Cell construction, e.g. bottoms, walls, cathodes (C25C3/08)

Cathode unit having groove of variable depth and completed intermediate space // 2642815
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cathode device comprises a cathode unit based on carbon and/or graphite, in which, at least, one groove is made, extending in the longitudinal direction of the cathode unit and having a variable depth along the cathode unit, which houses a tyre, wherein an intermediate space between the tire and the bottom of the groove of a variable depth is, at least, partially filled with steel selected from the group with a low content of carbon, silicon, and phosphorus.EFFECT: uniform vertical current distribution along the length of the cathode unit during the operation of the electrolyser.9 cl, 1 dwg

Systems and methods for protection of electrolyser side walls // 2642782
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser comprises the following: an anode, a cathode spaced from the anode, a molten electrolyzing bath in fluid communication with the anode and cathode. The molten electrolyzing bath has a chemical composition of a bath comprising at least one bath component, a housing having a bottom and at least one side wall surrounding the bottom. Herein the electrolyser housing is designed to hold the molten electrolyzing bath. The side wall essentially consists of said at least one component of the bath, wherein the side wall further comprises the following: the first side wall part adapted to be mounted on a heat insulating lining of the side wall and holding the electrolyte and the second side wall part formed protruding upward from the bottom of the electrolyser housing. Wherein the second side wall part is longitudinally spaced from the first side wall part, so that the first side wall part, the second side wall part and the base between the first part and the second part form a trough. The trough is configured to receive and hold a protective precipitate separately from the electrolyser bottom. The protective precipitate can dissolve from the trough into the molten electrolyzing bath so that the molten electrolyzing bath has a level of said at least one bath component that is sufficient to maintain the first side wall part and the second side wall part in the molten electrolyzing bath.EFFECT: elements of the electrolyser side wall allow protecting the side wall from the electrolyzing bath.33 cl, 1 ex, 11 dwg

Electrolyser, in particular, for obtaining aluminium // 2630114
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: cell contains a cathode, a layer of liquid aluminium located on the upper side of the cathode, a layer of melt on it and an anode on top of the melt layer. The cathode consists of at least two cathode blocks. At least one of these at least two cathode blocks is different from at least one of the other cathode block (s) with respect to at least one of the average compressive strength, average thermal conductivity, average specific Electrical resistivity and apparent density.EFFECT: increasing the energy efficiency, service life, and stability, as well as the ability to work under high current loads.17 cl, 13 dwg
ethod of loading the electrolyser cathode for preparing aluminium // 2621197
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method involves filling and leveling the heat-insulating layer in the cathode device casing, filling, leveling and sealing the refractory layer, installing the bottom and side blocks, and then sealing the seams between them with a cold beat hearth. Before the fill insulation layer on the bottom of the casing, a layer of fine particles of the carbonation is created.EFFECT: reducing the cost of lining materials, reduced energy consumption during the electrolysis by improving the thermal resistance of the thermal insulation in the basement, an increase in the period of electrolyzers.3 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

Device for transportating paste in two perpendicular directions and plant for producing moulded blocks containing such device // 2621094
FIELD: transportation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a transport device for transporting carbonaceous paste, that is movable along the main path for rollers, passing in the first main direction for feeding the paste to a machine for moulding blocks for manufacturing electrodes, in particular, anodes of an aluminium electrolyser. The device comprises the main frame with rotating means cooperating with the main path for the rollers for moving the main frame in the main direction, the conveying hopper supported by the main frame and suitable for loading with carbonaceous paste. The main frame forms the auxiliary path for rollers, passing in the second auxiliary direction perpendicular to the main direction. The device contains the supporting frame connected with the conveying hopper and having rotating means for moving the supporting frame of the auxiliary path for rollers in the auxiliary direction. A plant for producing moulded blocks for manufacturing electrodes, in particular anodes of an aluminium electrolyser, is also disclosed.EFFECT: increasing the performance of manufacturing the blocks.8 cl, 7 dwg

Aluminium electrolyser with artificial crust // 2616754
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser contains a cathode device, containing a bath of coal bottom, and composed of coal blocks with embedded cathode current conductors, enclosed in a metal housing, with refractory and heat-insulating materials arranged between the metal housing, the anode device, containing one or more carbon anodes, connected by the anode bus, placed in the top of the bath and immersed in the molten electrolyte. The refractory electroinsulating cryolite resistant materials are placed on the peripheral surface of the bottom between the side blocks and anode projection line at the cathode.EFFECT: reduction of the anode-to-cathode distance (ACD), voltage and power consumption, current yield increase.4 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl

Lining method for cathode assembly of electrolyzer for primary aluminium production (versions) // 2614357
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes filling the cathode assembly casing with heat insulation layer, building up a refractory layer, followed by packing layers, installing hearth and side blocks, followed by sealing the joints between them with cold ramming paste. In accordance with the first alternative of the presented method an elastic element made of compact fibreboard with the thickness of (2.5-4)⋅10-4 of the cathode width is installed between the heat insulation and refractory layers. According to the second alternative of the presented method flexible graphite foil is installed between the heat insulation and refractory layers and an elastic element of the abovementioned fibreboard is mounted beneath it.EFFECT: reduced power consumption during the electrolyzer operation by improving the stabilization of the thermal properties of the heat insulation in the basement, extended life of electrolyzers.6 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Primary aluminium production reduction cell cathode lining // 2608942
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aluminium production reduction cell cathode lining. Cathode lining comprises bottom and side units, interconnected by cold ramming paste, fire-resistant and heat-insulating layers from unshaped materials. Refractory layer is made from aluminosilicate material, a heat-insulating layer is from nongraphitic carbon or its mixture with aluminosilicate or alumina composition powder. Heat-insulation and refractory layers consist of, at least, two sublayers, wherein heat insulation and refractory layers porosity increases from top sublayer to bottom one, and ratio of thicknesses of refractory and heat-insulating layers is 1:(1-3).EFFECT: enabling reduced cyanide content in heat insulation top layers and providing conditions for repeated use of heat-insulating material.4 cl, 2 dwg
Titanium diboride granules as cathode protection against erosion // 2606483
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to granules of titanium diboride, used for coating graphite cathodes in electrolytic cells in production of aluminium by electrolysis of molten medium and for repairing holes in cathode bottom of electrolytic cells. Titanium diboride granules have rounded shape, size in accordance with sieve number between 1 and 10 mm and compression strength of at least 5 N. Granules are obtained by mixing TiB2 powder with raw binder materials, preferably oxide, in form of aluminium compounds, obtaining raw workpieces and thermal treatment at temperatures of at least 800 °C.EFFECT: technical result of invention is improvement resistance of granules to wear and breakdown and improved protection of electrolysis cell against erosion wear.22 cl, 11 ex, 1 tbl

ethod of lining cathode device of electrolysis cell // 2606374
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of lining a cathode device of an electrolyser for production of primary aluminium by electrolysis. Method involves loading a heat-insulating layer, consisting of non-graphitised carbon, in casing of cathode device, formation of a refractory layer of filling powder of aluminosilicate composition and compaction thereof by vibration compaction, installation of hearth and on-board units with further sealing of joints between them with cold-ramming paste. Heat-insulating material, consisting of non-graphitised carbon, is placed in cluster modules and is placed in base of electrolysis cell in at least one layer, and seams between them are sprinkled with non-graphitised carbon.EFFECT: reduced dust release during installation of cathode device, reduced power consumption during operation of electrolysis cell owing to optimisation of thermophysical properties of lining materials of base of electrolysis cell.4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of lining of cathode device of electrolytic cell for aluminium production // 2593247
FIELD: metal processing. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of lining of cathode device of electrolytic cell for aluminium production with unshaped materials. Proposed method comprises laying brick border along perimeter of inner side surface of metal enclosure, filling and horizontal alignment of heat-insulating material consisting of nongraphitic carbon, in case of cathode device, filling and horizontal alignment of refractory layer, joint compaction of fire-resistant and heat-insulating layers by vibration compaction, installation of hearth and on-board units with further sealing of joints between them with cold packed bottom mass before filling heat-insulating material is mixed with fine organic particles. EFFECT: reduced cost of lining materials and reduced power consumption due to stabilisation of thermal characteristics of heat insulation of cathode device of electrolytic cell. 4 cl, 3 dwg

Graphitised cathode unit having wear-resistant surface // 2586381
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cathode unit and a cathode of an aluminium electrolytic cell. Cathode unit has a base layer comprising graphite and disposed thereon a coating layer made of a graphite composite material comprising 1 to 50% by weight of solid material with a melting point of at least 1000°C and having a thickness of 50 to 400 mcm. Also disclosed is a cathode and its use in aluminium electrolytic cell.EFFECT: longer service life of cathode unit and cathode.28 cl, 1 dwg

Cathode unit having top layer containing solid material // 2584097
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cathode unit and a cathode of an aluminium electrolytic cell. Cathode unit for aluminium electrolytic cell comprises a main layer of graphite and located on upper layer made from carbon composite material containing from 15 to less than 50 wt% of solid material with fusion temperature of at least 1000°C and with thickness from 50 to 400 mcm. Also disclosed is a cathode containing said cathode unit, and use of said cathode for electrolysis of metal, in particular aluminium.EFFECT: longer service life of cathode unit and cathode.21 cl, 1 dwg

