Method to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material of structure

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of construction and may be used to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material in creation of building structures by means of jet cementing. The method to determine quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure in development of building structures by means of jet cementing consists in addition of a powdery indicator into the cement mortar injected into a well. Such powdery indicator may be powder graphite, fineness of grinding of which is not below fineness of cement grinding. Weight ratio of graphite powder makes 1-10% of cement weight. During realisation of the method they first measure electric conductivity of the injected cement mortar, then electric conductivity of the soil and cement pulp discharged from the well is measured, and the quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure is determined as difference between the cement quantity in the cement mortar and the quantity of cement in the pulp. The quantity of cement in the pulp is calculated in accordance with the following formula: m c n = m c λ n λ c , where mcn - quantity of cement in the pulp; mc - quantity of cement in the cement mortar; λn - value of pulp electric conductivity; λc - value of cement mortar electric conductivity.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of the method.

 

The method relates to the technology of construction and can be used to determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement material to create building structures by means of jet grouting.

According to previous studies, an important parameter in determining the ultimate effectiveness of inkjet technology, is the amount of cement (dry)contained in 1 m3reinforced soil. The specified amount of cement in the ground-cement material design can be defined as the difference between the quantity of cement contained in the injected cement mortar, and the quantity of cement contained in the funds allocated from wells ground-cement pulp.

When calculating the amount of cement needed to create the building structure, defined by the exact amount of erodible soil, which must be replaced with cement mortar. The amount of cement made in the ground-cement slurry, and the amount of cement that creates the building structure, depend on the physico-mechanical characteristics of the soil, as well as the parameters of the jet grouting process and are calculated with great accuracy.

When conducting jet grouting in different layers of soils and their mixtures on the transition boundary layers the accuracy of calculations increases. This requires what I thorough characterization of soils, leads to great work. Thin layers of soil are not taken into account in the exploration and leads to a decrease in strength in a small area of the building structure, reduce the strength of the whole structure. A necessity arises to determine the amount of cement in the erected structure directly when carrying out grouting for further objective of strength, as well as the introduction of a correction in the process of cementation with a large percentage of cement in the ground-cement slurry.

The calculation is simplified if, in practice, to quickly determine the amount of cement in the output from the borehole ground-cement pulp.

There is a method of quality control of liquid concrete using ultrasonic signals, which measure the velocity of ultrasound in the liquid concrete, then reveal the dependence of this rate on the ratio cement content and water [Lesinski M. Testing of concrete. M.: stroiizdat, 1980, s-137, 152]. This method allows you to determine the durability of building structures on the state of the liquid concrete.

However, the speed of ultrasound is also dependent on fill concrete solid fraction (gravel, crushed stone, inclusions of soil), which makes impossible the application of the method to determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement slurry during jet grouting.

Known radiation the initial method for the contactless control of process parameters, in which before and after the technological process measure the intensity of the flux of gamma rays irradiated substance and the change in the measured intensity determine the value of the process parameter [Tatochenko L.K. Radioactive isotopes in industry. M: Atomizdat, 1960, s].

When jet grouting, Obruchev cement and measuring the intensity of gamma radiation flux injectisome cement mortar and then ground-cement slurry, it is possible to judge the quantity of cement contained in the constructed structure.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for radiation protection of both humans and surrounding equipment, measures for radiation protection.

The closest analogue to the proposed method is a method of determining the amount of cement in the funds allocated from wells ground-cement slurry in the formation around the borehole ground-cement building construction, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator in the form of soft magnetic iron-containing substances. (Patent RU 2165495 C1, publ. 20.04.2001.)

The disadvantage of this method is the filling of the ground-cement body building constructions powder material is subjected to corrosion.

The objective of the proposed method is the operational whom Noah determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement material structure with the cementation of the array for calculating the strength of the design and built the correction of the cementation process.

The technical result that can be obtained by using the method, is to increase the strength of the generated design, due to the operational control of the cementation process.

The problem is solved in that in the method of determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator, as powdery indicator used graphite powder, the fineness of which is not lower than the fineness of the cement, and the weight ratio of the graphite powder is 1-10% of the weight of cement. In this case, initially measuring the electrical conductivity of cement injected into the well, then measure the conductivity allocated from wells ground-cement slurry and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula:

where mSPthe amount of cement in the pulp,

mwiththe amount of cement in cement mortar,

λp- the value of the conductivity of the pulp,

λc- the value of the electrical conductivity of cement.

The amount of cement in the ground-cement material design can be defined as the difference between the amount of cement in the cement mortar and the amount of cement in the slurry

Next, determine the percentage value of mSPand CMMCdetermine the remaining value of mSPup to 100%.

The essence of the method lies in the fact that added to the cement slurry of graphite powder creates the conductivity of the solution. The particles of the graphite powder in the mixing station are evenly distributed in the whole volume of cement mortar.

When the preliminary work is determined by the minimum amount of graphite powder, necessary for measuring the electrical conductivity of the required accuracy.

When jet grouting cement mortar containing graphite powder, mixing with the soil, creates a building structure, and the part is displayed on the surface as a ground-cement slurry. Due to the content in the pulp only part of cement and the corresponding graphite powder conductivity of the slurry is reduced.

Through measurements of the electrical conductivity of cement and pulp and knowing the amount of cement used for making of cement, it is possible to judge the quantity of cement contained in the pulp.

Adding to the cement slurry of powdered electrically conductive chemically inert graphite does not affect the quality of cement grout during grouting, and maintenance of building design the AI.

Equality fineness of graphite and cement ensures the uniform distribution of the graphite particles in the cement mortar and the same behavior of the graphite particles and cement during cementation, which increases the objectivity of the measurements of electrical conductivity.

