Composition for arrangement of bases of road pavements and other structures

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and utilisation of wastes of heat engineering, and namely to reinforced ground compositions (soil cements), which can be used for construction of structures, including in structures of bases of road pavements of automobile roads; in an earth bed of automobile roads and other structures; for backfilling, elimination and recultivation of developed soil banks and slurry ponds; for reinforcement of sides of roads, slopes and cavities. Composition for arrangement of bases of road pavements and structures, which includes cement, slurry of chemical water treatment of CHP, and when necessary, for assurance of required humidity (optimum for compacting), it additionally contains sand at the following component ratio, wt % (by solid phase): sand 57-82, cement 6-12, CHP chemical water treatment slurry (on a dry basis) 12-30. The invention is developed in a subclaim of the formula.

EFFECT: accelerating strength gain.

2 cl, 4 ex, 5 tbl

 

The invention relates to the construction and utilization of waste heat power, namely, fortified earthen materials (compositions) using waste, which can be used for the construction of structures, including:

- in the construction of the bases of the pavement of highways;

- in the sub grade roads and other structures;

for backfill, disposal and remediation of depleted soil pits and slurry ponds;

- to strengthen the roadsides, slopes, fill.

This composition is produced by means of processing sludge of water treatment plants (SCHWA) in artificial cured material by treating astringent and mixed with the additives and supplements. SCHWA, as the tonnage of the waste industry, related to the 4th class of hazard (low hazard waste), transferred into secondary raw material used in the preparation of reinforced composites for construction of structures.

Famous songs - fortified soils (GOST 23558-94. A mixture of crushed stone and gravel-sand and soils treated with inorganic binders, for road and airfield construction. Technical terms.) The disadvantage of these compositions is the high cost, due to the high consumption of binder is Portland cement and other DL which provide the required strength of the material, as well as a high demand in industrial mineral soils. To reduce the consumption of materials can be used additive manufacturing waste.

Also known (RU, patent No. 2303011) construction material "Barolet, including drill cuttings, cement and urea-formaldehyde foam, and it contains cuttings density from 1.3 to 1.8 kg/DM3, urea formaldehyde foam density of 10-30 kg/m3in the amount of 10-25% by volume of drill cuttings, cement in the amount of 10-20% of the volume of drill cuttings and additionally mineral filler with a particle size of from 2.7 to 3.1 mm, selected from the group consisting of sand and crushed granite, in the amount of 10-20% of the volume of drill cuttings. It also contains calcium chloride in the amount of 2.0% by weight of solids.

The possibility of using cuttings is limited by the availability of this waste in its formation (gas fields). This waste - cuttings and urea-formaldehyde foam (penoizol) are toxic and environmentally hazardous. "Burrit" does not provide the necessary strength, uniformity, resistance and other performance qualities required for materials grounds road pavement and other critical structures, i.e. Burrit" not suitable for construction built the th.

Closest to the proposed invention, a similar composition (EN 2101413, "Composition for the device roads and surface facilities"), including mineral material, a binder and an alkaline activator with a pH of at least 11, characterized in that it contains as a binder dispersed industrial waste with a total content of Cao+MgO is at least 35%, and as a mineral material solochek from incineration in the following ratio, wt.%: solochek from burning garbage 40-85, dispersed industrial waste with a total content of Cao+MgO is at least 35% 15-60, alkaline activator with a pH of at least 11 of the mass of the solid components 2-20. Thus the composition may further comprise water in an amount to provide the desired workability. Also, the composition contains as an alkaline activator lime or cement in the amount of 2-5% by weight of the solid components or at least a component of the group: waste water production of epoxy resins coatings industry; wastewater finishing textile factories; waste coke production, which is formed at the stage of regeneration in vacuum solutions coke gas purification; waste oil cracking formed at the stage of purification of exhaust gases; alkaline runoff generated at the stage of trapping gaseous x is the op using NaOH in processes associated with the use of liquid or gaseous chlorine; lime jelly applied TPP or TPP or any other strongly alkaline liquid, pasty or dry waste product or a product with a pH of at least 11 in the amount of 2-20% by weight of the solid components.