Aluminium cell with compression device and process to this end // 2574150
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to production of aluminium (versions) with the help of aluminium cell. Claimed cell comprises the anode, cathode assembly with cathode unit with the slit and current conductor subassembly arranged at least partially in said slit to expand in crosswise direction to make it fit in the slit. The device of axial compression abutting on the end of the current conductor to apply axial force to the end of said subassembly is arranged outside the latter. This invention discloses the production of aluminium in claimed cell with the help of said axial compression device.EFFECT: decreased cathode voltage due to better contact, hence, decreased resistance of the joint.22 cl, 23 dwg, 1 tbl

Cover for aluminium electrolyser having baked anodes // 2570155
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cover comprises horizontal plating made with flat-topped windows for anode holders and flat-topped frame installed over each flat-topped window at end and lateral sides respectively, a sealing plank fixed rigidly at the end surface of flat-topped window, guides fixed rigidly at lateral sides of the flat-topped window and the flat-topped frame is fixed in the above guides so that it can move inside them. The flat-topped frame and the sealing plank are made of flexible sealing element fixed with its one end between the lower and upper clamp plates so that unfixed side of the flexible sealing element may be deformed and a gap between the flat-topped window and anode holder can be overlapped. The upper and lower plate of the flat-topped frame and the sealing plank are made of light non-magnet metals and alloys. The flexible sealing element is made of multilayer textile material laid in one or several layers. The flat-topped frame has a handle. The lower clamp plate is thicker and longer than the upper clamp plate, and the plates and the sealing element are coupled by screws.EFFECT: improved leak tightness of the electrolyser and exclusion of risk of its mechanical damage at anode replacing.5 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of manufacturing of cathode pack for cell of aluminium electrolyser and cathode pack // 2568542
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of cathode pack manufacturing for the aluminium electrolyser. Method includes manufacturing of initial materials containing two grades of coke with different characteristics of volume change, formation of the cathode pack, carbonization, graphitization and cooling, during which in the same temperature range the first grade of coke has more higher shrinkage and/or expansion then the second grade of the coke. Cathode pack of the aluminium electrolyser is described.EFFECT: increased service life of the cathode packs.14 cl, 2 dwg

Cathode hearth, method of cathode hearth manufacturing and its use in electrolytic cell for aluminium manufacturing // 2567777
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the cathode hearth, method of its manufacturing and use in electrolytic cell for aluminium manufacturing. The cathode hearth contains at least two cathode blocks and/or at least cathode block located at specified distance with creation of at least one clearance, material for blocks connection, being at least one pre-compacted plate out of expanded graphite, filling the clearance with possibility of connection to at least one cathode block. Method of manufacturing of the cathode hearth and its use in electrolytic cell for aluminium manufacturing are described.EFFECT: increasing of the effective cathode surface of the aluminium electrolyser.10 cl, 6 dwg
ethod of obtaining of cathode pack for electrolyser for aluminium production and cathode pack // 2556192
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of obtaining of an electrolyser cathode pack for aluminium production. The method includes preparation of initial materials containing coke and powder of solid material such as, for example TiB2, and also, if necessary, carboniferous material, mixing of initial materials, formation of the cathode pack, carbonisation, graphitisation and cooling, note that graphitisation is performed at temperatures from 2300 up to 3000°C, in particular from 2400 to 2900°, and the second layer made with the thickness amounting from 10 up to 50%, in particular from 15 up to 45% of the total thickness of the cathode pack.EFFECT: high wear resistance with reference to aluminium and cryolith, and decrease in energy consumption are provided.8 cl

ethod of lining of cathode device of electrolyser by unshaped materials // 2553145
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes charging of the powdered material in the cathode casing of the electrolyser, its levelling using rack, coverage of the charged material by dust isolating film and compaction performed by two stages: preliminary static and final dynamic action by means of the successive movement of the work organs of the static and dynamic compaction along the longitudinal axis of the cathode of the aluminium electrolyser via the resilient gasket made out of at least two layers: bottom preventing extrusion of the powdered material in front along the movement , and top ensuring gasket engagement with the work organ of the static compaction, at that the dynamic action is performed by vibration unit connected with the static treatment unit by means of the resilient elements with possibility of simultaneous movement relatively to the horizontal and vertical axes.EFFECT: reduced expenses for lining materials and reduced labour costs during their installation.7 cl, 9 dwg

