Gas metering device and method of its operation

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises: a sensor comprising a sensitive element and a heating element configured for heating of the sensitive element to the previously set operating temperature, besides, the sensitive element is perceptive to the specified gas so that at least one electric property of the sensitive element varies depending on presence of the specified gas, besides, the electric property of the sensitive element is measured by a gas metering device; and a control circuit comprising a heating element controller connected to the heating element and measuring its electric property, besides, the control circuit has a source of heating energy supplying energy to heating element. The controller of the heating element is connected with a source of heating energy and controls its operation depending on measurement of the electric property of the heating element; a facility of pulse modulation connected with the controller of the heating element, the source of heating energy for control of the energy value supplied to the heating element. At the same time the facility of pulse modulation is made as capable of generation of the first set of energy pulses, having certain duration, and the second set of energy pulses, having another, shorter duration for maintenance of temperature of the heating element substantially at the permanent level. Also the invention relates to the method for manufacturing and method of operation of the gas metering device.

EFFECT: device is manufactured and operated in a profitable and reliable manner.

8 cl, 5 dwg

 

This application claims priority of the provisional application US 60/997084, filed October 1, 2007.

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to measuring devices and ways of working gas metering devices.

PRIOR art

Gas-measuring device with sensors that detect specific chemicals or gases in the air, are used in many areas of technology. For example, detection of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, etc. is needed in order to give a signal, indicating the presence of such gases. Can be taken appropriate steps to reduce their effect or evacuate people from the area of the presence of gases.

One type of measuring device used to detect the presence of gas, is a metal oxide semiconductor to provide early warning of increasing risk of explosion (e.g. facing flammable gas) or the presence in the ambient air of toxic gases or vapors. The device generally includes a sensor provided on a heated substrate, which includes two metal electrodes attached to the gauge. The presence of gas, representing opasnost is, detected due to significant changes of the resistance of the sensor by means of electrodes embedded in a suitable electrical circuit.

Reactions that provide the ability to detect a specified gas, usually include the oxidation of a given gas to the semiconductor surface (oxide) and the change in the electrical properties of the material. However, it is known sensors may be affected by change of temperature or humidity. Maintaining a constant temperature sensitive element in practice is problematic. At least some known devices are overcome such problems due to overheating of the sensor and hold the sensor at the temperature of overheating so that the sensor becomes less dependent on temperature change. However, maintaining the sensor at temperatures overheating requires more energy for the operation of the device.

There remains a need for gas-measuring device and the sensor, which can produce and operate cost-effective and reliable manner.

A BRIEF STATEMENT of the substance of the INVENTION

In one embodiment, the proposed gas-measuring device for measuring the presence of a specified gas in a fluid environment, with gas-measuring device includes a sensor having chuvstvitelnye and the heating element, configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature. The sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas such that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas, and electrical property of the sensing element is measured gas measuring device. Gas metering device also includes a control circuit having a controller, a heating element associated with the heating element and measuring its electrical property. The control circuit also includes a source of energy heating that supplies energy to the heating element, and the controller of the heating element is connected with the energy source heating and adjusts its behavior based on measurements of the electrical properties of the heating element.

On demand, the heating element can be adjusted to maintain a constant, essentially, the temperature sensitive element. The controller of the heating element can measure the resistance of the heating element, and the controller of the heating element can regulate energy source of heating depending on the measured resistance nagrevatelnyesektsii. In some cases, the sensor may include a substrate having a sensing element deposited on one side of the substrate, and the heating element is printed on the opposite side of the substrate, and the substrate is thermally conducts heat from the heating element to the sensing element. The control circuit may also include a controller sensing element associated with the sensor element and measuring at least one electrical property of the sensing element, and a controller sensing element is one of formed as a whole with the controller of the heating element and provided separately from the sensing element.

In another embodiment, the proposed gas-measuring device for measuring the presence of a specified gas in a fluid environment in which the gas-measuring device includes a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature. The sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas such that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas. Gazoizmeritel is a great device also includes a circuit reading having a source of energy reading, to supply energy to the sensing element, and a controller sensing element for measuring at least one electrical property of the sensing element. Gas-measuring device additionally includes a heating circuit with the energy source of heating, supplying energy to the heating element, and the controller of the heating element associated with the heating element and measuring at least one electrical property of the sensing element. The controller of the heating element regulates energy source heating using pulse modulation depending on the measurement of electrical properties of the heating element.