The disadvantage of this composition is stretched for the duration of the period of curing material (90 days or more). In this composition, the cement and lime at a very low dosage (2-5%) play the role of adjuvants, and curing takes place due to high content in the mixture of ash and slag/sludge active components (up to 85%). This fact plays a negative role in the case of compositions with such a regime set the required nominal strength (as a result, the elastic characteristics) for road construction in connection with the required high rate of construction and installation works, dictated by technological regulations, as well as the necessity of putting the object (roads) in the shortest possible time (usually due to excessive load of the road network and the need for accelerated entry roads into operation). In this case, factors such as high traffic volume, load and speed of traffic among the STV on the road section, where the base supports the structural layer of the composition, did not get the grade strength will affect the premature destruction of road construction in General. Maintaining a technological break after a unit basis for up to 90 days for curing is problematic. Flaws in the composition are the complexity of the composition and the difficulty of implementation, as used in the waste - Sololaki must be at least 35% active lime - CaO+MgO, however, in the case of sludge applied TPP and TPP in the composition will be present only gidratirovana, i.e. lost activity lime. The use of a large number of other components and waste in this composition determines the feasibility complexity of implementation in practice, as well as additional environmental risks in the use of industrial wastes, which include:

- solochek from the combustion of waste generated by waste incineration plants;

- knitting - dispersed industrial waste with a total content of CaO+MgO is at least 35%, such as sludge applied TPP or TPP,

- crushed waste slag and steel, and the like, alkaline activator with a pH of at least 11, which may be represented by lime or cement or any other high-alkaline food production or waste the mi production, for example lime jelly sludge applied thermal power plants, wastewater production of epoxy resins coatings industry, wastewater finishing textile factories, waste coke production, which is formed at the stage of regeneration in vacuum solutions coke gas purification, waste oil cracking formed at the stage of purification of exhaust gases and many others.

Chemical compounds used in similar reagents and additives are complex, varied, and difficult to identify.

The objective of the invention is to create by recycling waste heat power, namely sludge HVO CHP in composition with the soil and astringent, durable monolithic and homogeneous material composition suitable for the device of the bases pavements and other structures in construction.

The main technical result obtained by carrying out the claimed invention is the recycling of industrial waste - sludge HVO and to increase the strength of the composite material under compression, Flexural material, the production of which involves reducing the consumption of expensive primary binder is Portland cement, as well as reduced flow of conditioned soil and a corresponding reduction is stoimosti material compared with standard cementownia according to GOST 23558-94.

Compared to similar proposed composition differs accelerated curing after laying in a constructive element, and a less complex structure without the use of a large number of toxic components.

The problem is solved what is the composition of the device bases pavements and structures, including cement slurry applied CHP and, if necessary, water to provide the required humidity (optimum for compaction), characterized in that it further comprises sand, in the following ratio of components, wt.% for the solid phase: sand 57-82; cement 6-12, sludge applied CHP (dry) 12-30. To improve the physical-mechanical properties of the material, the composition may further contain an additive polymer-mineral complex "Nicolak" in the amount of up to 1% by weight of dry components.

The sludge systems chemical water treatment energy enterprises are mostly carbonates of calcium and magnesium, sulfate and calcium hydroxide. In the composition of the sludge may be present and organic impurities.

The particle size of mineral slurries HVO represent a heterogeneous colloidal disperse system in which the solid phase is finely dispersed gypsum, hydroxide or carbonate of calcium, and soluble and poorly soluble calcium salts, NAT is Oia, potassium and hydroxides of metals.

The analysis of the chemical composition and physical properties of the sludge water treatment suggests the possibility of their use as activators of hardening and fillers cement compositions. High dispersion slurry (SBEATS=10-13 tysm2/g) (after dehydration and hardening) and the presence of inorganic salts will contribute to the activation of processes of cement hydration, as particles of sludge perform the role of not only filling, but also the active component of the system that have a significant impact on the formation of active centers of crystallization.

The slurry is applied is flooded mineral mass formed during the chemical processing and water clarification on the energy complex enterprises, such as thermal power plants.

The composition of the solid phase of slurries composed of fine particles and flakes, including clay and colloidal fractions of different mineral composition and organic particles.

