Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes and apparatus therefor (C25)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C25            Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes; apparatus therefor(12345)

Cathode unit having groove of variable depth and completed intermediate space // 2642815
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: cathode device comprises a cathode unit based on carbon and/or graphite, in which, at least, one groove is made, extending in the longitudinal direction of the cathode unit and having a variable depth along the cathode unit, which houses a tyre, wherein an intermediate space between the tire and the bottom of the groove of a variable depth is, at least, partially filled with steel selected from the group with a low content of carbon, silicon, and phosphorus.EFFECT: uniform vertical current distribution along the length of the cathode unit during the operation of the electrolyser.9 cl, 1 dwg

Systems and methods for protection of electrolyser side walls // 2642782
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser comprises the following: an anode, a cathode spaced from the anode, a molten electrolyzing bath in fluid communication with the anode and cathode. The molten electrolyzing bath has a chemical composition of a bath comprising at least one bath component, a housing having a bottom and at least one side wall surrounding the bottom. Herein the electrolyser housing is designed to hold the molten electrolyzing bath. The side wall essentially consists of said at least one component of the bath, wherein the side wall further comprises the following: the first side wall part adapted to be mounted on a heat insulating lining of the side wall and holding the electrolyte and the second side wall part formed protruding upward from the bottom of the electrolyser housing. Wherein the second side wall part is longitudinally spaced from the first side wall part, so that the first side wall part, the second side wall part and the base between the first part and the second part form a trough. The trough is configured to receive and hold a protective precipitate separately from the electrolyser bottom. The protective precipitate can dissolve from the trough into the molten electrolyzing bath so that the molten electrolyzing bath has a level of said at least one bath component that is sufficient to maintain the first side wall part and the second side wall part in the molten electrolyzing bath.EFFECT: elements of the electrolyser side wall allow protecting the side wall from the electrolyzing bath.33 cl, 1 ex, 11 dwg
Stainless steel sheet with sn coating // 2642248
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: stainless steel sheet with tin coating, in which a layer of nickel coating with a thickness of 0.3 -3 mcm is formed on the stainless steel sheet, and a layer of tin coating with a thickness of 0.3 -5 mcm is formed on the layer of nickel coating. In this case, nickel crystals in the nickel coating layer have a lattice distortion of 0.5% or less.EFFECT: tin coating layer has good adhesion to the stainless steel sheet and shows excellent resistance to whisking in various media.2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 12 ex

ethod for food products evaporation and device for method implementation // 2642174
FIELD: food industry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to the food concentrates industry, in particular to methods of producing food products in which the evaporation of food products is carried out. In the process, from the raw or ready-to-eat food product, water is removed by putridity it with electric and magnetic fields into hydrogen and oxygen. Then, the degassed products are packaged in sealed-off tare. Packaging is produced in vacuum or in a nitrogen blanket. Device comprises a container for loading food products, inside on the opposite walls of which an ungrounded oxygen and isolated hydrogen electrode with an enlarged surface and neutralization grid are placed. On the other opposite walls of the container inductors having windings made by an insulated electrical wire are placed. Electrodes and inductors through a contact device are electrically connected to power supplies.EFFECT: inventions group usage will allow to enhance the food product manufacture quality.2 cl, 3 dwg
ethod of producing oxidized lignin // 2641901
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: production of oxidized lignin by electrochemical modification of hydrolytic lignin in aqueous acid electrolyte on carbon electrodes at ambient temperature. The method is characterized in that the modification of lignin is carried out in a solution of HF containing 2-3 wt % of lignin in the presence of ammonium fluoride or potassium fluoride in an amount of 10-30 wt %, with electrolysis being carried out in the galvanostatic mode at a current density of i = 0.2-0.4 A/cm2 for 0.25-1 hours.EFFECT: preparations of lignin with the content of carboxyl groups from 20 to 40 percent depending on the synthesis time.1 tbl

ethod and plant for gas production // 2641645
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the process for production of oxygen gas and hydrogen gas liquid alkaline electrolytic solution in the process of electrolysis including stages: production of electrolytic plant with the first and second spaced parallel hole electrodes immersed in the inlet chamber which surrounds a first and second electrodes and in which there is at least one inlet opening and first and second outlet openings; supply of the electrolytic solution to the inlet opening so that the electrodes are immersed in the electrolytic solution; and feeding voltage to plant through electrodes immersed in electrolytic solution, in order to electrolyze the solution between the electrodes in such a manner that oxygen gas is formed on the first electrode, hydrogen gas formed on the second electrode. The electrolytic solution between the electrodes is divided into first and second output flows, so that the first output flow passes through the first electrode, thereby removing gaseous oxygen from the first electrode when the first outlet flow passes into the first outlet, and so that the second output flow passes through the second electrode, thereby removing hydrogen gas from the second electrode when the second outlet stream passes into the second outlet, and wherein the first and second electrodes are arranged in a relatively close proximity from 1 mm before 6 mm. The invention also relates to the electrolytic plant.EFFECT: use of the proposed invention makes it possible to eliminate disadvantages of the electrolyser of the previous generation using membranes.20 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for obtaining dimethyldisulfone // 2641302
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrolysis is carried out in aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfone in an alkaline medium in the anode compartment of the diaphragm electrolyser in the range of densities of the anode current of 0.1-0.3 A/cm2, then the solution of anolyte is cooled to T=5-8°C to the formation of crystals.EFFECT: absence of water-soluble by-products in the electrooxidation process of aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfone in an alkaline medium to produce dimethyldisulfone.2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