In an additional embodiment, a method of manufacturing gas-measuring devices, which provide a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature, in which the sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas such that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas. The method also includes connecting C the PI control reading of the sensitive element, moreover, the control circuit reads delivers the energy to the sensor and measures the changes, at least one electrical property of the sensing element with respect to the presence of a specified gas. The method further includes connecting the circuit to control the heating of the heating element, and a control circuit heating supplies energy to the heating element according to the pulse modulation control scheme, and measures at least one electrical property of the heating element. Pulse-modulated control circuit changes the parameters based on the measured electrical properties.

In yet another embodiment, a method of operation of gas-measuring devices, which provide a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature. The method also includes the supply of energy to the heating element, the use of pulse modulation to control the energy to the heating element, the determination of the resistance heating element, the use of changes in resistance of the heating element to change the modulation to support the load, the educational element at a constant temperature, and measuring the resistance of the sensing element. The sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas in such a way that the impedance of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 illustrates the gas-measuring device having a sensor formed in accordance with the embodiment;

Figure 2 illustrates a control circuit for a gas-measuring device and the sensor, shown in figure 1;

Figure 3 depicts a diagram of the waveforms illustrating example operation of the control circuit shown in figure 2;

Figure 4 is a block diagram for an illustrative method of manufacturing a gas metering device, for example, gas metering device shown in figure 1.

Figure 5 is a block diagram for another method of manufacturing a gas-measuring device, such as a gas metering device shown in figure 1.

A DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the PREFERRED EMBODIMENT VARIANTS of the INVENTION

Figure 1 shows the gas-measuring device 10 having the sensor 12. Gas-measuring device 10 is used to measure the presence of a particular gas or gases in a fluid environment, such as air. Gas measuring device 10 can use what to use to measure the presence of toxic, toxic, flammable or other hazardous type of gas that may be present in a fluid environment. For example, the gas measuring device 10 can be used to detect gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, etc. In one embodiment, the gas measuring device 10 detects gas is present or not. In other embodiments, implementation, measuring device 10 can detect the amount or concentration of gas, when it is present.

Gas metering device 10 reports the results of, for example, the concentration of a gas by any known method, for example, on the display 14. In some cases, for user interaction with the device 10 may be provided with a user interface 16, for example, a keyboard. On-demand gas-measuring device 10 can alert the user to the presence of gas or gas is present above the threshold level of the alarm, for example, audible or visual. In some embodiments, implementing, measuring device 10 can communicate with other devices or systems to prevent the device or system of the presence of gas. This sharing of information may be wired or wirelessly. Gazoizmeritel is a great device 10 may be portable and carried by the user, or alternatively, can be incorporated into the structure at the desired location.

The sensor 12 is mounted on the gas measuring device 10 so that the sensor 12 is exposed to the air surrounding the gas measuring device 10. Despite the fact that the sensor 12 is illustrated mounted on the outer surface of the gas-measuring device 10, the sensor 12 can be placed within the limits of the measuring device 10, and the air flow can be directed to the sensor 12, as, for example, through the hole, open to the external environment, or through the air injected to the sensor 12. The sensor 12 may be similar to the sensor illustrated and described in located on the simultaneous consideration of the patent application U.S., "GAS-measuring DEVICE AND the MANUFACTURING METHOD", filed concurrently and incorporated into this application by reference.

Figure 2 schematically shows the circuit 20 controls for gas-measuring device 10 and the sensor 12. The circuit 20 includes a controller 22, which is functionally connected to the sensor 12. The circuit 20 also includes a low-voltage source 24 energy, which is functionally connected to the sensor 12.

In the illustrative embodiment, sensor 12 is a metal oxide sensor, however, with gas-mouth is oustom 10 you can use other types of sensors, and CMOS sensor, illustrated in the drawings is illustrative and is not intended to be limiting. The sensor 12 includes a substrate 30, for example, the ceramic insulator. One example of the substrate 30 for the sensor 12 is an aluminum substrate. The sensor 12 also includes a sensing element 32 on the substrate 30 and the heating element 34 on the substrate 30. In the illustrative embodiment, the sensing element 32 includes a gas sensitive material and printed on one side of the substrate 30. The heating element 34 is applied to the opposite side of the substrate 30. In an alternative embodiment, the sensing element 32 and the heating element 34 can be applied on the same side of the substrate 30. Optionally, the sensor 12 may be a layered structure, in which the sensing element 32 and/or the heating element 34 are layers deposited on a substrate 30. For example, the sensing element 32 may be a film material deposited by screen printing on the substrate 30. The sensing element 32 may be a porous nanostructure. Similarly, the heating element 34 may be a film material deposited by screen printing on the substrate 30. The heating element 34 may represent the manage a ceramic micromachines heater.