For example, in our experiments we used SHWO Tyumen CHP-2, the solid phase which contains the following components, wt. %:

calcium carbonate40-80
magnesium carbonate10-30
ferrous sulfate and other components10-30

This chemical composition allows the use of SCHWA for manufacture of building materials and reinforced soil cement, particularly as a filler and additives, partially replacing binder, either as an activator of hardening of the cement binder. Particles of sludge perform the role of not only filling, but also the active component of the system that have a significant impact on the formation of active centers of crystallization. The presence of fine, clay-colloid phase is one of the conditions of application of SCHWA in the compositions, as a certain content of fine phases contributes to a more optimal particle size distribution of soil fractions in comparison with the pure natural and silting Sands, characterized by odnorodnomu composition. Supplement certain limited (optimal) number of SHVO allows to obtain a mixture with the optimum number of plasticity. The strengthening of such material cement gives the best strength, water resistance, crack resistance, frost resistance, compared with the traditional treatment of "clean" sand, when fortified soil has a high porosity, the permeability, low strength, and frost.

Increase to which irowiki binder in standard cementownia or similar causes growth of hard crystallization relationships along with increasing strength increases fragility and reduces the deformability and fracture toughness of the material.

The basic properties of the samples SHWO taken at the collectors of the Tyumen CHP-2, are shown in table 1.

Table 1
The basic properties of the samples SHWO
IndicatorsSample # 1Sample # 2The combined sample
in liquid formin thickened formin liquid formin thickened formin liquid formin thickened form
The amount of water/sediment, ml100/900-970/30-520/480-
The cake moisture, %-23,8-24,6-24,1
Bulk density in the dry state, kg/m3/td> 615621619
The optimum moisture content, %-46,1-45,8-46,0
Maximum density, g/cm31,621,631,62

In addition to SCHWA, the composition may contain and improving additive. As an active additives in the inventive composition is applied PMK "Nicobloc, reagent domestic production, Saint-Petersburg (THE 5743-003-13881083-2006 "Additive reinforcement for cementitious mortars and dry mixtures "Nicolak").

Polymer-mineral composition (PMC) on the basis of the holder of powders and mineral fillers "Nicolak" is a composition consisting of a definitely selected minerals on the specified chemical composition and activation, as well as polymers consisting of molecules, called "comb-like". This modification polymer is a macromolecule with a long and side chains. Since large chains consist of several types of molecules, each of which starts at a certain time. These circuits have a specific speed absorbale and hydration (phase formation), which provides the necessary duration of their action in the mixture.

The chemical composition of the PMC "Nicolak" presents the following components:

- activated silica - 40%, salt, calcium 15%, sodium - 15%, based polymers lignin - 30%.

"Nicolak" is a gray powder various shades, bulk density 800-1260 kg/m3the humidity is not more than 2%, residue on sieve No. 0315 not more than 1%. More detailed specifications are in THE 5743-003-13881083-2006.

PMC provides very high persistence of the mixture slows down the setting and accelerates the curing immediately after laying and compaction. When using the PMK is the activation of moisture in the soil optimum moisture content, which affects the overall energy balance of the entire system is strengthened mixture, which in turn leads to additional activation of the cement and, consequently, to an increase of the compressive strength at equal and reduced quantities of cement to strengthen the soil.

It was experimentally confirmed that when strengthening the sandy soils limit of the compressive strength of specimens at 28 days of age with the introduction of additives SH is About and PMK "Nicolak" will increase 1.5-2 times compared with the control samples, the coefficient frost resistance will increase up to 0,9-0,95. Also Nicobloc" applies to all types of soils, suitable for strengthening cement, with no restrictions on the acidity of the soil, the presence of sulfates, chlorides, gypsum. This polymer-mineral complex (PMC) reduces cement consumption by 15-30%, respectively, of the transport costs and the cost of the cement-soil composition.

The advantages of road pavement structural layer, including fortified composition with SHVO and PMK "Nicolak", include:

- longer maintaining the flatness of the coating, especially with the intense swelling soil subgrade;

- significant improvement humidity curing of the composition, since the addition of SCHWA or SCHWA in complex with PMK "Nicobloc increases the water holding capacity of the mixture during the initial curing to 7, 14 and 28 days. Developed specific surface of the particles of the compositions and the presence of clay-colloid phase ensures the cohesion of water molecules and prevent evaporation of the stacked structural layer and its involvement in the processes of hydration of the cement binder. This simplifies the care of the fresh layer, does not require daily watering and filling film-forming;

- reduction of 15-45% of the demand for scarce mineral materials and is 1.5-3 times the number of vehicles;

- reduce labor costs and reduce the cost of construction.