ethod for producing catalytically active composite material // 2641290
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for producing oxide catalysts on a metal support substrate that can be used in oxidation reactions of CO to CO2, which take place in the high-temperature processes for cleaning process and exhaust gases, in particular in the energy and automotive industries. The proposed method includes anodizing an aluminium substrate in a galvanostatic mode at the current density of 10-15 mA/cm2 for 20-60 min in 3% aqueous solution of oxalic acid C2H2O4, washing and drying, after which the intermediate porous alumina layer formed on the aluminium substrate is treated with a 1% solution of phosphoric acid heated up to 35°C, washed, dried, and applied to the treated aluminium substrate, ultrafine manganese dioxide, which is formed by impregnation with a 5% solution of potassium permanganate KMnO4 followed by annealing in air at 220-230°C for 10 minutes, while the operation of applying manganese dioxide can be carried out three times.EFFECT: simplification and cheaper technology while expanding the range of composite catalytic materials containing a metal substrate with supported transition metal oxides.2 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

Improved system of measurement and control of electric current for cell plants // 2641289
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and a system of electric current control (ECM) in at least one electrolysis cell having at least two electrodes in contact with an electrolytic medium, a plurality of touch sensitive measuring instruments for a current passing through one or more electrodes, besides the mentioned touch sensitive instruments are located within at least one ECM panel installed in one or more operating electrolysis cells. The system also includes the supporting means for supporting at least one ECM panel in electrolysis each cell, the supporting means being arranged to prevent disturbances in normal electrode movements and damage of the ECM panel. The system is executed with a possibility to measure an electric current passing through an electrode or a plurality of electrodes in the electrolysis cell. These improvements include means for minimization of impacts on measurement of current of variables of several types, for example, electromagnetic interference, electrolysis cell geometry and contact configuration, in order to provide a reliable approximation of the current passing through each electrode. In addition, the aforementioned improvements relate to maximizing the functionality, adaptability and manageability of the device, providing a complete upgrade of the metallurgical systems, in which it is important to provide reliable control of the electric current passing through the electrodes.EFFECT: increase in the accuracy of real-time monitoring of current magnitude passing through each cathode or anode contained in the electrolysis cell of electrolytic refining of metals, as well as optimisation of the electrolysis cells operation.31 cl, 13 dwg

ethod for regenerating spent sulfuric acid solution // 2641121
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: spent sulfuric acid solution is withdrawn from the circulation system and fed into a container. Mixing is carried out with simultaneous dechlorination by bubbling with compressed air for 15-20 minutes at a volume flow of compressed air of 80 m3/h per 1 m3 of the spent solution. The homogeneous acid suspension is then separated by centrifugation or filtration to a purified sulfuric acid solution and a precipitate. The purified solution is fed to a vessel for purified sulfuric acid and mixed with oleum at a ratio of 1:(0.54-0.96). The resulting concentrated sulfuric acid concentration of at least 97 wt % is fed to the circulation system. Sediment is disposed in the treatment plants.EFFECT: elimination of the discharge of a spent sulfuric acid solution containing dissolved chlorine into waste water.3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
ethod for forming structured surface on aluminium and its alloys // 2640895
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to create coatings with multimodal roughness on the surface of aluminium and its alloys, which, in the subsequent application of the hydrophobizing agent, impart to the parts hydrophobic properties. Method involves washing parts, processing them in a solution of lye, subsequent washing parts, their drying and anodizing at room temperature, wherein anodizing is carried out in a 10 m aqueous solution of nitric acid with a current density of 10-100 Ma/cm2 for 5-10 min, and then washing of parts and their drying are performed.EFFECT: creation of a coating with micro- and nanoscale roughness, which can serve as a sublayer to create a hydrophobic surface, the proposed electrochemical treatment does not require complex equipment, large energy inputs, and is performed in a short time.3 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

ethod for building-up barrier coating on soldered aluminium electrodes of ozone generator // 2640586
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of building up barrier coatings on soldered aluminium electrodes of an ozone generator, including the preparation of the electrode surfaces for soldering, assembly of the structure in an assembly-and-soldering device, aligning the flat surfaces of the electrode due to the directional thermal elongation of the ribs of the heat-exchanging nozzle at a temperature below the solder melting point, soldering, in the process of which under appropriate temperatures they perform metal homogenization and vacuum etching of the electrode surfaces for the subsequent creation of a dielectric barrier on them. The creation of the dielectric barrier in the form of an ordered nano-sized cellular pore structure of aluminium oxide with high dielectric permeability and tangent of an angle of dialectic losses is done by electrochemical method in 3-5% solution of oxalic acid at the anode current density of 2 A/dm2, oxidation time of 3 h and temperature of 20-25°C.EFFECT: improving the quality, reliability and efficiency of the ozone generator in production and operation based on the application of soldered aluminium electrodes with a dielectric barrier coating, formed by electrochemical method, in the synthesis of ozone.2 cl, 3 dwg