Low-voltage source 24 energy functional associated with the sensing element 32 and delivers the sensitive element 32 preset voltage. Supplied, on demand, a voltage may be a DC voltage. The controller 22 is also connected with the sensing element 32 and measures at least one electrical property of the sensing element 32, for example, resistance, conductance, capacitance and/or impedance. The sensing element 32 is manufactured using a material having electrical properties that depend on the presence of a predefined gas. For example, the sensing element 32 may be susceptible to gas so that the electrical properties of the sensing element 32 is changed depending on the presence and/or concentration of the gas. In the illustrative embodiment, the gas adsorption on the surface of the sensing element 32 causes a change in the electrical properties of the sensing element 32, for example, the resistance change. Changes in electrical properties are detected and/or measured by the controller 22.

In the illustrative embodiment, the reaction gas with the sensing element 32 to happen when the sensing element 32 has a high tempera is ur. The heating element 34 is used to raise the temperature of the sensing element 32 to a predetermined temperature. To supply energy to the heating element 34 provided by the energy source heating 36. The temperature of the heating element 34, and thus, the sensing element 32 to affect the amount of supplied energy, the duration of the pulses and the pulse frequency. For example, in the process, when the heating element 34 is energy, the temperature of the substrate 30 is increased, which thus raises the temperature of the sensing element 32 to a predefined level. When the temperature sensitive element 32 is at a preset level, the sensing element 32 may react with the gas on the surface of the sensing element 32. Additionally, due to the fact that the electrical properties can influence the temperature sensing element 32, maintaining a constant temperature sensitive element 32 can provide more accurate results.

The source 36 of the energy functional is regulated by the controller 22. For example, controller 22 may adjust the amount of supplied energy, the duration of the power supply and the frequency of the power supply. In one embodiment, circuit 20 controls p is adustable shaper 38 pulses of the modulating signals. The controller 22 is connected to the shaper 38 and acts to regulate the amount of supplied energy, the duration of the supply of energy and/or frequency of the energy source according to the control circuit of the pulse modulation. Ripple power supply to the heating element 34 may reduce the total energy consumption measuring device 10 as compared to the working circuits with a continuous flow of energy. In alternative implementation, in order to regulate the flow of energy to the heating element 34 may implement other control circuit, different from the pulse modulation, for example, if the resistance of the heater is calculated from the ratio of the voltage of the heater and measure the amperage of the heater to maintain the desired resistance of the heater, the voltage of the energy source heating can proportionally adjust.

In the illustrative embodiment, to measure the electrical property of the heating element 34, such as resistance, conductivity, capacitance and/or impedance, the controller 22 is also connected with the heating element 34. Due to the fact that the electrical properties of the heating element 34 may be associated with the temperature of the heating element 34, the temperature of the heating element is 34 can be adjusted by measuring, at least one electrical properties and retention of electrical properties, essentially at a constant level. For example, the resistance of the heating element 34 may be directly proportional to the temperature of the heating element. Supporting the heating element 34 is essentially at a constant resistance, it is possible, therefore, to maintain the heating element 34 at a constant temperature. The heating element 34 can be maintained with a constant resistance via regulation of the control circuit of the pulse modulation. If so, the temperature of the heating element 34 can be calculated and/or modify depending on the measured electrical properties of the heating element 34, for example, resistance.

In operation, when the controller 22 detects the presence of gas, the controller 22 may output a signal related to such presence and/or concentration of the gas. The output signal from the controller 22 can be used in gas-measuring device 10, to warn the user and/or display information relating to the presence/concentration of gas. In the illustrative embodiment, the controller 22 may include a layout diagram or composite circuit elements, for example, the amplifier, which processes signal is l from the sensing element 32 and/or analog-to-digital Converter, which processes the signal from the sensing element 32. The processed signal can go from the controller 22, or otherwise used gas metering device 10 to perform other functions measuring device 10, for example, a warning or display. Despite the fact that the controller 22 is illustrated in the form of a General controller 22, which is functionally connected with the heating element 34 and the sensor element 32, the circuit 20 controls may include more than one controller.