The conductivity of the cement with the addition of graphite powder is determined by the percentage of graphite powder and does not depend on the solution temperature and the presence of soil, gravel, etc.

Adding to the cement slurry of graphite powder in a ratio of 1-10% by weight of cement gives the possibility to use for measuring the conductivity of the pulp standard devices with different operating ranges of conductivity measurements, including contactless fixing the measurement results recording devices, as well as to adjust the conductivity when changing the water / cement ratio cement mortar.

The proposed method is rapid determination of the amount of cement in the ground-cement slurry, which allows not only to calculate the strength of the structure, but also to adjust the process parameters of cementation (change in pressure, the rotational speed and the speed of the lift rod). This gives you the opportunity to work the cementation process in different soils and optimize it for the least you is the ode of the cement slurry, that is, to increase the structural strength. The proposed method offers the possibility of automating the process of jet grouting.

The method is as follows.

Pre-teach the following works.

The passport match the batch of cement or by reference to the brand of cement determining the magnitude of the fineness of cement received for the preparation of cement mortar. Using mill lead graphite powder to a value of fineness of cement. The value of the fineness of the powder is determined according to GOST 13144-79.

From the mixing station, which lead the preparation of cement mortar in a glass container selected sample of cement, determining its volume or weight, lowered into the sample sensor device determining conductivity by weighing, the sample add portions of the graphite powder and simultaneously produce intense stirring the solution.

When the meter will enter the operating range of the measurements, determine the amount of cement in the sample by the known formula [Malinin A.G. Jet grouting soil: Monograph. - Perm; Presstime, 2007. - pp.163].

The percentage of graphite powder to be added to the cement slurry is determined by the formula:

where SE(%) - amount of powder in the size of cement in the sample,

mr- weight of graphite powder added to the sample,

mc- weight of dry cement in the sample.

Further preliminary work is repeated while changing the brand of cement, water-cement ratio or replace the brand of the device for measuring conductivity.

When mixing cement in the mixing station add graphite powder in a weight ratio to the weight of cement, calculated by the formula 2.

In the process of cementation is measured conductivity of cement and pulp, and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula 1.

An example of the method

The project of strengthening of the soil under the building during the construction of the subway is being constructed using jet grouting pile field. Pile diameter is 0.6 m, the cement consumption per 1 m3soil - 400 kg water / cement ratio of 1, a brand of cement MDO. For reference the grind with a specific surface area of 280 m2/kg and a specific gravity of 3 kg/l Volume of soil to 1 p.m. pile of 0.28 m3consumption of cement in the dry state at 1 p.m. - 400 x 0.28=112 kg

As the graphite powder is graphite powder for technology electro products EUT-1 GOST 10274-79 with a specific surface area of 600 m2/kg. Additional grinding powder is not required.

For conductivity measurement device used SIPAN34 with sensor 4EL.

Pre-defined amount of graphite powder to be added to the cement slurry. From the mixing station take the sample in a volume of 3 l of cement in the container with the sample is placed a sensor device for measuring conductivity, stirring the sample, added graphite powder servings of 5 grams. Determined that in 11 servings (0,055 kg of graphite powder) reading device included in the operating range

0-500 ľs/see

Determine the amount of cement in the sample.

When water-cement ratio 1

1 l (water)+1 kg (cement)=1,33 l/kg

3 l samples of the cement slurry containsdry cement.

The amount of graphite powder

In a mixing station for kneading 400 kg of cement to be added 400·0,0243=9,72 kg of graphite powder.

In the process of cementation produced by measuring the electrical conductivity of cement, injectisome in the borehole, λwith=460 ľs/cm, and ground-cement slurry drawn from wells, λp=128 ľs/see

The amount of dry cement in the ground-cement slurry at 1 p.m. piles by formula 1:

(i.e. 31,2 kg compared to 112 kg injectionem solution was 27.8%).

When using similar devices for measuring conductivity adding graphite powder vozmozhnostuvelichivat to 10%.

The amount of graphite powder

SE=0,226/2,26=10%.

In a mixing station for kneading 400 kg of cement to be added 400·0,1=40 kg of graphite powder.

In the process of cementation produced by measuring the electrical conductivity of cement, injectisome in the borehole, λwith=1893 ľs/cm, and ground-cement slurry drawn from wells, λp=527 ľs/see

The amount of dry cement in the ground-cement slurry at 1 p.m. piles by formula 1:

mSP=112*527/1893=31,2 kg (i.e. 31,2 kg compared to 112 kg injectionem solution was 27.8%).

Next, the calculated CMMC(the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material) as the remainder of mSPup to 100%.

CMMC=100%-mSP=100%-27,8%=72,2%.

The advantage of the method described above is the ability to quickly determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement material structure with the cementation of the array, which allows rapid implementation of the correction of the cementation process.

The method of determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material (CMMCwhen creating building designs by jet grouting, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator, characterized in that as powdered indicator used graphite powder, the tone of the awn grinding which is not lower than the fineness of the cement and the weight ratio of the graphite powder is 1-10% of the weight of cement, in this case, initially measuring the electrical conductivity of cement with the specified additive, and then measuring the conductivity allocated from wells ground-cement slurry and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula:

where mSPthe amount of cement in the slurry containing the indicated additions of graphite, at 1 p.m.,
mwiththe amount of cement in cement mortar containing this additive is graphite, at 1 p.m.,
λn - value of the conductivity of the pulp containing the specified additive graphite
λwith- the value of the electrical conductivity of cement mortar containing this additive graphite
next, determine the percentage value of mSPand CMMCdetermine the remaining value of mSPup to 100%.



 

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: road construction.

SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg

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