(57) Abstract:Usage: devices, absorbing and dispersing the energy of impact. The invention allows reduction of the thickness of the cylinder wall of the absorbing apparatus and to improve the working conditions of its seals due to the rational redistribution of pressure in the working chamber. This is ensured by the fact that absorbing device containing the cylinder 1, in which the possibility of a flowing fluid has a piston 2, is provided with an additional spherical chamber 5 is separated from the main nut with seal. All seals are made in the form of rings having a conical surface on the one hand, and on the other, flat base, adjoined by two washers in contact with the base of another ring which rests on the conical surface mating parts. 2 Il. The invention relates to transportation engineering and is designed to absorb and dissipate impact energy in coupling devices of vehicles.Known for absorbing device (Kolomiychenko Century. Century. and other "automatic coupler device of rolling stock. M. Transportation, 1980, S. 45, Fig. 42) containing cylinder having three Rabkina partition, on one side where the main floating piston forming gas high-pressure chamber. Inside the main floating piston placed additional floating piston separates the gas chamber high pressure from the hydraulic chamber and having a diaphragm with the holes of constant cross-section for throttling fluid. A guide for the primary piston is Buchs, rigidly mounted in the bottom of the cylinder.This absorbing apparatus is not enough convenient in operation, as in use it is necessary to regularly monitor the level of liquid and gas pressure due to the fact that the deviation of these parameters from the estimated significantly degrade the characteristics of the work apparatus. Furthermore, the presence of multiple cameras complicates the design of the device requires maintaining tight joints with high precision mating parts, which complicates the manufacturing process of the device.Also known absorbing device the liquid absorber (C. N. Zaitsev, V. L. Rudakov "the Design and strength of aircraft, headache publishing house publishing Association "Higher school", Kiev, 1978). This shock absorber contains thick-walled cylinder, to ascertain what, the rod is installed in the sealing of the bottom of the cylinder. In addition, the piston has a spring-loaded valve, which increases the cross-section of holes for flowing liquid during forward at high speed compression damper. The piston divides the cylinder volume into two parts.The shortcoming of this absorbing apparatus is that to ensure its effectiveness in conditions of very high pressures necessary to provide a greater thickness of the walls of the cylinder and a powerful seal. This disadvantage is due to the fact that the working chamber has the shape of a cylinder, which is at the maximum working pressure requires a large wall thickness, and that seals operate at a pressure differential equal to the maximum working pressure.The closest analogue of the invention is absorbing device.with. USSR N 525581, IPC B 21 G 11/12, 1976), which contains the cylinder, is made with two interconnected cylindrical cavities. In one of the cavities has a piston with flowing fluid. The design of the device used seals. The drawback of the device at the specified technical solution is a significant metal content, as well as the complexity of the use of the giving of the invention is to reduce the thickness of the walls of the cylinder by a more rational distribution of pressure in the working chamber, as well as improving working conditions seals by reducing the pressure differential acting on them.The task is provided by the fact that absorbing apparatus containing a cylinder, made with two interconnected cavities, one of which has the bottom of the cylinder, and with the possibility of a flowing fluid, the piston rod of which is Ambidextrous, and between the surface of one of the cavities and the bottom of the first seal, and one side of the stem, is made of larger diameter than the other, located in the bottom of the cylinder and covered by the second seal according to the invention, one of the cavities of the cylinder is cylindrical, and the other spherical, and the bottom is located in the cylindrical cavity, between which and a spherical cavity posted nut with a third seal covering the other side of the stem, with all seals are made equally in the form of two rings, each of which has on one side a conical surface and the other flat, which is adjoined two washers and conical surfaces of the rings cooperate with similar surfaces.Thus, the cylinder to perform the compression of the working fluid due to the fact, that end of the rod, mounted in the seal that separates the primary and secondary camera, made of smaller diameter than the rod end is installed in the bottom of the cylinder. Additional Luggage carries the basic static load, and the pressure therein reaches a maximum value, while in the main chamber is less than about two times. As well as the additional chamber is spherical, its walls can be made thinner than in the known devices, where the working chamber has the shape of a cylinder. In addition, the walls of the main camera can also be made thinner, so that the pressure therein is approximately half the maximum operating