Figure 3 is a diagram of the waveforms showing the operation of the control circuit 20 (Figure 2). The oscillating signal 100 represents the voltage appearing on the input electrode associated with the heating element 34 (Figure 2). The controller 22 and/or the shaper pulse modulating signals 38 to regulate the magnitude of the applied voltage, the duration of the applied voltage and/or frequency of the applied voltage. By changing the pulse, similarly changes the value supplied to the heating element energy, which will increase or decrease the temperature of the heating element 34, and thus, the temperature sensing element 32. For example, figure 3 shows the first set of pulses 102 having a certain long is th and the second set of pulses 104, having a different, shorter duration. The frequency and the voltage are the same for the first and second sets of pulses 102, 104, however, the frequency or magnitude could also be modified to change the power supply to the heating element 34. Additionally, in alternative implementation, the pulse shape may be changed or may be other than rectangular pulses, illustrated in Figure 3.

The oscillatory signal 106 represents a measurement controller electrical properties of the heating element 34. Measurement of electrical properties is carried out in continuation of the off time (for example, when the heating element 34 is not powered). In the illustrative embodiment, the resistance of the heating element 34 is measured by the controller 22, however, as described above, in addition to resistance or instead, you can measure other electrical properties. Optionally, and as illustrated in Figure 3, the measurement can be made after a specified number of pulses, however, in alternative embodiments, the implementation of the measurement can be performed after each pulse.

Figure 4 shows the block diagram of the method of manufacturing a gas metering device, for example, measuring device 10 (Fig 1). The method includes the t to the provision of sensor 120, having a sensor element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature. The sensing element is sensitive to the pre-set gas so that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a predefined gas.

The method also includes connecting 122 to a sensitive element of the control circuit reading. The control circuit reads delivers the energy to the sensor. The energy source may be constant or variable. A control circuit reading measures changes in the electrical properties of the sensing element with respect to the presence of a predefined gas. In the illustrative embodiment, the control circuit reading measures changes in resistance of the sensing element, and the resistance is affected by the presence of gas. Resistance may also be affected by the temperature sensitive element. If so, the sensing element can be maintained at a constant, essentially, the temperature in the process. Additionally, as soon as the electrical properties are measured, the control circuit can read ylati signal to another system or an integral element within the gas-measuring device, to display any of them the result of the presence and/or concentration of the gas. A control circuit reading may also send a signal related to the alert to warn the user about the presence or concentration of the gas.

The method further includes connecting circuit 124 to control the heating of the heating element. The control circuit heating supplies energy to the heating element according to the pulse modulation control scheme, and measures at least one electrical property of the heating element. Pulse-modulated control scheme can change settings or adjusted depending on the measured electrical properties. Optional pulse modulation control circuit can change the flow of energy to maintain the measured electrical property at a constant value. In one embodiment, may be provided shaper pulse modulated signals for controlling at least one of the magnitude, duration and/or frequency of pulses to the heating element.

The circuit controlling the heating may be associated with a measurement of the electrical property that varies with temperature, and a control circuit heating can maintain essentially pic is Joannou the temperature of the heating element by maintaining the measured electrical properties of permanent essentially, value by changing the pulse-modulated control scheme. For example, the measured electrical property may be a resistance heating element, which varies depending on the temperature of the heating element. Due to the fact that the resistance is directly proportional to the temperature, the resistance is maintained essentially constant value to maintain a constant, essentially temperature. If so, when the resistance is above or below the required workers ' resistance, the controller can change the parameters of the pulse-modulated control circuit to increase the resistance value to the required workers ' resistance.

Figure 5 shows a block diagram of another method of operation of a gas-measuring device, for example, measuring device 10 (Fig 1). The method includes providing 130 sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature. The sensing element and the heating element may be provided on opposite sides of the substrate, or can be applied directly to each other. Area (e.g., size and shape) of the layers may be essentially the same but the words may be, essentially aligned with each other. The sensing element is in thermal contact with heating element so that the heating element can heat the sensing element.

The method includes the supply 132 of energy to the heating element. Energy can be submitted according to the control scheme. In the illustrative embodiment, the method involves the use of 134 width modulation to control the power to the heating element. Pulse-modulated control circuit power consumption can be adjusted by the controller and/or driver pulse modulating signals, which acts as a logic gate between the energy source and the heating element.

The method includes determining 136 resistance heating element. The resistance is determined by measuring the temperature of the heating element. In one embodiment, the controller is connected with the heating element and measures the electrical properties, for example, the resistance heating element. The measured resistance can be compared with desired performance resistance. The method involves the use of 138 changes the resistance of the heating element to change width modulation to maintain the unit's electric the element at a constant temperature. For example, when the resistance increases or decreases, the controller determines that the temperature increases or decreases. Optionally, the measured resistance corresponds to a certain temperature, and a constant resistance value corresponds to a constant temperature. Thus, any change in resistance can make the necessary change in energy supplied to the heating element to adjust the temperature.

The method involves measuring 140 resistance of the sensing element. Due to the fact that the sensing element is sensitive to the pre-set gas, changes in resistance of the sensing element can be based on the presence of a predefined gas. Gas metering device works by measuring the resistance value, which corresponds to the presence and/or concentration of gas. Additionally, due to the fact that the impact resistance of the temperature sensitive element, the heating element is regulated by the control circuit pulse modulation, in order to maintain essentially constant temperature sensitive element. When the temperature is constant, the resistance changes can be attributed to the presence of gas. Additionally, gas is smertelnoe the device can be calibrated, to the impedance of the sensing element correlated with the presence and/or concentration of gas. For example, the measuring device can be calibrated according to the method described in located on the simultaneous consideration of the patent application U.S. "GAS-measuring DEVICE AND the MANUFACTURING METHOD"mentioned above.

You must understand that the description is intended to illustrate and not to limit. For example, the above-described embodiments of (and/or aspects of them) can be used in combination with each other. In addition, in order to adapt a particular situation or material to the ideas of the invention may be made of numerous modifications without going beyond the scope of the claims. Dimensions, types of materials, orientation of the various components and the number and position of the various component elements, described in this application are intended to define the parameters of certain embodiments and in no way to limit, and are purely illustrative options for implementation. Many other embodiments of and modifications within the entity, legal claims, the claims will be understood by skilled specialists in this area a critical analysis of the descriptions above. In the later of this, the scope of the legal claims of the invention should be determined with reference to the appended claims along with the full scope of legal equivalents of the claims that can give legal status of such claims. In the appended claims, the terms "including" and "in which" are used as precise equivalents of the respective terms "comprising" and "what". Moreover, in the following claims, the terms "first", "second" and "third," etc. are used merely as labels, and are not intended to give a numerical requirements of these objects.

1. Gas-measuring device for measuring the presence of a specified gas in a fluid medium containing:
a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the sensing element to a predetermined operating temperature, and the sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas such that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas, and electrical property of the sensing element is measured gas measuring device; and
a control circuit having a controller, a heating element associated with the heating element and edit the course, its electrical property, moreover, the control circuit has a source of energy heating that supplies energy to the heating element, and the controller of the heating element is connected with the energy source heating and adjusts its behavior based on measurements of the electrical properties of the heating element;
tool width modulation, United with the controller of the heating element, the energy source of heating to control the amount of energy supplied to the heating element,
moreover, the means of the pulse modulation is executed with a possibility of forming the first set of pulses of energy having a certain duration, and a second set of pulse energy with another, shorter duration to maintain the temperature of the heating element is essentially constant.

2. Gas-measuring device according to claim 1, in which the controller of the heating element configured to measure the resistance of the heating element, the controller, the heating element configured to control operation of the energy source of heating depending on the measured resistance of the heating element.

3. Gas-measuring device according to claim 1, in which the sensor includes a substrate having a sensing element deposited on one side is oblozhki, and the heating element is printed on the opposite side of the substrate, and the substrate is thermally conducts heat from the heating element to the sensing element.

4. Gas measuring device of claim 1, wherein the control circuit additionally includes a controller sensing element associated with the sensor element and measuring at least one electrical property of the sensing element, and a controller sensing element divides computing resources with the controller of the heating element.

5. Gas-measuring device according to claim 1, in which the controller of the heating element is configured to change the modulation of the energy source of heating to maintain the sensing element at the predetermined operating temperature.

6. Gas-measuring device according to claim 1, in which the controller of the heating element measures the resistance of the heating element and changes the pulse width modulation of the energy source of heating to maintain a constant, essentially, the resistance of the heating element.

7. A method of manufacturing a gas-measuring device, comprising stages, which are:
provide a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat h is stiteler element to a predetermined operating temperature, moreover, the sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas such that at least one electrical property of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas;
connect the control circuit reading the sensitive element, and a control circuit reading delivers the energy to the sensor and measures the changes, at least one electrical property of the sensing element with respect to the presence of a specified gas; and
connect the circuit to control the heating of the heating element, and a control circuit heating supplies energy to the heating element according to the pulse modulation control scheme, and measures at least one electrical property of the heating element, while a pulse of energy to modulate the formation of the first set of pulses of energy having a certain duration, and a second set of pulse energy with another, shorter duration to maintain the temperature of the heating element, essentially at a constant level.

8. The method of operation of a gas-measuring device, comprising stages, which are:
provide a sensor having a sensing element and a heating element configured to heat the feelings of the construction element to a predetermined operating temperature;
served energy to the heating element;
use pulse width modulation amplitude and/or duration of pulses of energy to regulate the energy to the heating element;
determine the resistance of the heating element;
use the change of resistance of the heating element to change width modulation to maintain the heating element at a constant temperature;
measure the resistance of the sensing element and the sensing element is sensitive to a specific gas in such a way that the impedance of the sensing element changes depending on the presence of a specified gas.



 

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8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device for testing flight controls is designed so that at least one flight control device can be tested. Besides, the flight control device is manufactured so that it can supply warning signal or aircraft flight control disconnection signal and/or connection interlocking signal as a response to power supply system failure. The device for testing flight controls is comprised of a connection element 1 implemented so that it can be installed in the first line of power supply direction, which is connected to the first flight control device. Besides, the first line of power supply direction generates a signal describing the state of the first power source and in addition, includes the first switching device which is connected during operation so that power supply direction line signal is switched for the first flight control device.

EFFECT: advanced functionalities.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: measuring device of electrical energy supplied to railroad traction plant through high voltage line (1) includes the following: supply current load measuring devices (5, 26) and device (12, 27) for measuring the voltage of that power supply, optic electronic inverters (22a, 22b) for low voltage supply required for operation of the above measuring devices; at that, the above optic electronic inverters (22a, 22b) are connected through optic fibres (21a, 21b) to electrooptical transducer (20) for them to be connected to supply voltage, and outputs of measuring devices includes optic fibres (9, 19) connected to optoelectronic transducer (10) for them to be connected to electronic system. At that, measuring devices are installed in insulator (25) through which high voltage line (L) of locomotive roof passes; at that, high voltage environment is arranged in upper cavity (28) made in insulator (25), and low voltage environment is arranged in lower cavity (29) of that insulator, and connections between various elements of the device are performed between those two cavities through the above optic fibres.

EFFECT: decreasing dimensions of the device.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: analysed gas mixtures are sent via a gas analyser with sensors installed in it, electric signals are measured with the help of sensors, using calibrating functions produced on gas mixtures of available composition, values of concentrations of individual gas mixture components read by every sensor are determined, additional measurement of electric signals from sensors is carried out, during realisation of which chemical filters are installed at inlets of sensors, and the filters separate from a gas mixture arriving to each sensor the individual component of the gas mixture determined by this sensor, gas mixtures without individual components are sent via sensors, electric signals are measured with the help of sensors, which correspond to gas mixtures in absence of these individual components, and then the difference is determined between electric signals produced from sensors in presence of individual components of the gas mixture determined by each sensor, and in their absence, and with usage of calibration functions produced on gas mixtures of available composition, by values of these differences of electric signals they determine actual values of concentrations of individual components of the gas mixture, determined by each sensor. Also a gas analyser is proposed for realisation of the above method.