Device to apply electrolytic coatings on steel pipes // 2640509
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device includes an inner sealing element, a capsule, an outlet, a hole, a cylindrical insoluble anode, a branch pipe for electrolyte supply, and multiple injectors. The sealing element separates a steel pipe at the area located inside in the longitudinal direction relative to the area on which an inner thread is made. The capsule is connected to the pipe end portion, the outlet is designed for discharging the electrolyte which is inside the capsule, and the hole facilitates the electrolyte release inside the capsule. The anode is placed inside the pipe end portion. The injectors discharge the electrolyte between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the pipe end portion preventing the discharged electrolyte from contacting the injectors into the insoluble anode.EFFECT: prevention of gas bubble retention, immediate removal of depleted electrolyte, and reduction of waste water amount.3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

Device and method for bubbles and foams generation // 2640242
FIELD: human vital needs satisfaction.SUBSTANCE: device comprises: the first unit configured to detect at least one characteristic of the gas in the bubbles; the second unit configured to generate bubbles comprising: an electrolytic cell configured to conduct electrolysis of the electrolyte to produce gas in the electrolyte, thereby generating bubbles; the controller is configured to adjust the second unit to generate bubbles according to at least one gas characteristic.EFFECT: invention allows to regulate the characteristic of the gas in the bubble based on the practical gas requirements, to reduce the noise level and dimensions of the device for bubbles and foams generation.13 cl, 11 dwg

ethod for producing hydrogen at decomposition of water // 2640227
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying heated water from a water boiler to a device for decomposing water into oxygen and hydrogen containing a cathode and an anode. In this case, the perforated cathode and anode are cylindrical coaxially arranged water-capacitor plates. The anode contains at least two transformers with inductances forming a magnetic flux passing through the water. The components of magnetic fluxes of each transformer are formed by winding of insulated wire. The direction of magnetic tensions vectors, formed by one transformer in conjunction with load inductance, match, and the total magnetic tension vector of one transformer, by switching supply voltage polarity, differs from the direction of the total magnetic tension vector of another transformer. Wherein, on the perforated isolated on all sides plate of smaller diameter, the inner volume which is used for accumulation and transport of oxygen ions, the positive potential is supplied, and on the plate of the big diameter perforated, which neutralizes hydrogen ions, which is transported through the openings of the body of device for decomposing water, negative potential is supplied.EFFECT: increase in the efficiency of water decomposition devices.5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

ethod ofelectrolytic plasma processing of metal products of complex profile and device for its realization // 2640213
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method involves treating the surface of the product - anode with an electrolyte jet supplied from the nozzle - catode, at a voltage of 230-350 V and a temperature of 80-85°C. The jet is directed vertically up on the surface to be treated. The pressure of electrolyte jet is adjusted in accordance with the reference value of current selected from the operating current limits and the current sensor data in the supply circuit product-electrolyte nozzle. The device comprises a product positioning device with respect to the electrolyte jet nozzle, a container with electrolyte, a direct current source whose positive pole is connected to the workpiece, and a negative pole to the nozzle, the injection pump and the coarse filter of electrolyte. It additionally contains current sensors in the power circuit product-electrolyte-nozzle and the thermostatic relay connected to the control board for jet head pressure control. The nozzle for jet electrolyte supply to the surface is directed vertically upwards.EFFECT: improvement of the quality of processing of composite surfaces, repeatability of processing results, reducing power and metal intensity of electrical equipment.2 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of removing noble metals from solutions // 2640212
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: deposition of noble metals is improved by a combination of electroextraction and cementation processes. At the same time, the cathode potential at the electroextraction stage should be negative - 0.6 V relative to the normal hydrogen equivalent in order to ensure the chemical stability of the precipitating material and at the same time to guarantee the cathodic deposition of noble metals.EFFECT: deposition rate, the degree of extraction, and the content of the final product are increased in comparison with the known methods.2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of metal sheet processing to reduce its browning or tarnishing during storage and metal sheet processed by this method // 2640113
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: metal sheet comprises a steel substrate coated on at least one of its sides with a coating containing 0.1-20 wt % magnesium, optionally 0.1-20 wt % aluminium, the rest is zinc, possible impurities due to the process and, if necessary, one or more additional elements selected from Si, Sb, Pb, Ti, Ca, Mn, Sn, La, Ce, Cr, Ni, Zr and Bi. The weight content of each additional element is less than 0.3%. The coating also comprises a layer based on zinc hydroxychloride with the weight of the chlorine layer comprising at least 1 mg/m2. The layer contains no hydrozincite, mixed hydroxy carbonates of zinc, aluminium, water-soluble sodium or potassium compounds.EFFECT: creating coatings on steel substrate that provide protection against browning and tarnishing which remain effective even in the absence of temporary protective lubricant.16 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for electrolytic oxidation of steel // 2639756
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for application of protective-decorative coatings of black colour, in particular for decoration of artistic articles produced by forging, coining, casting and other methods. Electrolytic oxidation of St3kp steel includes electrolytic treatment in bath with electrolyte containing sodium chloride in concentration of 250-300 g/l, in this case oxidation is carried out at alternating current density of 1.1-1.4 a/cm2 and processing time of 120-150 seconds.EFFECT: reduction of processing time by eliminating preparation and finishing operations.1 ex

