implemented optical system, the scheme of which is shown in Fig.3. The object 1 with the linear size of y1is located in the focal plane of the lens 2 with a focal length of f1. On it sent a beam of light (laser beam) reflected from the mirror 3, is focused by the lens 2. Reflected from the object light beam converted this lens is directed to the lens 4 with a focal length of f2. According to  the conversion of rays in the optical system in the paraxial region (called paraxial region about the axis of the optical system, where a point is represented by a point, a straight - a straight line, and plane - plane) can be represented in the form
< / BR>or
< / BR>where y1,2- coordinate point on the input and output optical system; V1,2= n1,2(n is the refractive index of the medium, a1,2- the angle at which the meridional spreading of the beam at the input and output optical is of rays between its front and rear focal planes (which are respectively the input and output optical system) is described by the matrix . This means that
From equation (3) implies that the rays emerge at different angles from the same point with coordinate y1located in the focal plane of the lens 2 is converted into a parallel beam propagating at an angle 2. From (4) it follows that parallel rays impinging at the same angle to the lens 4, intersect in its focal plane at the point y2. Applying (1) and (2) to the scheme depicted in Fig.3, will receive
y2= f22= -y1f2/f1.
Thus, at the output of the optical system forms the image of the luminous object with linear size2=-y1f2/f1, while the image of the irradiating beam is a point O2in the focal plane of the lens 4 (it is the image plane of the optical system).In the focal plane of the lens 4 is formed of a light pattern consisting of the image of the light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the object surface, and volumetric image of the light source formed by light scattering is not ecrivait the image of the light spot, diffusely and specularly reflected from the object surface, and the photodetector 6 is projected only light emitted surround the light source. Electrical signal W from the photodetector 6 is supplied to the device registration and comparison 7 and compared with a reference signal W0.To validate the new method of detection light objects in a laboratory setup, the scheme of which is shown in Fig.3 conducted a series of studies collection diamond (of various quality, color, transparency, surface structure) and related species. For each of the items studied at least 20 samples. The measurement results were calculated value of K= W/W0where W0- some pre-threshold value. The results of the measurements are presented in the table.The results shown in the table, indicate that with the help of above ways possible sample transmits light objects (particularly diamonds) of opaque breed.Literature
1. AC USSR 1839114 IN 07 WITH 5/342, 09.01.87.2. AC USSR 1770859, G 01 N 21/87, 03.07.90.3. Meisner, Laser enrichment methods and phase analysis of mineral raw materials. Exploration and conservation 4, S. 12-14 (1994).6. Patent USSR 1658829, G 01 N 21/87, 18,08.87.7. Sivukhin D. Century Optics. - M.: Nauka, 1980, 751 S. Method detection transmits light of interest in the breed, using the irradiation of minerals light beam, characterized in that illuminate the object with the light beam, whose diameter on the surface of the object is less than the cross-section of the object optical system to transfer an image of the luminous object in the image plane, the image plane "Foucault knife" overlap image of the light spot, diffuse and specularly reflected from the surface of the object, while highlighting of the light flux of the three-dimensional light source formed by light scattering on inhomogeneities inside the object and on its surfaces, by means of the photodetector three-dimensional light source is converted into an electrical signal, which is compared with the prescribed threshold value.
FIELD: testing of precious stones.
SUBSTANCE: diamond is fixed onto holder and tested under specified angle for getting image. Then second measurement is made for getting two sets of data calculated by means of computer. The second set of data can be received by means of measurement of depth or due to changing direction of viewing.
EFFECT: improved precision of localization.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for processing diamonds into brilliants.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, by experimental or calculation-theoretic way in glow images visible to observer optical characteristics of diamond glow are determined, including glow intensiveness, glow glimmer and color saturation of glow, characterized by level of decomposition of white color on rainbow colors, and also relief coefficient of glow, characterized by average number of intensive color spots in glow image, distinctive to human eye, and additionally, by dividing glow image on compound portions, average values of glow intensiveness of compound portions are measured. Optical characteristics of glow are transformed to glow factors. As average coefficient of brilliant glow charm, which is used to estimate brilliant glow charm, charm coefficient is used, calculated as average value of factors of intensiveness, glimmering, color saturation and glow image geometry.
EFFECT: possible objective measurement and numeric estimation of brilliants glow charm, and possible certification of them on basis of glow charm.
5 cl, 22 dwg, 11 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing provided with solid body laser connected with the window in the heat insulating tank filled with liquid nitrogen and provided with the precious stone, semiconductor laser connected with the window, two spectrometers for detecting luminescence in the range of 550-10000 nm, and processor for processing signals from the spectrometers.
EFFECT: reduced sizes and simplified method of testing.
47 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: registration of absorption spectra of small luminescent specimens.