In the claimed compositions may use different grades of cement. The basic binder is Portland cement, slag Portland cement and Portland cement with mineral additives according to GOST 10178. Use of aluminous cements according to GOST 969, as well as:

- cements gipsoglinozemistyy expanding according to GOST 11052;

- grouting cements according to GOST 1581;

- sulfate and pozzolanic cements according to GOST 22266;

- cement for mortar according to GOST 25328.

The basic requirement is to apply the cement with normal (the beginning of the seizure should occur no earlier than 2 hours after mixing) terms of setting and hardening.

Examples of specific applications

Research of the Department of roads and airfields" Tomasu the possibility of the application of additive SHWO while strengthening the soil. In particular, the introduction to 12-30% of the waste - sludge applied CHP increase the strength and water resistance of the composition, contaminants waste when this contact in the structure of consolidated mass.

We have investigated the influence of SHVO Tyumen CHP-2 and additives "Nicolak" on the physico-mechanical properties of building a composite material on the basis of alluvial Sands, binders and waste.

In about Utah applied fine and silty Sands (GOST 25100-95) from a pile of hydraulic career "Andrew" with natural moisture content of 4-6%; Portland cement M-400 suholozhskogo plant (GOST 10178-85) and sludge HVO (integral test) from the drive Tyumen CHP-2.

Example 1. For experimental confirmation of the capabilities and effectiveness of SHVO, and together SHVO and PMK "Nicobloc was tested 3 series tracks:

I - control series cementownia according to GOST 23558-94 containing 12% of cement by weight of sand;

II - composition containing sand (70%), 20% SHVO (dry residue) and 10% binder;

III - composition containing sand (59%), 30% SHVO (dry residue) 10% binder, and additive "Nicolak" in the amount of 1%.

From prepared at the optimum moisture content of mixtures I-III formalise samples cylinders 5×5 cm using a small device Soundarya and hydraulic press. Then part of the freshly prepared samples were sent for Toxicological research, the basic amount (not less than 24 pieces) were placed in a desiccator for curing in air-wet conditions.

Test samples were made after 14 and 28 days of exposure, water saturation within 48 hours (the first 6 hours of immersion 1/3, then fully) according to GOST 23558-94 and GOST 10180-90.

Weighted before and after water saturation, the samples were tested for compressive strength of hydraulic press.

The main results of the experiment are shown in table 2.

Table 2
The test results of the compositions of cementownia
the number of seriesQty sample14 days28 days
In, %RSG, MPaDov. the interval.In, %RSG, MPaDov. the interval.
I control GOST 235589+99,51,92+/-0,197.43,21+/-0,27
II composition with SHWO9+94,52,45+/-0,243,34,03+/-0,34
III composition with Nicolekom"9+94,02,98+/-0,212,9 4,82+/-0,20
Note: water absorption by weight; CSH - compressive strength.

Thus, for the same amount of binder strength composition (14 days) with SHVO significantly increased by 28%. Water absorption is reduced by more than 2 times, for III composition in a joint application of SCHWA and Niceplace" strength increased by 38%, water absorption decreased 2.6 times.

These results confirm the efficiency of use of the additive (recycling) SHVO and PMK "Nicolak" in the preparation of reinforced composites for construction of structures.

These data indicate the increase of technical and economic performance of reinforced soil structures in clothes roads and industrial areas.

Test standard 28 daily samples allowed us to identify the brand of the proposed compositions using SHVO and Niceplace" according to the requirements according to GOST 23558-94: I series - M 20 (3,21 MPa); II and III series - M 40 (4,03 and 4,82 MPa, respectively).

Example 2. For further experimental determination of rational dosages of SHVO, sand, cement and PMK "Nicobloc was tested 5 series tracks:

I - composition containing sand (76%), 12% SHVO (dry residue) and 12% Portland cement;

II - com is azizia, containing sand (75,7%), 12% SHVO (dry residue), 12% of Portland cement and 0.3% PMC "Nicolak";

III - composition containing sand (75,4%), 12% SHVO (dry residue), 12% of Portland cement and 0.6% PMK "Nicolak";

IV - composition containing sand (75%), 12% SHVO (dry residue), 12% Portland cement and 1% PMK "Nicolak";

V - composition containing sand (74,7%), 12% SHVO (dry residue), 12% of Portland cement and 1.3% PMK "Nicolak".

The main results of the experiment are shown in table 3.

Table 3
The test results of the compositions of cementownia (example 2)
the number of seriesQty sample14 days28 days
In, %RSG, MPaDov. the interval.In, %RSG, MPaDov. the interval.
I9+94,32,14+/-0,184,13,90 +/-0,19
II9+94,22,39+/-0,223,64,12+/-0,25
III9+9a 3.92,74+/-0,212,94,28+/-0,26
IV9+93,23,06+/-0,282,4of 5.06+/-0,17
V9+93,2a 3.87+/-0,242,35,14+/-0,29

Test standard 28 daily samples allowed us to identify the brand of the proposed compositions using SHVO and Niceplace" according to the requirements according to GOST 23558-94: I series - M 20 (3,90 MPa); II, III, IV, V series - M 40 (4,12, 4,28, 5,06 and 5,14 MPa, respectively). Rational dosage PMK - 0,6-1%, with no less effective is a, and most feasible for technical and economic reasons, as the strength growth is slowing, and the cost increases.

Example 3. Further, we investigated the following 2 series of tracks:

I - composition containing sand (58%), 30% SHVO (dry residue) and 12% Portland cement;

II - composition containing sand (57%), 30% SHVO (dry residue), 12% Portland cement and 1% PMK "Nicolak".

The main results of the experiment are shown in table 4.

Table 4
The test results of the compositions of cementownia (example 3)
No.Qty sample14 days28 days
B, %RSG, MPaDOV. the interval.In, %RSG, MPaDOV. the interval.
I9+9a 3.92,73+/-0,193,7with 4.64 +/-0,26
II9+93,73,39+/-0,293,26,47+/-0,22

Test standard 28 daily samples allowed us to identify the brand of the proposed compositions using SHVO and Niceplace" according to the requirements according to GOST 23558-94: I series - M 40 (With 4.64 MPa); (II series - M 60 (6,47 MPa).

Example 4. Further, we investigated the following 2 series of tracks:

I - composition containing sand (82%), 12% SHVO (dry residue) and 6% Portland cement;

II - composition containing sand (81%), 12% SHVO (dry residue), 6% Portland cement and 1% PMK "Nicolak".

The main results of the experiment are given in table 5.

Table 5 - test Results of the compositions of cementownia (example 4)

the number of seriesQty sample14 days28 days
In, %RSG, MPaDov. the interval.In,%RSG, MPa Dov. the interval.
I9+9the 3.83,41+/-0,183,43,70+/-0,21
II9+93,53,66+/-0,302,6is 4.93+/-0,18

Test standard 28 daily samples allowed us to identify the brand of the proposed compositions using SHVO and Niceplace" according to the requirements according to GOST 23558-94: I series - M 20 (3,70MPa); II series - M 40 (4,93 MPa).

The amount of added water to achieve the optimum moisture content of the mixture, providing the maximum density depends on the type and humidity of the soil and on the content and humidity of SHVO and varies between 0-19% by weight of dry components. The value of the optimum moisture content for a particular of the compositions is determined in accordance with GOST 22733-2002. When the total moisture content is lower than the optimum moisture content in the mixture is introduced the missing amount of water.

During the experiment were found to be optimal within doses of SCHWA in the composition, is exactly 12-30% (on dry). At the dosage of sludge in quantities of less than 12% not significant efficiency recycling waste industry, and its additive over 30% practically does not entail increase in strength of the composite.

The preparation of the composition in a production environment involves traditional methods of cooking ground mixtures, processed mineral astringent (in accordance with the regulations on technology for pavement construction and consolidation of soils). The main method is the mixture in the installation and piling "in case", seal and maintenance of the base.

When implementing data structures derived materials with compressive strength of 3-6 MPa, suitable for construction of load-bearing bases, pavements and other structures. The implementation of the composition is possible and without the use of PMK "Nicolak", while ensuring the disposal of SCHWA and the required strength of the composition.

Additional additive PMK "Nicolak" (0,6-1%) provides the improvement of physico-mechanical properties and reducing the need mainly knitting - cement.

The stated intervals dosages of the components in the compositions allow, disposing of large-tonnage waste heat - SHUO CHP, to obtain a monolithic dense, homogeneous and durable composite material,the appropriate construction standards and specifications. The quality of the composition is increased when combined with SHVO the introduction of supplements - PMK "Nicolak". In this composition the required strength is provided at reduced compared to a similar list of additives, waste and chemicals, which reduces environmental risks.

1. The composition of the device bases pavements and structures, including cement slurry applied CHP and, if necessary, water to provide the required humidity (optimum for compaction), characterized in that it further comprises sand, in the following ratio of components, wt.% for the solid phase: sand 57-82; cement 6-12, sludge applied CHP (dry) 12-30.

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it further contains an additive PMK "Nicolak" in the amount of up to 1% by weight of dry components.



 

Same patents:

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EFFECT: higher reliability of a foundation due to strengthening of a foundation base with increased coefficient of attenuation of seismic oscillations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: equipment for jet cementation for creation of pillars of fixed soil, having nonround cross section, comprises a mast, a rotator, moved along the axis parallel to the mast and controlled when rotated around the specified axis, a set of hollow pump rods, temporarily disconnected with the rotator, a feeding facility for injection of a cement mortar of fixing fluid medium into soil via a string of pump rods, and a facility for variation of rotation speed in at least one specified angular range around the axis. Additionally it comprises a rotor directly attached to one of pump rods of the string and technologically connected with at least one signal-generating device, installed on the non-rotary part of the equipment and made as capable of control signal generation to change speed of rotator rotation in response to the angular position of the rotor, and a through clamp, installed on the rotary mandrel of the rotator, equipped with a fixation facility, which may be put in action for pressing of the pump rod and make it built into the rotator, and which may be deactivated, to release the pump rod and provision of rotator movement relative to the pump rod.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and depth when performing works to strengthen soils, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity.

13 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to to construct buildings, structures and other vertically extended objects on unevenly compressed soils with introduction of additional stiffening elements into a structural scheme of the buildings, structures, such as reinforced concrete belts, impacting soil for changing its properties in process of building erection, measurement of deformations and/or stresses in the main and additional elements of the building, besides, measurements of stresses and deformations are carried out after erection of each group of floors in a surface structure, further, having detected the stressed-deformed condition of the building with account of its stiffness within the floors erected to the moment of measurements, and having assessed acceptability of arisen subsidence and stresses to the moment of measurements, actual deformation and strength characteristics of foundation soils, expected values of stresses and subsidence to the moment of erection of the last building floor, afterwards they decided on necessity and scopes of local impact at the foundation soil until final erection of the building, besides, in case of necessity to impact the foundation soil, they stop erection of the building or continue only in the part, the foundation of which does not require impacting soil, if necessary, the required impact at the soil is carried out, for instance, fixation of cement-sand mortars, afterwards they continue erecting the building, differing by the fact that after erection of another group, for instance, from 2-5 floors of the surface building, they measure the average slope of the upper slab above this group of floors and average slopes of upper slabs above all previously erected groups of floors, further on the basis of the ratio of average slopes of slabs they decide on deformations of the foundation and the stressed-deformed condition of the building to the moment of each measurement, on further development of deformations and change of the stressed-deformed condition to final erection of the building, on the necessity to impact the soil, on termination of building erection or continuation of its construction in the part, the foundation of which does not require impacting soil, on the necessity to introduce additional stiffening elements into the structural scheme, besides, if slope measurements have been made, only upon completion of construction, by the ratio of slab slopes they decide on previously generated deformations of the building, the structure.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and discrimination capacity of analysis of stressed deformed condition of a building, a structure, in process of its erection or upon completion of construction.

4 ex, 13 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: ballast prism contains crushed stone joined with a binding material on the basis of synthetic latex into an elastic monolith with open through pores. At the same time 0.15-0.20 of the volume is represented by a rubber-like fraction of 10-20 mm, produced by crushing of used car tyres and other recycled products from rubber-like materials.