Electrolysis unit for aluminium making // 2550683
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: electrolysis unit consists of the following: cathode device with a pool with carbon bottom, the pool is formed by carbon blocks enclosed in metallic casing with flame proof and heat-insulating materials arranged between metallic casing and carbon blocks; anode device including carbon anodes connected to anode bus, the anodes are arranged in upper part of bath and absorbed in fused electrolyte; on the carbon hearth along the anode perimeter the pedestals, or the floats resistant to destruction in cryolite aluminous fusions and liquid aluminium are located. The top surface of a pedestal or a float acts higher than a level of cathodic aluminium and a pedestal or floats can be moved and/or replaced if necessary. Pedestals or floats are made of carbon, carbide of silicon, their combination. The top surface of the pedestal or the float is flat, convex, concave, or inclined to the horizon.EFFECT: decrease of specific power consumption due to reduction of interpolar gap, ohmic resistance and voltage drop in interpolar gap, increase of current output due to increase of hydrodynamic resistance to movement of fusion near the aluminium-electrolyte interface along the anode perimeter and decrease of mixing of fusion and counter reactions of metal with anode gases.6 cl, 6 dwg
Carbon article, method of producing carbon article and use thereof // 2546268
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a carbon article which is produced by burning a mixture at least containing coke. The coke has low graphitisability. Also disclosed is a method of producing a carbon article, which includes mixing anthracite, graphite and/or low-graphitisability coke or mixtures thereof with at least one binding material selected from a group of oil- or carbon-based binding materials, as well as binding materials based on synthetic polymers and any mixtures of said binding materials and optional additives, endowing the mixture with a given shape, firing the moulded mixture and optional graphitisation of the fired moulded article. The invention discloses use of the carbon article as a cathode block of an aluminium electrolysis cell and a blast-furnace brick.EFFECT: longer service life of the article, particularly a cathode block.18 cl

Lining for aluminium electrolyser having inert anodes // 2544727
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: lining comprises a bottom and current-carrying elements made of aluminium, liquid in the upper part contacting melted aluminium and solid in the lower part, and installed so that they pass through the bottom vertically. The bottom is made from taller bottom blocks having projections and shorter bottom blocks, at that the shorter bottom blocks are mounted at the ends of the bottom. The shorter bottom blocks alternate with the taller bottom blocks having projections. Vertical channels are provided in the projections of the blocks over the entire thickness of the block for the mounting of current-carrying elements. The current-carrying elements are attached in the lower part to a current-carrying collector shaped as a plate which extends horizontally out of the ends of the bottom blocks and longitudinal sides of the cathode casing. The current-carrying elements are L- or T-shaped. The bottom blocks are made of high-aluminous concrete annealed up to 1200°C or comprised of several layers: a working layer, made of high-aluminous concrete with the thickness equal to 0.4-0.6 of the bottom block thickness, and the secondary layer, made of fireclay castable concrete - the remaining part. Interconnection of the bottom blocks is made of high-aluminous concrete with reduced viscosity or by means of a gluing or cementing composite with the joint thickness of 5-20 mm.EFFECT: decreased labour intensity at mounting, reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability of the electrolyser.4 cl, 9 dwg

Cathode shell of aluminium electrolysis unit // 2536617
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cathode shell comprises longitudinal and end walls with vertical reinforcement ribs, a bottom, frames, which cover the walls and bottom and flanged sheet. Flanged sheet is fixed rigidly to intermediate ribs installed between frames at longitudinal walls of the shell by means of detachable joints through horizontal pads. The intermediate ribs are made of sheet metal with thickness from 0.3 up to 1 time of the shell wall thickness.EFFECT: longer service life of the electrolysis unit.3 cl, 2 dwg

Cathode pack for aluminium electrolytic cell and method of its production // 2533066
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cathode pack for an aluminium electrolytic cell. The cathode pack comprises a layer of composite containing graphite and solid material such TiB2, present with single mode granulometric composition, while d50 amounts to 10 - 20 mcm, in particular to 12 - 18 mcm, preferably to 14 - 16 mcm. Method for the production of a cathode pack with the said characteristics is described as well.EFFECT: improved wear resistance of a cathode pack and simple manufacturing.16 cl, 1 dwg

Electrolysis cell cathode // 2529432
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cathode's top is turned towards the electrolytic bath, and the bottom has contacts for current input. Top and bottom parts, at least, on some sections are connected to each other in disconnectable manner using the protective interlayer.EFFECT: lowering of the cathode cost and optimisation of the cathode operation.10 cl, 5 dwg

Electrolyser for aluminium production // 2518029
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: partitions and/or grids, and/or aluminium-moistened open-pore cellular structures from material lass electrically conductive than aluminium are placed under each anode on the bottom surface, perpendicular and/or at angle 45-90° to bottom plane, perpendicular and/or at angle 45-90° to longitudinal axis of cathode rods, which completely of partially prevent horizontal components of cathode current from flowing in aluminium layer.EFFECT: reduction of horizontal components of currents in melt layer, uniform distribution of current, reduction of inter-pole distance and reduction of electric energy consumption for aluminium production or increase of output by current.15 cl, 8 dwg

