The method of determining the safety of diamonds in the technological processes of processing
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to the beneficiation of minerals. The inventive method includes the selection of a representative sample of diamonds, calculating the average weight of the crystal in the sample, determining for each crystal in the sample polarized light, which characterizes the magnitude of the stresses in the crystal, the distribution of crystals in polarized light, calculate the average and standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light and the assessment of the degree of preservation of diamonds by the formula where Icf.- the average value of the intensity of polarized light; Pcf.- the average weight of the crystal in the sample; - the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light. 3 Il., table 1. The invention relates to the beneficiation of minerals, and in particular to methods of assessing the safety of diamonds in the processes of extraction and processing.There is a method of assessing the safety of diamonds in technological treatment processing plants, based on the visual comparison of the damage of the crystals from the current mining and diamond-indicator introduced in technological processing. The essential substance of sdelaetsja the following groups: integer, whole with cracks and inclusions, a little disturbed, much broken shards.The determination of the degree of disturbance of the crystals is done visually using a microscope.To slightly disturbed crystals are those, which, according to subjective evaluation mineralogist, missing 10 15% mass of the whole, to significantly disturbed crystals that make up more than half of the whole, to fragments less than half of the whole crystal.Similar mineralogical description of a very long process, which can produce only a specialist with extensive experience. The assessment of the degree of disturbance is complicated by the fact that many of the crystals have an irregular shape (flattened, elongated, indeterminate forms), so often one and the same crystal of different experts attribute in different categories depending on their subjective perception of the degree of integrity. An additional and very important complication of difficulties that arise in mineralogists in the analysis chips on the crystals.If the fracture occurred in the natural environment, as a rule, during the growth of diamond or transporting it kimberlite masses to the Earth's surface, such chips, as a rule, there is ryznicami fracture are considered to be "man-made".Clear criteria differences in the sculptures there, so depending on the qualifications of the expert crystal with chip for this reason can get both in the number of whole and in the bad.Subjective evaluation introduces a large error in the determination of the degree of preservation, and mineralogical description of the crystals is time consuming.There is a method of determining the safety of diamonds in the product processing plants, including the selection of a representative sample of diamonds from each size class, the identification of each of the crystal morphology of the damage and assess the degree of preservation of the relative amounts of diamonds with damage to the total number of diamonds in the sample 
This solution does not correct the deficiencies noted in the criticism of the similar.The technical problem of the invention increase the accuracy and timeliness of the assessment of the safety of diamonds.This object is achieved in that in the method of determining the safety of diamonds, including the selection of a representative sample of diamonds, the definition of each crystal of a given diagnostic indicator and assessment of the safety of diamonds, determine the average weight of the crystals (Pis the order of stresses in the crystal, build the distribution of crystals in polarized light, calculating the mean value and the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light, assess the safety of diamonds by the formula
< / BR>where Icf.the average value of the intensity of polarized light;
the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light.The proposed method is illustrated in Fig. 1 3.When creating inventions came from the following theoretical and experimental prerequisites.In connection with thermodynamic conditions of crystal growth in their volume generated local area stress, manifested from the point of vacancies to macro defects. Natural collection diamond has lognormal distribution on the stress value. Because the crystals with large stress values are destroyed in the first place, then the probability of their destruction at the same mevastatin significantly higher compared to other crystals. As a result of the process the crystals with large stress values are destroyed more frequently and on the release of their contribution to the overall set of diamond decreases. The graph is b the th values, and the reduction of the "tail", i.e. values with large values of stresses at fracture or lose tension, or a few pieces with residual or induced again stresses (see Fig. 2A, B).Thus, the average value is an important parameter in the safety of the crystals. The lower average value of the tension, the lower the integrity of the diamond.The intensity of polarized light passing through the crystal is proportional to the tension in the crystal. This is because the natural light passing through the first polarizer becomes linear polarization and becomes linearly polarized light. Linearly-polarized light passing through the crystal rotates the plane of polarization by an angle directly proportional to the presence of stresses in the crystal. The second polarizer transmits only the portion of the linearly-polarized light which is deviated from the plane of polarization, i.e., transmits polarized light, is proportional to the tension in the crystal.Knowing the intensity of each crystal individually, can be functions of the relative frequency of the crystal in the sample from strength values. Knowing prirodoohrany process. Because all values have a relative, we are interested in only the shape of the curve and not its absolute value.Another important parameter reflecting the shape of the curve, the distribution of the average value and the standard deviation or variance, which indicates the amount of variation in stress intensity. If a portion of the crystals with large stress values collapsed, and the average value will decrease (shift of the maximum of the distribution curve), but the standard deviation is either not change, or changes very little.Therefore, the closer the obtained distribution curve of crystals in polarized light (after passing process technology ) will be the natural lognormal distribution, the greater the safety of the process.The recorded intensity of the polarized light is proportional to the crystal volume. To get rid of dependence on the indications of preservation from the size entered normalizing factor, dependent on the volume (size) and, therefore, the thickness of the crystal, it is the weight of the crystal in the sample. Because we are interested in the preservation of the sample as a whole, then the average weight of the crystal sample.An example of a specific implementation.For a particular implementation of the method, we selected 1000 transparent crystals of size -3+2 mm produced using blast and combine method.Was created the device (Fig. 1), designed to measure the crystals polarized light, characterizing the tension. The device consists of the illuminator 1, crossed polarizers 2, a collecting lens 3 and measuring the intensity of light 4, which includes an amplifier and recording device. As the illuminator 1 was used incandescent lamp power 20 W, fed by a stabilized power supply with a voltage of 8 V and a coefficient. stabilization 30.One of the polarizers 2 is mounted in a swivel clip to adjust the instrument in the absence of crystal for minimum signal. As of 4 meter light intensity was used for the photodiode PD-3 preamplifier, nahc performed on low-noise OY K ODA and enabled by reinvestiruja scheme. In front of the photodiode in the path of the beam placed collecting lens designed to focus the light beam on the photodiode. Photodiode, preamplifier, and a collecting lens can be moved in the vertical direction for adjustment of the device.As the recording device can be used by any voltmeter with sufficient accuracy. In our case we used universal digital voltmeter 7 16.Each of the diamonds of both parties were placed between the polarizers 2 and measured the intensity of polarized light passing through the second Polaroid and characterizing the integrated intensity in each sample of the diamond.The data obtained were entered into a computer and using the SPT "Statgraphic" built distribution of crystals (Fig. 3) in each batch according to the degree of intensity (intensity of anomalous birefringence). Both parties diamonds were weighed and calculated the average weight of the crystals according to the formula
< / BR>where mithe weight of the i-th crystal;
N, number of diamonds in the party.The average value of the distribution when the explosion was 0,0400 with a standard deviation 0,044 and at the combine production average value of the VA is slightly higher albeit only slightly. The average weight of the crystals was when explosive and combine production, respectively 0,244 CT and 0,216 CT.Then carried out the assessment of the safety of diamonds by the formula
< / BR>where Icf.the average value of the intensity of polarized light characteristic of the average strain in the crystals;
the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light;
Pcf.the average weight of the crystal.The result is a performance security: for party, extracted "explosive" method S 3,725 for the party obtained through the harvester's 1,158.The analysis of the degree of disturbance of these crystals by the method of the prototype gave the results presented in the table.Both methods showed higher security of crystals in the extraction using the harvester, but unlike the prototype method required two mineralogists during the week, the data measured and processed by the present method were obtained on the same day. Besides winning time eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluation, since all measurements are made instrument methods. Unlike the prototype method, which does not give an explicit quantitative evaluation of preservation, and shows sub is the IR. The method of determining the safety of diamonds in the technological processes of processing, including the selection of a representative sample of diamonds, the definition of each crystal of a given diagnostic indicator and assess the degree of preservation of diamonds, characterized in that to determine the average weight of crystals in the sample, determine for each crystal the intensity of polarized light, which characterizes the magnitude of the stresses in the crystal, build the distribution of crystals in polarized light, calculating the mean value and the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light, assess the degree of preservation of diamonds by the formula
< / BR>where Jcfthe average value of the intensity of polarized light,
Pcfthe average weight of the crystal in the sample,
the standard deviation of the intensity of polarized light.
FIELD: testing of precious stones.
SUBSTANCE: diamond is fixed onto holder and tested under specified angle for getting image. Then second measurement is made for getting two sets of data calculated by means of computer. The second set of data can be received by means of measurement of depth or due to changing direction of viewing.
EFFECT: improved precision of localization.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for processing diamonds into brilliants.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, by experimental or calculation-theoretic way in glow images visible to observer optical characteristics of diamond glow are determined, including glow intensiveness, glow glimmer and color saturation of glow, characterized by level of decomposition of white color on rainbow colors, and also relief coefficient of glow, characterized by average number of intensive color spots in glow image, distinctive to human eye, and additionally, by dividing glow image on compound portions, average values of glow intensiveness of compound portions are measured. Optical characteristics of glow are transformed to glow factors. As average coefficient of brilliant glow charm, which is used to estimate brilliant glow charm, charm coefficient is used, calculated as average value of factors of intensiveness, glimmering, color saturation and glow image geometry.
EFFECT: possible objective measurement and numeric estimation of brilliants glow charm, and possible certification of them on basis of glow charm.
5 cl, 22 dwg, 11 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises housing provided with solid body laser connected with the window in the heat insulating tank filled with liquid nitrogen and provided with the precious stone, semiconductor laser connected with the window, two spectrometers for detecting luminescence in the range of 550-10000 nm, and processor for processing signals from the spectrometers.
EFFECT: reduced sizes and simplified method of testing.
47 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: registration of absorption spectra of small luminescent specimens.
SUBSTANCE: the absorption spectrum of small luminescent specimens is determined according to relation of intensities of light fluxes that have passed and not passed through the specimen, the luminescence of the standard specimen is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has not passed, and the luminescence of the examined is used as the specimen through which the radiation flux has passed, and the absorption spectrum of the examined specimen is calculated according to the respective mathematical formula.
EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities due to the increase of the range of specimens suitable for measurements without special preparation of them.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: to determine if green-blue was subject ct to artificial irradiation or to ion bombardment, it is irradiated with light at wavelength of 633 nm for stimulation of luminescence emission, and luminescence is detected within range of 680 to 800 nm by using confocal microscope and spectrometer. Focal plane is canned in vertical along diamond. Quick reduction in luminescence accompanied with increase in depth points at natural illumination while even quicker reduction points at ion bombardment. Alternatively, to determine if diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet, diamond is subject to irradiation at wavelength of 325 nm to stimulate emission of luminescence and luminescence is detected within 330-450 nm range. Sharp change in luminescence at increase of depth points at the fact that the diamond has to be natural/synthetic doublet.
EFFECT: ability of automatic precise evaluation.
44 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: visual scope of mark onto face of precious stone.
SUBSTANCE: device for observing information mark on face 7 of precious stone 6 is made in form of casing 1 for jewelry. Casing 1 for jewelry has substrate 2 to keep ring 5 with precious stone 6 on top of it and rotating cap 3. Rotating cap 3 has opening 15 in its top part; opening has 10x lens 16, that's why when cap 3 is open and turned by 30° angle, face of 7 of precious stone can be seen through lens 18. Moreover precious stone is illuminated by light that enters casing through slot formed when cap is opened. Light falls onto face slantwise and is regularly reflected through lens 16. Scope can be used for internal and external observation.
EFFECT: simplicity at use; improved comfort.
38 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: laser machine for analysis, grading and marking-out of untreated diamond.
SUBSTANCE: the machine has a laser scanning device, three-dimensional scanning system, matrix, masking device, electronic unit and a computer program for analysis of the diamond weight and characteristics of the brilliant or brilliants that can be obtained from an untreated diamond.
EFFECT: saved material and time, and enhanced capacity.
30 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the method and system for laser marking precious stones and, particularly to the method and system for engraving authentication codes. In the system for laser marking precious stones such as diamonds, marks consist of several microscopic dots, increase of which can be initiated upon effect on natural internal defects or impurities inside the precious stone of a strictly focused laser pulse sequence. The marks are inscribed by laser pulses, carrying significantly less energy than threshold energy required for inscription inside ideal material of precious stone. The method of laser marking and encryption takes into account random spatial distribution of defects, present in natural precious stones, as well as their much localised character. Authentication data are encrypted in the precious stone in the relative spatial arrangement of dots which form a mark. Dots, engraved under the surface of the precious stone, can be made undetectable to the naked eye and a magnifier through limiting their individual size to several micrometres. The mark can be detected using a special optical reading device.
EFFECT: laser inscription of permanent point marks inside precious stones.
40 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to artificail gem diamonds identifiable with a certain person or animal. A personalised gem diamond is grown from a charge that includes carbon being a product of carbonisation of the material provided by the customer, powder of spectroscopically pure graphite and a marker for which at least two elements are used that are selected from a lanthanide group and taken in a arbitrarily prescribed ratio to the extent between 0.01 to 10 mcg /g.
EFFECT: improved authenticity of identification of a personalised diamond.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices which use ultraviolet radiation for testing objects, and is meant for sorting diamonds and, particularly for selecting diamonds from natural rough diamonds and cut diamonds with brown hue, where the selected diamonds are suitable for high-temperature processing at high pressure for decolouring, more specifically, type IIa and IIb, and IaB diamond crystals. A light-emitting diode with radiation peak in the wavelength range from 240 to 300 nm is used as the ultraviolet radiation source, and the detector of radiation transmitted through the tested diamond crystal is a photodiode. The electric signal from the photodiode is amplified with a converting amplifier. Intensity of radiation transmitted through the tested diamond crystal is indicated using a measuring device and in parallel using an indicator with operation threshold. The light-emitting diode is placed in a holder with a table. A narrow central hole is made in the table in order to pass radiation from the light-emitting diode. The tested diamond crystal is placed on the table, while completely covering this hole. The diametre of this hole is made smaller than typical dimensions of the tested diamond crystal. The photodiode is placed into the holder with possibility of changing its position relative the tested diamond crystal and possibility of fixing its vertical position, in line with the hole in the table, using a special detachable cover for the said table.
EFFECT: design of a mobile compact device for selecting diamond crystals, related to types IIa and IIb, and IaB, from rough diamonds or cut diamonds, suitable for decolouring and quality improvement through thermobaric processing.
2 cl, 2 dwg