SUBSTANCE: the absorption spectrum of small luminescent specimens is determined according to relation of intensities of light fluxes that have passed and not passed through the specimen, the luminescence of the standard specimen is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has not passed, and the luminescence of the examined is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has passed, and the absorption spectrum of the examined specimen is calculated according to the respective mathematical formula.
EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities due to the increase of the range of specimens suitable for measurements without special preparation of them.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: to determine if green-blue was subject ct to artificial irradiation or to ion bombardment, it is irradiated with light at wavelength of 633 nm for stimulation of luminescence emission, and luminescence is detected within range of 680 to 800 nm by using confocal microscope and spectrometer. Focal plane is canned in vertical along diamond. Quick reduction in luminescence accompanied with increase in depth points at natural illumination while even quicker reduction points at ion bombardment. Alternatively, to determine if diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet, diamond is subject to irradiation at wavelength of 325 nm to stimulate emission of luminescence and luminescence is detected within 330-450 nm range. Sharp change in luminescence at increase of depth points at the fact that the diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet.
EFFECT: ability of automatic precise evaluation.
44 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: visual scope of mark onto face of precious stone.
SUBSTANCE: device for observing information mark on face 7 of precious stone 6 is made in form of casing 1 for jewelry. Casing 1 for jewelry has substrate 2 to keep ring 5 with precious stone 6 on top of it and rotating cap 3. Rotating cap 3 has opening 15 in its top part; opening has 10x lens 16, that's why when cap 3 is open and turned by 30° angle, face of 7 of precious stone can be seen through lens 18. Moreover precious stone is illuminated by light that enters casing through slot formed when cap is opened. Light falls onto face slantwise and is regularly reflected through lens 16. Scope can be used for internal and external observation.
EFFECT: simplicity at use; improved comfort.
38 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: laser machine for analysis, grading and marking-out of untreated diamond.
SUBSTANCE: the machine has a laser scanning device, three-dimensional scanning system, matrix, masking device, electronic unit and a computer program for analysis of the diamond weight and characteristics of the brilliant or brilliants that can be obtained from an untreated diamond.
EFFECT: saved material and time, and enhanced capacity.
30 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the method and system for laser marking precious stones and, particularly to the method and system for engraving authentication codes. In the system for laser marking precious stones such as diamonds, marks consist of several microscopic dots, increase of which can be initiated upon effect on natural internal defects or impurities inside the precious stone of a strictly focused laser pulse sequence. The marks are inscribed by laser pulses, carrying significantly less energy than threshold energy required for inscription inside ideal material of precious stone. The method of laser marking and encryption takes into account random spatial distribution of defects, present in natural precious stones, as well as their much localised character. Authentication data are encrypted in the precious stone in the relative spatial arrangement of dots which form a mark. Dots, engraved under the surface of the precious stone, can be made undetectable to the naked eye and a magnifier through limiting their individual size to several micrometres. The mark can be detected using a special optical reading device.
EFFECT: laser inscription of permanent point marks inside precious stones.
40 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to artificail gem diamonds identifiable with a certain person or animal. A personalised gem diamond is grown from a charge that includes carbon being a product of carbonisation of the material provided by the customer, powder of spectroscopically pure graphite and a marker for which at least two elements are used that are selected from a lanthanide group and taken in a arbitrarily prescribed ratio to the extent between 0.01 to 10 mcg /g.
EFFECT: improved authenticity of identification of a personalised diamond.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices which use ultraviolet radiation for testing objects, and is meant for sorting diamonds and, particularly for selecting diamonds from natural rough diamonds and cut diamonds with brown hue, where the selected diamonds are suitable for high-temperature processing at high pressure for decolouring, more specifically, type IIa and IIb, and IaB diamond crystals. A light-emitting diode with radiation peak in the wavelength range from 240 to 300 nm is used as the ultraviolet radiation source, and the detector of radiation transmitted through the tested diamond crystal is a photodiode. The electric signal from the photodiode is amplified with a converting amplifier. Intensity of radiation transmitted through the tested diamond crystal is indicated using a measuring device and in parallel using an indicator with operation threshold. The light-emitting diode is placed in a holder with a table. A narrow central hole is made in the table in order to pass radiation from the light-emitting diode. The tested diamond crystal is placed on the table, while completely covering this hole. The diametre of this hole is made smaller than typical dimensions of the tested diamond crystal. The photodiode is placed into the holder with possibility of changing its position relative the tested diamond crystal and possibility of fixing its vertical position, in line with the hole in the table, using a special detachable cover for the said table.
EFFECT: design of a mobile compact device for selecting diamond crystals, related to types IIa and IIb, and IaB, from rough diamonds or cut diamonds, suitable for decolouring and quality improvement through thermobaric processing.
2 cl, 2 dwg