ethod of determining degree of wear of silicon carbide blocks for side lining of cover of aluminium electrolysis cells // 2516416
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves immersing mounted samples of silicon carbide blocks into an electrolyte at aluminium electrolysis temperature and bubbling the electrolyte with carbon dioxide, air or a mixture thereof, moving the samples and comparing the obtained samples with the original samples. After immersion, the samples are held in the electrolyte which is in contact with aluminium at electrolysis temperature, with the controlled area of the sample in the electrolyte. The samples are then raised and held with the controlled area of the sample in a gas phase for not more than 20 minutes. The samples are then moved in the vertical plane while alternately holding the controlled area in the electrolyte and in the gas phase for not more than 10 minutes and the degree of wear thereof is determined from change in the volume of the samples.EFFECT: shorter time for testing samples of blocks and obtaining visible reduction in cross dimensions of samples of said blocks owing to intensification of the wear process by increasing the rate of wear.3 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl

ethod for manufacturing combined bottom blocks // 2510822
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves introduction of carbon-bearing substrate material to a mould and application onto it of a layer of composite heat-resistant material containing metal boride, sealing of the contents of the mould in the form of a cathode block and annealing of the cathode block; as material of carbon-bearing substrate and the layer of composite heat-resistant material there used are materials having close coefficients of thermal linear expansion and values of sodium expansion and the following particle size distribution: content of fractions in carbon-bearing substrate (-10+0.071) mm - 76±10 wt % and (-0.071+0) mm - 24±10 wt %, content of fractions in the layer of composite heat-resistant material (-10+0.071) mm - 50±30 wt % and (-0.071+0) mm - 30±50 wt %; with that, material of the carbon-bearing substrate is added to a mould pre-heated to the material temperature. The composite heat-resistant material layer in a sealed state is maximum 8.0% of height of the cathode block and contains 20.0-80.0 wt % of metal diboride. Sealing of the cathode block is performed by vibration moulding, and annealing is performed at 1100°C during 5 hours.EFFECT: improving quality and service life.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

Cathode section of aluminium electrolyser // 2510818
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a design of a cathode section of an aluminium electrolyser. The cathode section includes a cathode carbon unit, a cathode current-carrying rod with an electrically conducting part from material with high specific electric conductivity, which is installed in an internal cavity of the cathode carbon unit and fixed in it by means of a cast iron cast. The electrically conducting part of the rod is made in the form of an insert of individual elements attached to each other with a gap, which is installed on one or more outer surfaces of the cathode current-carrying rod through a cast iron casting layer. The individual elements of the insert can be of round or rectangular shape or any other type of cross section. Inserts can be installed throughout the length from 10% to 100% of length of the cathode current-carrying rod.EFFECT: reduction of voltage drop in a cathode unit and low electric contact resistance between a cathode current-carrying rod and an electrically conducting insert with high specific electric conductivity throughout the length of the cathode current-carrying rod.3 cl, 3 dwg

Electrolytic cell for production of aluminium // 2509830
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: on hearth surface placed are baffles and/or grates, and/or open-pore cellular structures wetted by aluminium made of material with lower electric conductivity compared with that of aluminium perpendicular and/or at 45°-90° to heart surface, perpendicular and/or at 45°-90° to lengthwise axis of cathode rods preventing partially or completely the flow of horizontal components of cathode currents in aluminium layer along the hearth. Electrolytic cell can operate with consumable or nonconsumable anodes, that is, "inert" anodes.EFFECT: uniform current distribution, smaller electrode gap, lower power consumption, higher yield.15 cl, 5 dwg

Electrolysis unit for aluminium manufacture // 2499085
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: electrolysis unit includes a cathode device containing a bath provided with a coal bottom and composed of coal blocks enclosed in a metal housing, with refractory and heat-insulating materials arranged between the metal housing, an anode assembly containing coal anodes connected to anode sludge, arranged in upper part of the bath and submerged into molten electrolyte; at the coal bottom, under each of the anodes there located are floats with higher specific electric conductivity in comparison to that of electrolyte, stable to destruction in cryolite-alumina melts and liquid aluminium; with that, upper surface of the float projects above the level of cathode aluminium and the floats can be moved and/or replaced to reduce inter-pole gap between anode and cathode. The floats are made from carbon, or from silicon carbide, or from a mixture of titanium diboride and carbon based on high-temperature binding substance and are covered with titanium diboride. Upper surface of the float is flat, or convex, or concave, or inclined to horizon and has capillaries and/or channels, and/or planes attaching the upper surface of a pedestal to cathode metal.EFFECT: reduction of specific power consumption.15 cl, 4 dwg

Composites for wet cathodes and their use in aluminium production // 2487956
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: composite has composition defined by formula (C-N-B-MR)x(Al-MR)y(R)z, where MR is one or several carbides, nitrides or borides of one or more heat-resiatant metals of IV, V, VI groups, C-N-B-MR is one or several carbides, nitrides or borides of one or more heat-resistant metals of IV, V or VI groups, Al-MR is one or several aluminides of one or several aforesaid heat-resistant metals. Note here that if MR=Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, Ti, V, then Al-MR=Al3MR; is MR-W, Cr, then Al-MR=Al4MR; if MR=Mo, then Al-MR=Al8Mo3 or Al17Mo4. Note here that the condition should be satisfied whereat if C-N-B-MR=TiB2, Al-MR is not Al3Ti; R is residual component other than carbon containing one or several phases from Al4C3, AlN, AlB2, Al1·67B22, MRtAlu(C-N-B)v, where t, u, v are numbers larger than or equl to zeto; x, y, z are volume fractions of appropriate components. Note here that x>y; x+y>0.5; x+y+z=1 and 0.01<y<0.5.EFFECT: composite features good wettability due to decreased grain size and higher density of interface surface to allow using said composite as coating of components wetted by liquid aluminium.12 cl, 15 dwg