values. With regard to improving the working conditions of the seal, the seal is installed in the bottom of the cylinder is subjected to pressure in the main camera, which does not exceed half the maximum operating value, and the seal that separates the primary and the secondary camera works on pressure differential between the primary and secondary chambers, which is roughly half the maximum operating values. Thus the performance of seals in the form of rings having a conical surface on one LCA, based on the conical surface mating parts, eliminates the possibility of flow of the working fluid from one chamber to another and from the main chamber into the atmosphere due to the fact that at high values of working pressure in the interaction of the tapered surfaces of the seal with the mating with them mating surfaces of the parts is optional preload of the seal to the sealing surfaces.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the absorbing apparatus in section; Fig. 2 - seal design.Absorbing device includes a cylinder 1 (Fig. 1) mounted in the cylinder 1, the piston 2 is made integral with the rod 3. The cylinder 1 has two cameras
primary 4 and 5 additional. The inner surface of the secondary camera is made spherical. In the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 main camera 4 is installed seal 7, the fixed retaining ring 8. Seal 7 and the retaining ring 8 is fastened to the bottom 6 by screws 9. In the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 is mounted one end of the rod 3 and the other end thereof is installed in the nut 10, clamped seal 11. Nut kantrida retainer 12 and the screw 13. The bottom 6 is held in the cylinder 1 by means of the ring 14.In addition, the seal 7 and onicescu surface of the groove, made in the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1 (Fig. 1) and flat base it relies on a set of washers 16 (Fig. 2), which on the other hand relies ring 17, which is accompanied by a conical surface with the ring 18, resting flat base on the retaining ring 8.Before you begin absorbing device is filled viscoelastic body work, install the piston 2 (Fig. 1) and fix it in position using the locking ring 13, providing the estimated initial torque absorbing mechanism. When the rod 3 is in its extreme position and rests against the piston 2 in the bottom 6 of the cylinder 1.When the compression of the absorbing apparatus, the rod 3 is moved, and the pressure in the secondary chamber 5 is increased by reducing its volume in the main chamber 4, the pressure also increases as the diameter of the moving of the rod is larger than the diameter of the rod moving in the secondary camera.In the case of rapid movement of the piston 2 in the main chamber between the cavities occurs the pressure drop, the value of which depends on the area of the annular gap formed by the inner surface of the cylinder 1 and the outer surface of the piston 2. Additional camera 5 when this happens tol is e, than in the main chamber 4. As well as the inner surface of the chambers are spherical, then the walls can be made thinner than in the case if the inner surface it was cylindrical. When this seal 11 is exposed to the pressure differential between the primary 4 and secondary chambers, the value of which is approximately two times less than the pressure in the secondary camera 5, and the seal 7 is exposed to the pressure in the main chamber 4, which is roughly half the maximum working pressure. When this occurs, the engagement of the conical surfaces of the rings 15 and 17 with the mating parts, resulting in additional effort that is running out of the ring to the sealing surface of the cylinder 1.Thus, while providing maximum working pressure is provided to reduce the wall thickness of the cylinder and improved working conditions seals. Absorbing device containing a cylinder, made with two interconnected cavities, one of which has the bottom of the cylinder, and with the possibility of a flowing fluid the piston rod which wypada side of the stem, made of larger diameter than the other, located in the bottom of the cylinder and covered by a second seal, wherein one of the cavities of the cylinder is cylindrical, and the other spherical, and the bottom is located in the cylindrical cavity, between which and a spherical cavity posted nut with a third seal covering the other side of the stem, with all seals are made equally in the form of two rings, each of which has on one side a conical surface and the other flat, which is adjoined two washers and conical surfaces of the rings cooperate with similar surfaces.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for damping vibrations of vehicles. Proposed method of damping vertical vibrations of objects with pneumatic elastic members includes periodical reduction of restoring force of main pneumatic elastic element of suspension at beginning of each rebound stroke by delivering additional mass of gas to additional elastic member and subsequent removal of said gas mass at beginning of each compression stroke. Delivery of additional mass of gas to additional elastic member is provided from self-contained power source, for instance, receiver of vehicle, and subsequent bleeding of gas mass at beginning of each compression stroke into atmosphere is provided.