Coated aluminium strip and method of its production // 2639166
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: degreasing and anodizing the strip surface by immersing thereof in a bath with acid electrolyte and AC application to form oxide layer on the strip surface is carried out. Passivation layer is applied on the strip surface by coating rolled product without washing.EFFECT: improved corrosion resistance of the strip.15 cl, 8 dwg

Determination of dosage of binder for combining with dispersive material with obtaining of electrode // 2639090
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining from the unburned electrode lot N of two indicators, namely, the simulated density in the burnt state and the image characteristic. These indices and lot data N and N-1 are used to determine the binder dosage for the N+1 batch.EFFECT: improving the quality of burnt anode.29 cl, 9 dwg

Pneumatic drive of working member of device for punching electrolyte crust in aluminium electrolyser // 2638718
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: pneumatic drive comprises a pneumatic cylinder with spring-loaded return consisting of a sleeve, a front cover, a rear cover with elastic damper mounted on its inner end surface and hole for air supply, a piston with annular projection, a rod which is pivotally fixed in the annular projection, and hollow false rod fixed on the piston annular projection, a three-line two-position control valve with pneumatic or electric control with air source under pressure and a first pneumatic line connected thereto, and which connects the control valve to the opening in the rear cover, an adjustable throttle and a muffler connected to the airline of the air discharge. An annular channel is formed between the outer surface of the false rod and the inner cylindrical surface of the front cover for discharging air from the rod cavity to the environment and blowing off the surface of the false rod to remove dust and cooling during operation of the pneumatic drive.EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of the pneumatic drive system by reduced abrasive wear of the false rod surface, piston and internal surface of the cylinder.6 cl, 5 dwg
Composition for cathode electrodeposition intended for formation of painted zinc-polymer coatings with increased hardness and water resistance // 2638373
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: composition for electrodeposition at the cathode is a paint material containing a film former, an epoxyamine adduct modified with blocked isocyanate, transferred to the water-soluble state by the addition of acetic acid, pigment paste, butyl glycol, phenoxypropanol, zinc acetate, and water at a certain ratio of components.EFFECT: obtaining zinc-polymer coatings with increased hardness and water resistance.2 tbl
ethod of manufacturing high-density, including optical, ceramics using electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles // 2638205
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: in the method of manufacturing high-density, including optical, ceramics, weakly aggregated nanoparticles of oxides are obtained by the high-energy physical dispersion methods, for example, by the method of the laser material evaporation or the method of electric conductor explosion. A slurry is produced from the powder of the nanoparticles in the nonaqueous solvent with a concentration of 0.1 to 10 wt %, treated with ultrasound, and compacts are formed after centrifugation by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with the electric field intensity, adjustable from 50 to 300 V/cm, and the current density selectable from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 5 mA/cm2, for 1 to 200 min depending on the desired thickness of the workpiece. The resulting compacts are dried and sintered. For the EPD compacts with a thickness up to several millimetres, a pulse voltage with a change of polarity is used, wherein the reverse polarity voltage is not more than 20% of the direct polarity voltage, and the pulse duration is adjustable from 1 ms to 10 s.EFFECT: reduction of defectiveness of compacts and ceramics with the exclusion of the expensive press equipment use.6 cl, 1 ex

ethod for obtaining radar absorbing coating on valve metals and their alloys and coating obtained using this method // 2637871
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: coating is made in the form of a ceramic layer which contains magnetoactive substances, wherein ceramic layer is made with thickness from 5 to 100 mcm, it contains a dispersed phase of metallic iron and/or iron-containing substance as the magnetoactive substances with distribution of the mentioned phase in the form of particles with sizes ranging from 300 nm to 2 mcm. The method comprises forming an electrochemical system consisting of an anode as a workpiece, iron-containing water solution suitable for microplasma processing and a cathode, and passing electric current through the mentioned system, wherein through the formed electrochemical system the pulse electric current is passed with a pulse frequency of not less than 5 Hz, having a trapezoidal shape and amplitude from 250 to 900 with repetition of voltage pulse interleaving of variable duration from pulses with longer duration to the pulses with shorter duration.EFFECT: coating absorbs electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz frequency range and is resistant to corrosion.19 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex

Device for producing powder aluminium oxide of high purity // 2637843
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device contains an electrolyser for the electrolysis of aqueous solutions with the oxidation of metallic aluminium, connected by the pipeline with the reverse osmotic installation to produce source industrial water, and receiving capacity for products of oxidation. In the lower opening of the receiving container, an outlet is provided connected to the upper screen of the wash cage. The bottom screen of the rinsing separator is connected by a product supply line to the aluminium oxidation product thermal treatment unit.EFFECT: increasing the safety of the device and reduce the content of the main impurity metals of water in aluminium oxide.5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

ethod for producing aperture plate for nebulizer // 2637737
FIELD: satisfaction of human life necessities.SUBSTANCE: production of an aerosol-forming aperture plate blank for an inhalation medication nebulizer comprises providing a matrix of a conductive material, applying a protective coating in the form of a set of columns to the matrix, galvanizing the areas around the columns, removing the protective coating to form a blank of electroplated material with aerosol-forming holes in places where the columns of protective coating were, and removing the blank from the matrix. These columns have a depth in the range from 5 to 40 mcm, a width in the plane of the matrix in the range from 1 to 10 mcm, and a density in the range from 111 to 2500 mm-2. After the mentioned stages of applying the protective coating and galvanizing, at least one subsequent cycle of applying a protective coating and galvanizing on top of the mentioned electroplated material is carried out to increase the thickness of the blank. The total thickness of the blank in at least one subsequent cycle is adjusted to a value greater than 50 mcm. After removing protective coating, at least one subsequent cycle provides areas, at least some of which overlap with a lot of aerosol-forming holes and electroplated material which closes some of the aerosol-forming holes. At least one subsequent cycle is carried out in accordance with the desired flow rate through the aperture plate.EFFECT: increased nebulizer performance.25 cl, 14 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for obtaining calcium hypochlorite at integrated processing of natural polycomponent supersaturated brine of chloride calcium-magnesium type // 2637694
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining calcium hypochlorite from supersaturated natural multicomponent brine of chloride calcium-magnesium type includes the selection hydrated calcium chloride from brine and separation of mother brine enriched in lithium and bromine. A membrane or diaphragm electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is carried out for the production of chlorine and catholyte. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is obtained by ejecting anodic chlorine with a catholyte stream - NaOH solution. Calcium hypochlorite is obtained by an exchange reaction between calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite. The resulting calcium hypochlorite is separated from the mother liquor and dried. The mother liquor is recycled with NaCl return to production. First, the natural supersaturated polycomponent brine is cooled to 0…-1°C, obtaining a solid phase of crystal hydrate CaCl2⋅6H2O with an admixture of crystal hydrate MgCl2⋅6H2O and a liquid phase. Crystalline hydrates are separated from the liquid phase, heated in the presence of NaOH and stirred, separating CaCl2⋅6H2O from the solid phase of MgCl2⋅6H2O and the formed solid phase of Mg(OH)2. CaCl2⋅6H2O purified from magnesium is brought into contact with the catholyte. The resulting pulp is centrifuged to produce a cake in the form of Ca(OH)2 and a fugate in the form of a solution NaCl, which after purification from calcium is returned to a membrane electrolysis operation to produce catholyte and chlorine.EFFECT: invention slows to implement the method for obtaining calcium hypochlorite in a continuous mode, to reduce the energy intensity of the process, to reduce the cost of the heating steam, to increase output of calcium hypochlorite.3 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex

Installation for electrochemical decomposition of aqueous solutions of chlorides // 2637506
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: installation including flow-through electrochemical reactors consisting of an internal tubular titanium cathode, an external tubular titanium anode, and a tubular ceramic ion-permeable diaphragm placed between them, a lower and upper anode collector, a separator, a lower and upper cathode collectors and pumps. The installation is characterized in that it additionally comprises a programmable controller that ensures that the operating mode of each electrochemical reactor is corrected by sensors. The controller provides the ability to regulate the rate of the aqueous solution of chloride fed, regulate the power supply of each electrochemical reactor, and correct the excess pressure in the anode chambers, in addition, each electrochemical reactor has a separate power source, and the anode chambers of the electrochemical reactors are designed to maintain an overpressure in relation to the pressure in the cathode chambers.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the device by saving energy consumed.6 cl, 2 dwg

Device and method of applying coating on cylinders // 2637460
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device contains a bath for electroplating, configured to store the electrolyte, chucks for holding a work cylinder at both ends in the longitudinal direction with the possibility of rotation and supply voltage on it and for immersion of the cylinder in the bath, and a pair of opposite insoluble electrodes that are installed vertically. The electrodes face both lateral surfaces of the cylinder in the bath and are configured to supply an electric current to them, the pair of electrodes being configured to closely approach both lateral surfaces of the cylinder at a predetermined distance therebetween. Each of the pair of electrodes has such a shape that, at least, the lower part of the electrode is curved toward the inside and has a comb-like plot, and both electrodes facing to each other with a shift so that the protrusions of the comb section of one of the pair of electrodes are arranged in the positions of the recesses between the protrusions of the comb section of another of the pair of electrodes, wherein each of the pair of electrodes is made with the possibility of rotation around its upper end, so that the distance from each electrode to the outer peripheral surface of the cylinder is adjustable.EFFECT: increasing the service life of insoluble electrode.6 cl, 2 ex, 8 dwg