Cathode of electrolytic cell for production of aluminium and method of its repair // 2483142
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: proposed cathode comprises jacket and lining with base made of heat-insulation and refractory materials, side lining, bottom of hearth sections with cathode rods and cathode downleads. The latter are made from the stack of flexible aluminium tapes, contact plate and steel adapter to be welded as-assembled to cathode rod and plugged to cathode bus. Cathode downleads are assembled in installing the lining by welding them to cathode rods and bolting downlead contact plates to the bracket. After disassembly of side lining, cathode rods with their downleads are extracted from cathode jacket, cleaned and transferred to cutting bay. Cutting is performed along the line or in zone of joint between rod and downlead metal adapter. After skinning the metal adapter end, cathode downlead is transferred for reassembly.EFFECT: higher reliability due to larger number of aluminium tapes.2 cl, 1 dwg

Cathode device for aluminium electrolytic cell with embossed hearth // 2482224
FIELD: electrical engineering.SUBSTANCE: cathode device of an aluminium electrolytic cell with an embossed hearth contains a lined cathode shell ad a hearth composed of higher bottom blocks with projections and lower bottom blocks. The lower bottom blocks are installed at the cathode device hearth butt ends. The lower bottom blocks alternate with higher bottom blocks with projections or are installed in the projection centre of the electrolytic cell anode array, with at least two higher bottom blocks with projections, alternating with lower bottom blocks, installed at the both ends of the electrolytic cell anode array. The bottom block projection height is equal to 0.1÷0.6 of that of the smaller bottom block. The top parts of higher bottom blocks have level edges. The bottom blocks projections are made of a refractory non-carbon material, resistant to hot melt effect.EFFECT: reduction of hot melt circulation rate and decrease of metal slant due to projecting barriers in the metal layer; decrease of heat and mass transfer inside the aluminium layer which reduces loss of heat from the electrolytic cell surface and enables work at a lower voltage.4 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of producing metal by molten-salt electrolysis // 2471892
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for electrolytic production of metal in an electrolysis cell, having a cathode, an anode and collectors of impurities dissolved in the electrolyte, involves passing cathodic current through the cathode to obtain metal at the cathode and deposit impurities on the collector. The collector, which is placed between the anode the cathode, is a bipolar porous collector electrode which is a cellular matrix which is inert to the metal deposited at the cathode and the electrolyte. The bipolar porous collector electrode is in form of an open porous structure having internal pores or capillaries, or channels, or cavities, which are particularly V-shaped and/or W-shaped and/or S-shaped and are filled with the metal which is deposited at the cathode. The method employs a bipolar porous collector electrode, wherein the internal pores or capillaries, or channels or cavities are wettable by metal, and have dimensions, particularly diameter and length, which are sufficient for them to hold the metal and prevent spontaneous flow of metal from them due to surface tension forces of the metal.EFFECT: efficient separation of cathode and anode process products, high current output, lower ohmic resistance of the pole gap and specific power consumption, and removing impurities from the cathode metal.11 cl, 4 dwg

Cathode device of aluminium electrolyser // 2458185
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: cathode device of aluminium electrolyser includes housing, bottom blocks with cathode rods, refractory casing under bottom blocks, side refractory, insert blocks from carbide-silicon material mounted close to side refractory. From above the side refractory is equipped with flange sheet mounted horizontally, between the upper surface of insert carbide-silicon block and flange sheet there is combined fire-resisting insert that is equipped with filling material and fire-resisting dielectric elements, the height of the insert is equal to 0.10-0.20 of insert block height.EFFECT: possibility to increase destruction resistance of side refractory in the upper part in case of possible interaction with aluminium silicate and fluoride salts during melt penetration, service life of cathode device of aluminium electrolyser, reduction of specific consumption of energy and labour costs.4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