EFFECT: improved damping properties of pneumatic suspension, provision of control of elastic damping characteristics over entire amplitude frequency range under external action.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to shock absorbing devices for damping vertical vibrations of vehicles using gas in chamber with elastic wall. Pneumatic suspension contains main elastic member installed between sprung and unsprung masses and additional elastic member installed inside main elastic member. Additional elastic member is made in form of hollow plunger divided into two spaces by piston. Rod space of plunger is connected by air channel through electropneumatic valve controlled by speed sensor and switching device to feed mass of mass of gas at beginning of each rebound stroke with receiver, and to bleed mass of gas into atmosphere at beginning of each compression stroke. Second space of plunger also communicates with atmosphere through hole in bottom of inner plunger. Rod of piston is secured in cover of main elastic member.
EFFECT: improved damping properties of pneumatic suspension, provision of control of its elastic damping characteristics over entire amplitude frequency range under external action.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to independent suspension for controlled wheel of vehicle used in development of deposits and to suspension unit. Vehicle wheel is installed on frame via single suspension unit. Suspension unit comprises external pipe fixed to frame, and internal pipe, which is partially installed in external pipe, at that wheel hub is fixed to lower part of internal pipe. Internal pipe may move in longitudinal direction as required by suspension travels, and besides internal pipe may rotate around its longitudinal axis for wheel rotation. Suspension unit is additionally equipped with hydraulic pneumatic elements for realisation of suspension travel and damping.
EFFECT: wheel controllability is improved.
9 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: transport machinery.
SUBSTANCE: air suspension includes pneumatic double circular vessels and optional tanks filled with compressed air. Optional tanks are equipped with electro-pneumatic valves. These valves are electrically connected to an on-board computer installed at the control panel of a vehicle. The on-board computer is electrically connected to the steering post sensor and the electric speed counter of the vehicle.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of a vehicle at steering motion.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to mechanical engineering. The gas spring with the gas shock-absorber contains the first end element, the second end element and the flexible wall. The gas shock-absorber contains the first shock-absorbing element connected with the first end element. The second shock-absorbing element contains the end face wall and the second side wall. The second shock-absorbing element has the sliding support in the first shock-absorbing chamber. The end face wall can move with reference to the first sidewall of the first shock-absorbing element. The third shock-absorbing element contains the shock-absorber stem and the third element of the piston. The third shock-absorbing element can move with reference to the second sidewall of the second shock-absorbing element. The first shifting element moves the first end of the second shock-absorbing element from the third element of the piston. The second shifting element moves the second end of the second shock-absorbing element from the named third element of the piston. The method of assembly of the gas spring and the gas shock-absorber pre-determines the sequence of elements.
EFFECT: reduction of height of the device is achieved.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: automotive engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic spring includes built-in device of distributing valve for loading pressure chamber (6) of air spring pressure. The device of distributing valve consists of one separate ventilation valve (8) and one separate deaeration valve (9) which are made for actuation by means of also built-in mechanical drive means. The ventilation valve (8) is arranged opposite the deaeration valve (9) with drive pushers facing each other (8 a, 8b) on the side of the outer pipe (1) or the discharge pipe (3). The mechanical drive means comprises a switching lever (10) of the balance bar, which at its one end acts on one guide surface (12) fixed on the discharge pipe (3) or the outer pipe (10) of the drive element (11) in order to act on the drive pushers (8a, 8b) at the other end for switching the distribution valve device.
EFFECT: providing reliable ventilation and deaeration of the spring delivery chamber in all positions of the stroke throughout entire service life of the spring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic spring includes an integrated system of control valves for compressed air supply to a cavity (6) for creating spring pressure formed between a shell (1), a pipe (3) of pneumatic spring and connecting said structural elements with an resilient element of a pneumatic suspension (5). The control valve system consists of a separate air intake valve (8) and a separate air outlet valve (9). The air inlet valve (8) is arranged opposite the air outlet valve (9) with the drive pushers facing each other (8a, 9a). Mechanical actuating means located therebetween and acting thereon include a switching rod (10) arranged on one side on the shell (1) or pipe (3) of the pneumatic spring. The guides (11a, 11b) which are opposite and intended for each of the drive pushers (8a, 9a) of the switching rod (10) sliding influence the drive pushers (8a, 9a) for the position-dependent actuation stroke of the valve.