Anode busbar of aluminium electrolyser with backed anodes // 2636545
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: busbar contains a bus cable consisting of bus forming a closed loop with aluminium bridges and interconnected by transverse steel spacers, the anodes fixed with a specified pitch on the buses of the bus cable using clamps. The buses in the bus cable are of different thicknesses forming a variable cross-section of the bus cable along its length with a reduction of the cross-section in the direction of current flow in the bus cable, and the bus width (b, mm) at a certain length of the bus cable, multiple of the step of the anodes installed on the bus cable, is: where: jsr - the average current density in the bus cable, A/mm2; H - bus height, mm, Ii - the current strength measured in the direction of the current in the cross-section of the bus before each anode fixed on this bus, A; K - the number of anodes fixed on one bus, pcs; the average current density in the bus cable is 0.2-0.8 A/mm2, and the height of the bus H is a constant value.EFFECT: more efficient use of current-carrying buses in the electrolyser, uniform distribution of current through the anode busbar, and reduction of weight and consumption of the material of the current-carrying structure.6 cl, 5 dwg
Pipeline having heat-resistant and corrosive-resistant plating layer, which has excellent machinability // 2636423
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: said coating comprises the first ZnNi alloy cladding layer having a Ni content of 5% to 9% and a layer thickness of 3 mcm to 9 mcm formed on the surface of the steel pipe, the second ZnNi alloy cladding layer having an Ni content of 10 % to 15% and a layer thickness of 1 mcm to 3 mcm deposited on the first ZnNi alloy cladding layer, and a chromate film formed on the second ZnNi alloy cladding layer.EFFECT: obtaining a heat-resistant corrosion-resistant cladding coating with improved machinability, including in the bending region of the pipeline.1 tbl, 6 ex

Electrolyser for aluminium production // 2636421
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser contains a casing with electrolyte bath having lower and side walls, a cathode, and means for conducting electrolysis electric current from one electrolyser to the other and connected to the cathode and passing through the casing side wall at the zone height located between the upper surface of the cathode and the upper edge of the casing side wall.EFFECT: reduction of heat losses.21 cl, 6 dwg

Suspension for flat products processing (versions) // 2636341
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: suspension consists of base, current busbars, current leads, protected by the permanent coating, with point contacts on its peaks and the clamping device, while the peaks of the current leads are made in the form of plugs, and the plane of one plug is turned relative to the plane of the other one by the angle of 80-100 degrees. The suspension consists of base, current busbars, current leads, protected by the permanent coating, with point contacts on its peaks, while the peaks of the current leads are designed to hold the flat products, and the peaks of the current leads are made in the form of plugs, at that the plane of one plug is turned relative to the plane of the other one by the angle of 80-100 degrees.EFFECT: suspension provides the product fixation in the galvanic bath and the electric current supply to the contact peaks, has the simple design, that allows efficient use of the bath working volume and holding the substrates of a wide range of sizes.4 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of producing gallium from alkaline-aluminate solutions of aluminium production // 2636337
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method is proposed of producing gallium from alkaline-aluminate solutions of alumina production, including preparation of the initial mixture from the mother liquor and circulating solutions with the introduction of a zinc solution, and four-stage electrolysis. Herewith an additional fifth electrolysis step is carried out using as an electrolyte a solution produced by dissolving slag after gallium carburizing on ammonium gallium in sodium hydroxide at a cathode current density of less than 50 A/m2 and a volumetric current density of not more than 3 kA/m3 at a temperature of 50-60°C for 5-6 hours, followed by its supply to the second stage of electrolysis.EFFECT: increasing the specific productivity of the process along with an increase in the purity of commodity gallium due to the removal of impurities of heavy metals and a more complete purification of the initial solutions.1 ex

Device for microarc metal and alloy oxidation // 2635120
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device contains a three-phase AC or DC voltage source connected to a three-phase bridge rectifier, a filter, the first and the second voltage sensors, a high-frequency transformer, the secondary winding of which is connected to the workpiece by one output and to the cathode electrode of the bath - by the other, a current sensor, a computer controlling the microcontroller, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of the driver unit, the first and the second combined voltage regulators, a bridge voltage inverter, wherein the forces inputs of the combined voltage regulators are combined and connected to the output of the filter, and the power outputs - to the first and the second voltage sensors and to the bridge voltage inverter consisting of two transistor half-bridges, the first of which is connected to the power outputs of the first combined voltage regulator, and the second one - to the power outputs of the second combined voltage regulator, and in series connected current sensor and a primary winding of high frequency transformer are introduced into the diagonal of the bridge voltage inverter.EFFECT: simplifying the design and control system and increasing the reliability of the entire device.1 dwg
ethod of producing concentrate of adipic acid and sodium alkaline from alkaline drains of caprolactam production // 2635106
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrolysis is carried out in a two-chamber cell, before the electrolysis, the effluents are mixed with sulfuric acid to separate into the aqueous and organic phases, when the acidity of the aqueous phase reaches 20-30 g/l in terms of sulfuric acid, the aqueous phase is separated and fed to the anode chamber of a two-chamber cell, the phase is used as an adipic acid concentrate.EFFECT: increasing the content of adipic acid in its concentrate while reducing operating costs by reducing the energy consumed and the consumption of cation-exchange membranes in the regeneration of alkali.2 ex