Doped sintered article based on zircon and zirconium dioxide // 2456254
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sintered articles made from zircon and zirconium dioxide for use in a glass-melting furnace, particularly in articles used as supporting blocks for electrodes, or in an electrolysis cell in contact with molten cryolite. The initial load for producing the articles contains 5-50% zircon and has the average chemical composition given below, in wt % based on oxides with sum total of 100%: silicon dioxide SiO2 and zirconium dioxide, where content of zirconium dioxide ZrO2 is at least 75%, 0.2-6% dopant selected from Nb2O5, Ta2O5 and mixtures thereof, possibly a stabiliser selected from Y2O3, MgO, CaO, CeO2 and mixtures thereof in amount of 6% or less, 'other oxides' in amount of 6.7% or less. Components are formed from the initial charge and then sintered to obtain articles.EFFECT: obtaining articles having high electrical resistance at temperatures of up to 1500°C and good resistance to corrosion caused by molten glass.27 cl, 1 tbl, 32 ex, 1 dwg

Electrolysis unit for aluminium manufacture // 2454490
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: electrolysis unit consists of the following: cathode device including pit with carbon bottom, the pit is formed by carbon blocks enclosed in metallic casing with flame proof and heat-insulating materials arranged between metallic casing and carbon blocks; anode device including carbon anodes connected to anode bus, the anodes are arranged in upper part of bath and absorbed in fused electrolyte; and point feeding system (PFS) including punch pin for electrolytic crust and alumina feeder. On carbon bottom under each PFS feeder there are units installed resistant to destruction in cryolite-alumina melt and molten aluminium. Upper base of unit is located at level and above level of molten aluminium not exceeding 2 cm. Units may be made from carbon or from silicon carbide, or from mixture of titanium diboride and aluminium oxide on high-temperature connection. Inserts from heavy material, such as cast iron, may be mounted inside units. Relation of squares of upper and lower bases of units changes from 1:1 to 1:2. Square value of upper basis of unit is chosen considering quantity of alumina loaded by dosemeter - from 30 to 80% - falling on it. Units may be covered by titanium diboride. Upper basis of units may be flat or convex, or inbent.EFFECT: increasing completeness of alumina solution and reducing its quantity getting under molten metal layer.10 cl, 1 dwg

Electrolysis unit bottom for obtaining aluminium // 2449060
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy, and namely to devices used during aluminium manufacture with electrolytic method. Electrolysis unit bottom for obtaining of aluminium includes bottom units with slots, current-carrying bars, inter-unit connection in the form of refractory elements from silicone carbide, which are connected by means of inter-unit pulley from bottom mass and having the length equal to length of bottom unit, and the height equal to 0.35-1 of height of inter-unit joint.EFFECT: providing the possibility of increasing service life of cathode device of aluminium electrolysis unit owing to improving the stability of inter-unit joint to sodium penetration, improving the stability to bottom destruction with compensation of its burning-out, improving grade of manufactured metal and reducing specific power consumption.1 dwg

Electrolysis unit for aluminium manufacture // 2449059
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to design of electrolysis unit for aluminium manufacture. Electrolysis unit includes cathode device - bath lined with carbon blocks, molten aluminium layer arranged at carbon bottom and serving as cathode, which is connected to cathode bus, and pre-baked carbon anodes connected to anode bus, which are arranged in upper part of bath and submerged into molten electrolyte. Inside electrolysis unit bath there located are bipolar electrodes parallel to its longitudinal axis, between carbon bottom and baked anodes, under each of baked anodes. Electrodes are located at distance of 1-3 cm from surface of molten aluminium providing free removal of gas bubbles and minimum excitation of molten electrolyte surface and are made from low consumable materials in molten layers. Electrodes are arranged on skids from refractory electrically non-conducting material, for example silicone carbide, which are fixed at bath bottom. Active cathode surface of bipolar electrode faces lower surface of baked carbon anode. Active anodic surface of bipolar electrode faces surface of molten aluminium. Surface area of bipolar electrode is not less than surface area of lower surface of baked carbon anode.EFFECT: providing efficiency rise without increasing geometrical dimensions of electrolysis units.2 cl, 1 dwg

Electrolyser for aluminium production provided with voltage drop decreasing means // 2449058
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrolyser for production of aluminium. Proposed electrolyser comprises, at least, one current conducting rod made from first metal and, at least, one additional rod made from second metal with higher specific conductance compared with first metal and arranged nearby one of side surfaces of current conducting rod so that outer end of additional rod is located at preset distance from preset face surface of the unit. Second end terminates, preferably, to limit heat losses from said electrolyser.EFFECT: reduced voltage drops and heat losses.37 cl, 11 dwg
anufacturing method of cathode of vertical electrolysis unit for aluminium manufacture // 2418888
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: for formation of cathode there used is the mixture containing titanium diboride powder, carbon-containing filler, carbon-containing binding agent and boron-containing additive, namely boron oxide or boric acid in amount of 1-7 parts by weight at titanium diboride content of not more than 60 parts by weight. For cathode manufacture the mixture is compacted under pressure of 1-2 t/cm2, dried, hardened at 200°C and calcined at 700-1200°C in reducing or inert medium.EFFECT: improving oxidation resistance and water affinity with aluminium of compositional cathodes with diboride content.5 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