EFFECT: reduced damage of crushed stone with appropriate resource increase.

2 dwg

Road structure // 2516603

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: road structure comprises an earth bed, a road surface with an underlying layer, sides, a longitudinal drainage system filled with crushed stone of fraction 20-40 and arranged in the body of the earth bed along the axis of the road, water drainage outlets. The base of the earth bed fill under trenches of the rated traffic area from the normative car load is made by geometry of a triangular stiff core from strong easily compacted grainy materials, which have draining properties, and by giving orthotropic properties.

EFFECT: restoration of high transport-operation characteristics of motor roads for a long period of time, increased bearing capacity of a road surface with provision of passage of motor transport with high loads at an axis and with exclusion of road closing for winter-spring period.

4 cl, 3 dwg

Road structure // 2516408

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: road structure comprises an earth bed, a road surface with an underlying layer, sides, a longitudinal drainage system filled with crushed stone of fraction 20-40 and arranged in the body of the earth bed along the axis of the road, and water drainage outlets. The base in the fill of the earth bed under the road surface is made according to geometry of the triangular stiff core from strong easily compacted grainy materials with draining properties.

EFFECT: restoration of high transport-operation characteristics of motor roads for a long period of time, increased bearing capacity of a road surface with provision of passage of motor transport with high loads at an axis and with exclusion of road closing for winter-spring period.

3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: compound for road surface dressing includes oil sludge and flue ash cenospheres of central heating and power plants with the following ratio of wt, %: oil sludge - 20-80; flue ash cenospheres - 80-20.

EFFECT: improving water repellent and heat-insulating properties.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: flexible strengthening tape substantially with permanent thickness "e" is designed for use in reinforced soil structures comprises a central part, made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres, the specified section stretches longitudinally to withstand the stretching force, and also at least one side section of alternating width, comprising multiple segments arranged continuously along the central section.

EFFECT: improved reliability of usage.

19 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in treatment of the latter by a stabiliser containing latex polymer, which is applied mixed with water. Treatment of soil or foundation is carried out by introduction of the stabiliser by means of a cutter by the cutting method as the stabiliser is mixed with ground or foundation. The latex polymer is represented by latexes from the group that includes sterol-butadiene latex, (meth)acrylate latex, ethylene-vinyl acetate latex, ethylene/propylene latex, ethylene/propylene-dimer latex, butadiene-acrylonitrile latex, silicon latex, polybutadiene latex, latex from natural rubber or mixture of two or several of the specified latexes. The stabiliser additionally comprises a thickener based on cellulose, a defoaming agent selected from the group including silicons, glycol ethers, natural fats or oils and fatty alcohols, and also at least one chloride or at least one hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, besides, the stabiliser has the following composition (wt %); 0.1 - 50 latex polymer, 0.05 - 5 thickener, up to 5 defoaming agent, 0.01 - 10 chloride or hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, residue to 100 - water.

EFFECT: fixation and stabilisation of soils or foundations, making it possible without removal and recycling of oil soil and special costs to perform construction-earth works.

6 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect road surfacing includes grinding of soil - road base, introduction of a binder into the ground soil, compaction of the produced mixture and soaking of the compacted mixture on air under natural conditions. The soil is ground for the depth of 10-30 cm, the aqueous solution of 0.12-0.30% technical lignosulfonate is introduced into the ground soil by means of watering with the solution volume of 3-6 l/m2 of the soil surface, the moistened soil is compacted by a mechanised roller with weight of 25-40 t in 10-15 stages, soaking of the compacted mixture on air at 18-25°C for 3-5 days until soil moisture of 7-9%. Then hydraulic protection is arranged in the form of a double-layer asphalt concrete coating: the first layer with thickness of 7-8 cm from asphalt concrete with crushed stone content of not more than 40% is compacted with a smooth drum roller with weight of 10-18 t (8-10 stages), the second layer from asphalt sand concrete with thickness of 5-8 cm with subsequent compaction with a smooth drum roller with weight of 10-18 t (8-10 stages).

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works for erection of road surfacing.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to construct and strengthen motor roads includes development of a multi-layer heterogeneous structure of a road surface by means of preparation of an underlying surface: installation of reinforcement in the road bed, pouring of concrete onto reinforcement, cover with the road mesh, fixation of the road mesh and the reinforcement, covering with asphalt concrete. The underlying surface is tilled with a plough with a plough point, harrowed, stubble is removed, the earth bed of the road surface is compacted, the earth bed of the road surface is profiled along tracks and at the edges of the road surface, the tracks are rolled by depth, which is more by at least 30% than the common thickness of the concrete layer of the surface, and at the edges of the road surface a rolled strip is arranged with depth for the half of the common thickness of the concrete layer of the surface. Then reinforcement is laid into track and edge strips of grooves in the earth bed of the road surface. Afterwards the reinforcement is placed on top along the entire width of the road surface and is fixed to reinforcement in track and edge grooves, concrete is poured, afterwards onto loops of the installed reinforcement that protrude above the concrete by 2/3 of the asphalt concrete layer thickness the road mesh is fixed, then porous asphalt concrete is laid onto the road mesh, rolled with light rollers, sealed with penetrating hydrophobic compounds, and high-strength and wear-resistant asphalt concrete is laid.

EFFECT: expansion of operational capabilities due to reinforcement of road bed and surface body and production of a pseudohomogeneous structure.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to construct motor roads includes erection of trenches and water drainage devices, preparation of a soil earth bed, erection of an underlying layer and a road surface, at the same time the main layer is arranged between the underlying layer and the road surface, and the soil earth bed is prepared by its levelling with coating by a binding additive and its further rolling, and if there is no soil earth bed, it is previously formed by means of application of a mixture of sand, ash slags and/or wastes of coal production, water and a binding additive, and the underlying layer is formed from a mixture of cement, sand, filler of fine fraction or clay or fine gravel, or wastes of heat power plants, water, binding additive, which is laid, levelled and compacted, then the binding additive is either sprayed or sprinkled, with further compaction of needle rollers to density of at least 1600 kg/m3, and the main layer of the road surface is formed from natural gravel, sand and/or sand clays, stabilisers in the form of cement, and/or lime, and/or bitumen, and/or asphalt concrete and binding additive. Also motor road design is described.

EFFECT: production of strong structured layers of motor roads connected both to each other and between layers, increased even stability of road surface in process of operation by means of provision of continuous growth of road strength in time.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect a road pavement of highways provides for installation of a geogrid on the prepared road surface, its filling with a filler and asphalting. The filler is a mixture made of oil slurry and microspheres with cracks of flue ash from a TPP. The ratio of the components is as follows, wt %: oil slurry - 60÷80; cenospheres - 40÷20. The height of the geogrid and size of its cells is selected depending on mixture consistency, climatic conditions and condition of road surface base.

EFFECT: reduced costs for construction, increased service life of a road.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to control heat insulation of swamp beds of ice roads before flattening, including filling of the ice road bed with the heat-conductive layer. The specified layer is snow mass, which is shovelled into rolls from the swamp surface that surrounds the ice road base, and then from the formed rolls it is thrown onto the ice road bed until the required thickness of 20-50 cm is achieved for the appropriate heat insulation.

EFFECT: reduced intensity of the process of swamp surface freezing for an ice road bed within permissible limits by depth before flattening.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composite material contains drilling wastes, portland cement in amount of 5-10% of the volume of the drilling wastes, technical carbon 0.5-1% of the volume of drilling wastes, quick lime 3-5% of the volume of drilling wastes, peat 20-40% of the volume of drilling wastes, sand 10-30% of the volume of the drilling wastes, phosphorus-containing mineral fertiliser 20-30 kg per ton of the composite material. The phosphorus-containing mineral fertiliser can be diammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate fertiliser, ammophos with potassium sulphate or potassium chloride in ratio of 70:30 wt %, diammophos with potassium sulphate or potassium chloride in ratio of 70:30 wt %. The composite material further contains hydrocarbon-based spent or unused drilling fluid with hydrocarbon content of 3-5% of the volume of the drilling wastes.

EFFECT: use of the present composite material provides effective recultivation of disturbed soils while recycling hazardous drilling wastes and improves the environment.

8 cl, 3 ex

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