Device and method of applying electrolytic coating to object // 2635058
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: device comprises an electrolytic bath (10) with an electrolyte (12), the first DC source (16), at least, one soluble anode (14) that is, at least, partially, immersed in the electrolyte (12) and electroconductively connected to the positive pole (16), and, at least, one cathode terminal (20) connected to the negative pole of the first current source (16), the second DC source (24) configured to operate independently of the first current source (16) for regulating metal concentration in the electrolyte and leveling the difference between the anode and cathode current outputs. The cathode output (20) is electroconductively connected to the negative pole of the second DC source and, at least, one insoluble anode (22) is, at least, partially, immersed in the electrolyte (12) and electroconductively connected to the positive pole of the second DC source (24). Several soluble anodes 14 are provided, which, with insoluble anodes (22), have substantially the same dimensions, and the number of insoluble anodes is smaller than the number of soluble anodes, so that the effective total surface of all soluble anodes (14) is greater than the effective total surface of all insoluble anodes (22).EFFECT: both current sources can be operated independently of each other to maintain the metal content in the electrolyte in a predetermined range.13 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for manufacturing two-level galvanizing line // 2635049
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method comprises the manufacture of a galvanizing line frame containing vertical posts which are connected together by upper and lower links in the form of metal pipes, wherein vertical posts of the frame are equipped with supports and one or two pairs of additional links which are placed opposite each other between the upper and lower links, wherein on one side of the vertical posts brackets for fixing pipelines and placing electric lines are mounted, and additional and lower links are equipped with cross-links connected to them, installation of a line service platform, frame vertical posts of which are connected to frame vertical posts of the line and are equipped with brackets and/or clips for placing pipelines, installation of galvanizing line baths in the form of baths of volumetric galvanochemical treatment, volumetric flushing and surface jet-dynamic washing in the technological sequence on the link, transverse to the additional links, and on the link, transverse to the lower links, holding tanks for electrolytes, solutions and wash water, wherein cargo supports for setting a rod and/or supplying the current are placed on the upper frame of the upper links or on horizontal guides along the service platform and installing communications and ventilation system.EFFECT: increase of efficiency and reliability of the placed equipment functioning, expansion of its functional capabilities and optimisation of expenditures for manufacturing baths and used design and technological solutions.12 cl, 11 dwg