Electrolysis bath for production of alluminium // 2415974
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: bath consists of jacket, of at least one cathode unit located at least partially in jacket, of at least one anode suspended above bath and immersed into upper part of electrolysis bath, and of insulation covering at least partially internal surface of jacket. Insulation is installed between the cathode unit and the jacket and is made at least partially out of blocks on base of carbon of heat conductivity below 1 Wt/m/K, preferably, below 0.3 Wt/m/K. The jacket and elements enclosed in it restrict a crucible receiving electrolysis melt in contact with the cathode unit. The blocks on base of carbon have density within ranges of 0.03 and 0.08 g/cm3, preferably, within ranges 0.1 and 0.6 g/cm3.EFFECT: raised reliability due to elimination of destruction with melt, also due to avoiding or decrease of fluoride migration and improved heat insulation.6 cl, 3 dwg
aterial of moistened cathode of aluminium electrolyser // 2412284
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: material of moistened cathode of aluminium electrolyser consists of refractory compound of titanium boride and non-organic binding on base of high dispersed aluminium oxide moistened with liquid aluminium. Also, contents of titanium boride in finished material are not less 30 wt %. As binding on base of high dispersed aluminium oxide there is used "Al-corit-98" at amount of 10 wt %. It additionally contains electro-conducting powders of graphite or copper, or iron.EFFECT: improved engineering-and-economical indices of production and application of moistened material and items on it at maintaining level of functional and operational properties; increased processability, reduced power and labour input due to rational composition of material.1 tbl

Wettable cathode material for aluminium electrolysis cell // 2412283
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: wettable cathode material for an aluminium electrolysis cell consists of titanium diboride wettable by liquid aluminium and binder - saturated solution of a hexa-hydrate of aluminium trichloride with ratio of titanium diboride to binder between 1:50 and 1:15.EFFECT: production of aluminium-wettable electroconductive, strong and easily producible cathode material.2 tbl

Cathodes for aluminium electrolytic cells with groove of nonplanar configuration // 2403324
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cathode for an aluminium electrolytic cell consists of cathode blocks and lead rods attached thereto with the grooves receiving the lead rods in these cathodes having the greater depth in the centre than at both peripheries of the cathode block. Besides the thickness of the lead rod is greater in the centre than at both peripheries of the cathode block. Also there are described methods for making a cathode and electrolytic cell with said cathode.EFFECT: more uniform current distribution and thereby longer operation life of such cathodes and improved productivity of the electrolytic cell are provided.14 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex

Cathode assembly of aluminium electrolysis cell // 2401887
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: cathode assembly of an aluminium electrolysis cell has a bottom made from bottom blocks with cathode rods. The cathode rods, which have a rectangular cross-section, have an electrodeposited copper coating which has a varying cross-section on the length, with increase in thickness of the coating from the periphery to the opposite end and coating of the blind end.EFFECT: evening out of resistance on the length of a cathode rod, prevention of horizontal currents in the aluminium part of the cathode, uniform current distribution, reduced potential drop in the cathode and reduced consumption of electrical power on production of aluminium, longer service life of the assembly and electrolysis cell, higher grade of aluminium.3 dwg
Procedure for protection of cathode unit of aluminium electrolyser // 2401886
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: procedure for protection of cathode unit of aluminium electrolyser consists in application of coating on carbon sole blocks. Upper surface of carbon sole blocks is preliminary impregnated with water solutions of pure salts of aluminium or with mixture of aluminium salts with sodium salts and conditioned during 20-30 minutes. Also graphite blocks impregnation and drying is alternated 2-4 times to increase depth of impregnation and to reduce cross section of pores.EFFECT: efficient protection of cathode unit and elimination of contamination in electrolytic aluminium with metal impurities.
ethod of protecting cathode assembly of aluminium electrolysis cell // 2401885
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves deposition of a coating on coal-graphite blocks, where the said coating is molten silicon which is deposited through plasma sputtering at the bottom and sides of the coal-graphite blocks and has thickness of not more than 2 mm.EFFECT: more efficient protection of the cathode assembly of an aluminium electrolysis cell.

Sintered refractory block based on silicon carbide with silicon nitride binder // 2395477
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to refractory articles and can be used particularly in making containers for producing aluminium through electrolysis. The sintered refractory block based on silicon carbide (SiC) with silicon nitride binder (Si3N4) in mass ratio Si3N4/SiC equal to 0.05-0.45 contains 0.05-1.5 wt % boron. Boron is added to the raw mixture in form of an oxide, carbide, nitride, fluoride or alloy with a metal, preferably in form of B4C or CaB6. When realising the method, a load which contains silicon carbide and a boron compound is moulded, dried in air and roasted at 1100-1700°C in a nitrogen atmosphere.EFFECT: higher corrosion resistance relative products which contain fluorine and molten cryolite.27 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg