Absorbing device

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: devices, absorbing and dispersing the energy of impact. The invention allows reduction of the thickness of the cylinder wall of the absorbing apparatus and to improve the working conditions of its seals due to the rational redistribution of pressure in the working chamber. This is ensured by the fact that absorbing device containing the cylinder 1, in which the possibility of a flowing fluid has a piston 2, is provided with an additional spherical chamber 5 is separated from the main nut with seal. All seals are made in the form of rings having a conical surface on the one hand, and on the other, flat base, adjoined by two washers in contact with the base of another ring which rests on the conical surface mating parts. 2 Il.

The invention relates to transportation engineering and is designed to absorb and dissipate impact energy in coupling devices of vehicles.

Known for absorbing device (Kolomiychenko Century. Century. and other "automatic coupler device of rolling stock. M. Transportation, 1980, S. 45, Fig. 42) containing cylinder having three Rabkina partition, on one side where the main floating piston forming gas high-pressure chamber. Inside the main floating piston placed additional floating piston separates the gas chamber high pressure from the hydraulic chamber and having a diaphragm with the holes of constant cross-section for throttling fluid. A guide for the primary piston is Buchs, rigidly mounted in the bottom of the cylinder.

This absorbing apparatus is not enough convenient in operation, as in use it is necessary to regularly monitor the level of liquid and gas pressure due to the fact that the deviation of these parameters from the estimated significantly degrade the characteristics of the work apparatus. Furthermore, the presence of multiple cameras complicates the design of the device requires maintaining tight joints with high precision mating parts, which complicates the manufacturing process of the device.

Also known absorbing device the liquid absorber (C. N. Zaitsev, V. L. Rudakov "the Design and strength of aircraft, headache publishing house publishing Association "Higher school", Kiev, 1978). This shock absorber contains thick-walled cylinder, to ascertain what, the rod is installed in the sealing of the bottom of the cylinder. In addition, the piston has a spring-loaded valve, which increases the cross-section of holes for flowing liquid during forward at high speed compression damper. The piston divides the cylinder volume into two parts.

The shortcoming of this absorbing apparatus is that to ensure its effectiveness in conditions of very high pressures necessary to provide a greater thickness of the walls of the cylinder and a powerful seal. This disadvantage is due to the fact that the working chamber has the shape of a cylinder, which is at the maximum working pressure requires a large wall thickness, and that seals operate at a pressure differential equal to the maximum working pressure.

The closest analogue of the invention is absorbing device.with. USSR N 525581, IPC B 21 G 11/12, 1976), which contains the cylinder, is made with two interconnected cylindrical cavities. In one of the cavities has a piston with flowing fluid. The design of the device used seals. The drawback of the device at the specified technical solution is a significant metal content, as well as the complexity of the use of the giving of the invention is to reduce the thickness of the walls of the cylinder by a more rational distribution of pressure in the working chamber, as well as improving working conditions seals by reducing the pressure differential acting on them.

The task is provided by the fact that absorbing apparatus containing a cylinder, made with two interconnected cavities, one of which has the bottom of the cylinder, and with the possibility of a flowing fluid, the piston rod of which is Ambidextrous, and between the surface of one of the cavities and the bottom of the first seal, and one side of the stem, is made of larger diameter than the other, located in the bottom of the cylinder and covered by the second seal according to the invention, one of the cavities of the cylinder is cylindrical, and the other spherical, and the bottom is located in the cylindrical cavity, between which and a spherical cavity posted nut with a third seal covering the other side of the stem, with all seals are made equally in the form of two rings, each of which has on one side a conical surface and the other flat, which is adjoined two washers and conical surfaces of the rings cooperate with similar surfaces.

Thus, the cylinder to perform the compression of the working fluid due to the fact, that end of the rod, mounted in the seal that separates the primary and secondary camera, made of smaller diameter than the rod end is installed in the bottom of the cylinder. Additional Luggage carries the basic static load, and the pressure therein reaches a maximum value, while in the main chamber is less than about two times. As well as the additional chamber is spherical, its walls can be made thinner than in the known devices, where the working chamber has the shape of a cylinder. In addition, the walls of the main camera can also be made thinner, so that the pressure therein is approximately half the maximum operating values. With regard to improving the working conditions of the seal, the seal is installed in the bottom of the cylinder is subjected to pressure in the main camera, which does not exceed half the maximum operating value, and the seal that separates the primary and the secondary camera works on pressure differential between the primary and secondary chambers, which is roughly half the maximum operating values. Thus the performance of seals in the form of rings having a conical surface on one LCA, based on the conical surface mating parts, eliminates the possibility of flow of the working fluid from one chamber to another and from the main chamber into the atmosphere due to the fact that at high values of working pressure in the interaction of the tapered surfaces of the seal with the mating with them mating surfaces of the parts is optional preload of the seal to the sealing surfaces.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the absorbing apparatus in section; Fig. 2 - seal design.

Absorbing device includes a cylinder 1 (Fig. 1) mounted in the cylinder 1, the piston 2 is made integral with the rod 3. The cylinder 1 has two cameras

primary 4 and 5 additional. The inner surface of the secondary camera is made spherical. In the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 main camera 4 is installed seal 7, the fixed retaining ring 8. Seal 7 and the retaining ring 8 is fastened to the bottom 6 by screws 9. In the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 is mounted one end of the rod 3 and the other end thereof is installed in the nut 10, clamped seal 11. Nut kantrida retainer 12 and the screw 13. The bottom 6 is held in the cylinder 1 by means of the ring 14.

In addition, the seal 7 and onicescu surface of the groove, made in the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 (Fig. 1) and flat base it relies on a set of washers 16 (Fig. 2), which on the other hand relies ring 17, which is accompanied by a conical surface with the ring 18, resting flat base on the retaining ring 8.

Before you begin absorbing device is filled viscoelastic body work, install the piston 2 (Fig. 1) and fix it in position using the locking ring 13, providing the estimated initial torque absorbing mechanism. When the rod 3 is in its extreme position and rests against the piston 2 in the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1.

When the compression of the absorbing apparatus, the rod 3 is moved, and the pressure in the secondary chamber 5 is increased by reducing its volume in the main chamber 4, the pressure also increases as the diameter of the moving of the rod is larger than the diameter of the rod moving in the secondary camera.

In the case of rapid movement of the piston 2 in the main chamber between the cavities occurs the pressure drop, the value of which depends on the area of the annular gap formed by the inner surface of the cylinder 1 and the outer surface of the piston 2. Additional camera 5 when this happens tol is e, than in the main chamber 4. As well as the inner surface of the chambers are spherical, then the walls can be made thinner than in the case if the inner surface it was cylindrical. When this seal 11 is exposed to the pressure differential between the primary 4 and secondary chambers, the value of which is approximately two times less than the pressure in the secondary camera 5, and the seal 7 is exposed to the pressure in the main chamber 4, which is roughly half the maximum working pressure. When this occurs, the engagement of the conical surfaces of the rings 15 and 17 with the mating parts, resulting in additional effort that is running out of the ring to the sealing surface of the cylinder 1.

Thus, while providing maximum working pressure is provided to reduce the wall thickness of the cylinder and improved working conditions seals.

Absorbing device containing a cylinder, made with two interconnected cavities, one of which has the bottom of the cylinder, and with the possibility of a flowing fluid the piston rod which wypada side of the stem, made of larger diameter than the other, located in the bottom of the cylinder and covered by a second seal, wherein one of the cavities of the cylinder is cylindrical, and the other spherical, and the bottom is located in the cylindrical cavity, between which and a spherical cavity posted nut with a third seal covering the other side of the stem, with all seals are made equally in the form of two rings, each of which has on one side a conical surface and the other flat, which is adjoined two washers and conical surfaces of the rings cooperate with similar surfaces.

 

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