Device for determining current distribution over anodes of aluminium electrolyser // 2634817
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: device is installed on anode rod fixed on anode bus, and contains at least one sensor of magnetic field measurement connected to a computing unit. The magnetic field measuring sensors are arranged inside the body of the anode rod electrically connected to the anode, or rigidly fixed on its surface. The sensors are connected to each other by wires and to the computing unit located at a safe distance from the effect of high temperatures by means of a cable and/or wireless communication.EFFECT: increased accuracy of current distribution measurement.6 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of cyclohexantiol electrosynthesis based on hydrogen sulfide // 2634732
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrosynthesis is carried out under deaerated conditions at the hydrogen sulfide reduction potential on a platinum cathode.EFFECT: reducing power consumption for electrosynthesis of cyclohexanthiol due to lower electrolysis potential due to a more pronounced tendency of hydrogen sulfide to cathodic activation compared to anodic activation, decreasing the yield of dicyclohexyl disulphide due to the generation of atomic hydrogen in the electrochemical system and exclusion of the oxidation stage of cyclohexanthiol as the desired reaction product.1 ex
ethod of electrolytic deposition of iron-cobalt alloy // 2634555
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method comprises depositing a coating of an electrolyte containing iron chloride 350-400 kg/m3, cobalt chloride 5-50 kg/m3, hydrochloric acid 0.5-2.0 kg/m3 and water on an alternating asymmetric current with current asymmetry coefficient of 1.2-6.0 at an electrolyte temperature of 30-50°C. Sodium chloride in an amount of 5-20 kg/m3 is administered into the electrolyte composition, and the deposition is carried out in the interval of cathode current densities of 60-100 A/dm2.EFFECT: increasing the stability of the electrolyte, preventing its rapid oxidation, increasing the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and the rate of the coating deposition.1 cl
Electrolyte composition of antifriction electrolytic zinc-iron alloy for deposition in hydromechanical activation conditions // 2633866
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrolyte contains, g/l: zinc sulfate 200-240; ferrous sulphate 15-20; aluminium sulfate 31-40; sodium carbonate 80-120; tetraethylammonium hydrochloride 3-4.EFFECT: increasing the physicomechanical characteristics of coating: adhesion, optimum sediment structure, stability of electrolyte and reduction of dendrite formation.1 cl
ethod of producing metallic calcium // 2633673
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves the electrolysis of solutions of its salts, which are carried out in an aprotic solvent as dimethylsulfoxide or dimethylacetamide, or mixtures thereof. As calcium salts, chloride or calcium acetate can be used.EFFECT: producing metallic calcium at room temperature.2 cl, 1 tbl
ethod for nanoporous oxide formation on implant surface from powdered niobium // 2633143
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: method for nanoporous oxide formation on the surface of an implant from powdered niobium, comprising processing in an ultrasonic bath sequntially in acetone and ethanol, washing in distilled water, drying in air and anodizing in an aqueous solution of 1M H2SO4+1% HF in galvanostatic mode with a current density of 0.01 A/dm2 within one hour.EFFECT: increased specific surface of the coating, increased coating wettability with water and saline, and maintained high corrosion resistance of implant in the bio-environments.3 ex, 2 dwg
ethod of production of steel substrate subjected to reduction annealing with coating for packaging applications and product from packing steel produced with it // 2633125
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes production of steel slab containing, wt %: C 0.05 or less, N 0.004 or less, Mn 0.05 to 0.5, P 0.02 or less, Si 0.02 or less, s 0.03 or less, Al 0.1 or less, if necessary, one or more elements from: Nb from 0.001 to 0.1, Ti from 0.001 to 0.15, V from 0.001 to 0.2, Zr from 0.001 to 0.1, B from 5 to 50 ppm, Fe and unavoidable impurities-the rest, hot rolling at final temperature, more or equal to the Ar3 transformation temperature, a single cold rolling to produce a substrate, electrodeposition of tin layer on one or both substrate sides to produce tinned steel sheet for packaging applications. The coating weight of tin layer or layers is not more than 1000 mg/m2, annealing of the tinned packaging steel sheet by heating thereof at a rate of more than 300°C/s to temperature TA from 513°C to 645°C with holding for a time tA with conversion of tin layer into layer of iron-tin alloy, containing at least 90, preferably 95 wt % FeSn with 50 at % Fe and 50 at % Sn, and cooling at rate of at least 100°C/c.EFFECT: improvement of steel sheet corrosion resistance.12 cl, 3 tbl

Electrolytic cell equipped with microelectrodes // 2632901
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an electrolytic cell for the production of unseparated anode and cathode products consisting of a lithographically structured substrate having a surface, a plurality of anode and cathode microelectrodes formed on the said surface, wherein the said anode and cathode microelectrodes are interposed one into the other with the interelectrode gap of less than 100 micrometres and have an average surface roughness Ra of less than 0.05 mcm. The invention also relates to a method for producing a cell, a method for producing mixed oxidizer solutions of variable composition, and a device for dispensing the sterilizing, disinfecting or washing materials.EFFECT: cell has an increased rate of product development with its smaller losses.15 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

Gas-permeable electrodes and electrochemical cells // 2632872
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an electrode for a device for decomposing water containing: a gas permeable material; the second material; a separating layer disposed between the gas permeable material and the second material, where the separating layer is located adjacent to the inner side of the gas permeable material. This separating layer provides a gas gathering layer capable of moving gas inside the electrode to, at least, one gas discharge zone, where the gas being transported is a product of the decomposition reaction of water and where the gas migrates through the gas permeable material; and the conductive layer is located adjacent to the outer side of the gas permeable material, on or partially inside the outer side.EFFECT: increasing the energy efficiency.22 cl, 6 ex, 19 dwg
ethod for producing hydrogen based on chemical reaction of aluminium alloy and alkaline water solution // 2632815
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: as a cathode, porous aluminium with a calcium oxide content of 1.5% is used, it is placed in a solution with an alkali content of 0.2% to 1% and is reacted at the temperature of 15°C to 70°C, using water with pH of 7 to 12.EFFECT: use of the proposed method allows to increase the production of hydrogen by more than 1,5 times in comparison with the known method.5 ex, 5 tbl

ethod of maintaining level of electrolyte-heated bath operated under current // 2632727
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method includes utilisation of electrolyte level sensor that controls and adjusts the level of electrolyte in a device and replenishes electrolyte losses in a process bath with diluted water electrolyte formed in its condensation tank after jet washing operation in a first bath after the processing bath. The processing bath electrolyte is poured into one of two buffer tanks standing thereunder or under baths for washing in this operation made with the possibility of electrolyte cooling and connected by means of a pipeline with the overflow pocket of the processing bath and equipped with pumps for electrolyte supply to the processing bath. The outlets of the buffer tanks are connected to the pumps for electrolyte supply to the process bath through shutoff valves or three-way ball cock, and control of electrolyte supply by means of activation of appropriate pump is carried out by signal of the process bath level sensor before operation of jet washing in the first bath after the processing bath.EFFECT: increase in efficiency, reliability and stability of the processes for maintaining electrolyte level in baths electroplating lines for applying coatings, implemented in zero discharge mode.6 cl, 6 dwg
 
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