EFFECT: providing reliable air inlet and outlet to or from the cavity to create spring pressure at any stroke position.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; draft gears.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device consists of housing 1 with fitted-on front bottom 2 and rear bottom 3 forming reservoir filled with volume-compressible working medium 4. Hollow rod 5 passing through front bottom interacts through inner surface 6 with guide axle 7 secured on rear bottom interacts through inner surface 6 with guide axle 7 secured on rear bottom. Piston 8 on end of rod divides working chamber into two spaces with possibility of flowing of working medium 4 through slot formed with device housing. Ring-shaped projection 9 is made in middle part of device housing. Clearance P for working flowing of medium is formed between ring-shaped projection and piston, and clearance H for idle flowing of medium is formed out of the limits of ring-shaped projection. When manufacturing the device, length of rod is increased by summary value of tolerance zones of parts limiting position of draft gear inside car frame, and working medium is pumped into inner space of device at pressure lower by value compensating piston stroke equal to summary values of tolerance zones of parts limiting position of draft gear inside car frame.
EFFECT: provision of stepless taking up of load and slackless mounting of draft gear.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; draft gears.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains housing 1 with bottom 2 and hollow plunger 6 with elastic member 3 and hydraulic chamber 5 placed in between. Hydraulic chamber communicates with compensating chamber through throttling channel. Casing of compensating chamber encloses housing 1, being connected to housing. Cylindrical hydraulic valve 13 is secured on housing, and its shutoff element 14 divides cylinder space into two parts. Upper part of cylinder space communicates with atmosphere and, through channel, with gaseous medium in compensating chamber. Lower part of cylinder space communicates through channel 18 with hydraulic chamber. Shutoff element is made for overlapping the channel through which cylinder space communicates with atmosphere.
EFFECT: improved reliability of device.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transport machine building. Proposed absorber comprises cylinder with two intercommunicated chambers filled with visco-elastic fluid. In one of said chambers accommodates cylinder bottom and rod-piston to allow working fluid overflow. Besides, flexible elements are arranged in one of said chambers aligned with cylinder body. Elastic elements are made from visco-elastic material divided by separators. Said separators are aligned with said body and have diametral grooves, orifices and central channels to allow overflow of said visco-elastic fluid between said chambers.
EFFECT: improved ergonomics and dissipative properties of absorber.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and serves to absorb and dissipate energy of impacts in couplers of vehicles. Proposed absorber comprise cylinder made up of two separated chambers filled with elasto-plastic fluid. One chamber has cylinder bottom and rod with piston. Second chamber has cylinder bottom and rod with piston. Said rod is provided with central chambers. Elastic elements are arranged on outer side of every chamber, aligned with cylinder. Elastic elements are made from elasto-plastic material. Piston is provided with check valve and calibrated clearance to allow overflow of working fluid.
EFFECT: higher dissipative properties.
SUBSTANCE: device 100 comprises damping system 10 retained in case 11 and provided with flexible element 12, and hydraulic damping device. Device 100 has also piston con rod 2 to displace in lengthwise direction L relative to case 11 and piston head 3 formed in con rod face section. Piston head 3 is retained in hydraulic chamber 7 to displace relative to first hydraulic chamber 17. Piston head divides first hydraulic chamber 17 into front part 17a distant from con rod 2 and rear part located nearby con rod 2. Hydraulic damper has first system to transfer hydraulic fluid from front part 17a via extra valve 4 into rear part and second hydraulic chamber 18 is piston head moves along first hydraulic chamber 17 toward front part 17a. Hydraulic damper has second system to transfer hydraulic fluid from rear part and second hydraulic chamber 18 via ball check valve into front part 17a if piston head 3 moves along first hydraulic chamber toward rear part.
EFFECT: reduced wear and device length.
24 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport, particularly, to automatic center coupler draft gears. Center coupler draft gear comprises tetrahedral case with exposed neck to accommodate backup assembly, moving friction plates and pusher to rest on set of elastic elements. Coupler gear case inner case has vertical grooves that make guides for massive jig to displace at shock compression. Case front part has tapers at working surfaces, moving friction plates have grooves to increase the space between plates so that backup assembly volume is increased. Backup assembly is composed of cylinder filled with deformable composition, rod and cover and arranged in tetrahedral case neck inside massive jig to transmit shock force from automatic coupling while tetrahedral case has tapers at its working surfaces.
EFFECT: stable operating performances, higher reliability, longer life.