EFFECT: higher validity of analysis due to exclusion of distorted impact of components available in a gas mixture, which are not individual ones determined by each sensor, at accuracy of determination of gas composition.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a gas metering device for measurement of availability of a sought-for gas in a fluid medium, comprising a body of a sensor, which defines the sensor's cavity stretching from an open end of the sensor body, at the same time the specified open end is closed with a screening element, besides, the fluid medium flows into the sensor cavity via the open end; and a sensor installed inside the sensor cavity to sense availability of the sought-for gas, a heating element, which has electrodes, arranged on one side of the substrate between the specified sensor and the specified open end in the sensor's cavity, with a sensor located on the other side of the substrate, by means of which the heating element heats the sensor via the substrate, at the same time the sensor has a sensitive element on the specified side of the sensor further from the hole, at the same time the sensitive element is arranged inside the sensor cavity so that the sensitive element is faced away from the hole. The invention also relates to the method of gas metering device manufacturing for measurement of availability of the sought-for gas in the fluid medium.

EFFECT: efficient and reliable measurement of sought-for gas availability in a fluid medium.

12 cl, 5 dwg

Ammonia sensor // 2478942

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sensor according to the invention has a non-conducting substrate made from graphite fluoride, which is obtained by fluorinating graphite, on which there a sensitive layer. The sensitive layer is formed by treating the graphite fluoride surface with vapour of a reducing agent. The reducing agent used is hydrazine-hydrate, hydrazine, water or hydrogen peroxide, for example. Operating characteristics of the sensor are restored by blowing with air.

EFFECT: invention enables to make a sensor with high temporary stability and short response time.

4 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg

Gas sensor // 2469301

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor base is made from a polycrystalline film of copper iodide and the substrate is the electrode pad of a piezo-quartz resonator.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the sensor and manufacturability thereof.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor base is made from a polycrystalline film cadmium selenide doped with indium antimonide. The substrate is the electrode pad of a piezo-quartz resonator.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the sensor and manufacturability thereof.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: gas sensor for detecting nitrogen and carbon oxides has a substrate made from polycrystalline Al2O3, tin dioxide in gas-sensitive material, measuring elements which are in form of platinum electrodes lying on the front side of the substrate, means of heating and picking up the signal from the measuring elements. A gas-sensitive layer is deposited between the measuring elements. The means of heating are in form of a platinum thin-film or thick-film heater and are placed on the side of the substrate opposite the electrodes. Composition of the sensitive layer of nanocrystalline tin dioxide includes gold and nickel oxide nanoparticles.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the gas sensor.

2 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, the gas sensor has a semiconductor base made from a polycrystalline film of zinc selenide doped with cadmium selenide, where the substrate is the electrode platform of a crystal resonator.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the sensor and manufacturability thereof.

3 dwg

Gas sensor // 2464552

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, the gas sensor has a semiconductor base made from a polycrystalline zinc selenide film and a substrate, wherein the substrate is the electrode platform of a crystal resonator.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the sensor and manufacturability thereof.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: hydrogen flow sensor has a palladium-based hydrogen-sensitive thin-film element (1); the hydrogen-sensitive thin-film element (1) is in form of a cylinder made from porous material (e.g., porous ceramic) whose entire surface is palladium-coated; the hydrogen-sensitive thin-film element (1) lies inside a housing (2), having the shape of a tube; inside the hydrogen-sensitive thin-film element there are heating elements (3) and temperature sensors (4); the hydrogen flow sensor is provided with a magnetic conductor (5) which encircles the hydrogen-sensitive thin-film element on the edge of the cylinder, an inductance coil (6) lying on the magnetic conductor (5), a capacitor (7) which forms with the inductance coil (6) an oscillatory circuit, a signal amplifier (8), measuring (9) and storage (10) devices.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring hydrogen flow rate in continuous mode regardless of the duration of the process.

1 dwg

Gas analyser // 2462704

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor base is made from a polycrystalline film of copper bromide doped with copper iodide, and the electrode area of a piezoelectric crystal resonator serves as the substrate.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity of the sensor and its manufacturability.

3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method includes non-stationary heating of a sample surface in the form of a plate with radiation pulses, measurement of temperature in at least three points along thickness of the sample with subsequent calculation of the sought-for value by means of solving of the coefficient reverse problem of heat conductivity. Intervals between pulses make 5-10 seconds, at the same time temperature measurement is carried out synchronously at the moment of pulse completion.

EFFECT: reduced error of detection of a coefficient of heat conductivity of partially transparent materials more than twice.

2 dwg

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