Method to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material of structure
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of construction and may be used to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material in creation of building structures by means of jet cementing. The method to determine quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure in development of building structures by means of jet cementing consists in addition of a powdery indicator into the cement mortar injected into a well. Such powdery indicator may be powder graphite, fineness of grinding of which is not below fineness of cement grinding. Weight ratio of graphite powder makes 1-10% of cement weight. During realisation of the method they first measure electric conductivity of the injected cement mortar, then electric conductivity of the soil and cement pulp discharged from the well is measured, and the quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure is determined as difference between the cement quantity in the cement mortar and the quantity of cement in the pulp. The quantity of cement in the pulp is calculated in accordance with the following formula:
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the method.
The method relates to the technology of construction and can be used to determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement material to create building structures by means of jet grouting.
According to previous studies, an important parameter in determining the ultimate effectiveness of inkjet technology, is the amount of cement (dry)contained in 1 m3reinforced soil. The specified amount of cement in the ground-cement material design can be defined as the difference between the quantity of cement contained in the injected cement mortar, and the quantity of cement contained in the funds allocated from wells ground-cement pulp.
When calculating the amount of cement needed to create the building structure, defined by the exact amount of erodible soil, which must be replaced with cement mortar. The amount of cement made in the ground-cement slurry, and the amount of cement that creates the building structure, depend on the physico-mechanical characteristics of the soil, as well as the parameters of the jet grouting process and are calculated with great accuracy.
When conducting jet grouting in different layers of soils and their mixtures on the transition boundary layers the accuracy of calculations increases. This requires what I thorough characterization of soils, leads to great work. Thin layers of soil are not taken into account in the exploration and leads to a decrease in strength in a small area of the building structure, reduce the strength of the whole structure. A necessity arises to determine the amount of cement in the erected structure directly when carrying out grouting for further objective of strength, as well as the introduction of a correction in the process of cementation with a large percentage of cement in the ground-cement slurry.
The calculation is simplified if, in practice, to quickly determine the amount of cement in the output from the borehole ground-cement pulp.
There is a method of quality control of liquid concrete using ultrasonic signals, which measure the velocity of ultrasound in the liquid concrete, then reveal the dependence of this rate on the ratio cement content and water [Lesinski M. Testing of concrete. M.: stroiizdat, 1980, s-137, 152]. This method allows you to determine the durability of building structures on the state of the liquid concrete.
However, the speed of ultrasound is also dependent on fill concrete solid fraction (gravel, crushed stone, inclusions of soil), which makes impossible the application of the method to determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement slurry during jet grouting.
Known radiation the initial method for the contactless control of process parameters, in which before and after the technological process measure the intensity of the flux of gamma rays irradiated substance and the change in the measured intensity determine the value of the process parameter [Tatochenko L.K. Radioactive isotopes in industry. M: Atomizdat, 1960, s].
When jet grouting, Obruchev cement and measuring the intensity of gamma radiation flux injectisome cement mortar and then ground-cement slurry, it is possible to judge the quantity of cement contained in the constructed structure.
The disadvantage of this method is the need for radiation protection of both humans and surrounding equipment, measures for radiation protection.
The closest analogue to the proposed method is a method of determining the amount of cement in the funds allocated from wells ground-cement slurry in the formation around the borehole ground-cement building construction, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator in the form of soft magnetic iron-containing substances. (Patent RU 2165495 C1, publ. 20.04.2001.)
The disadvantage of this method is the filling of the ground-cement body building constructions powder material is subjected to corrosion.
The objective of the proposed method is the operational whom Noah determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement material structure with the cementation of the array for calculating the strength of the design and built the correction of the cementation process.
The technical result that can be obtained by using the method, is to increase the strength of the generated design, due to the operational control of the cementation process.
The problem is solved in that in the method of determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator, as powdery indicator used graphite powder, the fineness of which is not lower than the fineness of the cement, and the weight ratio of the graphite powder is 1-10% of the weight of cement. In this case, initially measuring the electrical conductivity of cement injected into the well, then measure the conductivity allocated from wells ground-cement slurry and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula:
where mSPthe amount of cement in the pulp,
mwiththe amount of cement in cement mortar,
λp- the value of the conductivity of the pulp,
λc- the value of the electrical conductivity of cement.
The amount of cement in the ground-cement material design can be defined as the difference between the amount of cement in the cement mortar and the amount of cement in the slurry
Next, determine the percentage value of mSPand CMMCdetermine the remaining value of mSPup to 100%.
The essence of the method lies in the fact that added to the cement slurry of graphite powder creates the conductivity of the solution. The particles of the graphite powder in the mixing station are evenly distributed in the whole volume of cement mortar.
When the preliminary work is determined by the minimum amount of graphite powder, necessary for measuring the electrical conductivity of the required accuracy.
When jet grouting cement mortar containing graphite powder, mixing with the soil, creates a building structure, and the part is displayed on the surface as a ground-cement slurry. Due to the content in the pulp only part of cement and the corresponding graphite powder conductivity of the slurry is reduced.
Through measurements of the electrical conductivity of cement and pulp and knowing the amount of cement used for making of cement, it is possible to judge the quantity of cement contained in the pulp.
Adding to the cement slurry of powdered electrically conductive chemically inert graphite does not affect the quality of cement grout during grouting, and maintenance of building design the AI.
Equality fineness of graphite and cement ensures the uniform distribution of the graphite particles in the cement mortar and the same behavior of the graphite particles and cement during cementation, which increases the objectivity of the measurements of electrical conductivity.
The conductivity of the cement with the addition of graphite powder is determined by the percentage of graphite powder and does not depend on the solution temperature and the presence of soil, gravel, etc.
Adding to the cement slurry of graphite powder in a ratio of 1-10% by weight of cement gives the possibility to use for measuring the conductivity of the pulp standard devices with different operating ranges of conductivity measurements, including contactless fixing the measurement results recording devices, as well as to adjust the conductivity when changing the water / cement ratio cement mortar.
The proposed method is rapid determination of the amount of cement in the ground-cement slurry, which allows not only to calculate the strength of the structure, but also to adjust the process parameters of cementation (change in pressure, the rotational speed and the speed of the lift rod). This gives you the opportunity to work the cementation process in different soils and optimize it for the least you is the ode of the cement slurry, that is, to increase the structural strength. The proposed method offers the possibility of automating the process of jet grouting.
The method is as follows.
Pre-teach the following works.
The passport match the batch of cement or by reference to the brand of cement determining the magnitude of the fineness of cement received for the preparation of cement mortar. Using mill lead graphite powder to a value of fineness of cement. The value of the fineness of the powder is determined according to GOST 13144-79.
From the mixing station, which lead the preparation of cement mortar in a glass container selected sample of cement, determining its volume or weight, lowered into the sample sensor device determining conductivity by weighing, the sample add portions of the graphite powder and simultaneously produce intense stirring the solution.
When the meter will enter the operating range of the measurements, determine the amount of cement in the sample by the known formula [Malinin A.G. Jet grouting soil: Monograph. - Perm; Presstime, 2007. - pp.163].
The percentage of graphite powder to be added to the cement slurry is determined by the formula:
where SE(%) - amount of powder in the size of cement in the sample,
mr- weight of graphite powder added to the sample,
mc- weight of dry cement in the sample.
Further preliminary work is repeated while changing the brand of cement, water-cement ratio or replace the brand of the device for measuring conductivity.
When mixing cement in the mixing station add graphite powder in a weight ratio to the weight of cement, calculated by the formula 2.
In the process of cementation is measured conductivity of cement and pulp, and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula 1.
An example of the method
The project of strengthening of the soil under the building during the construction of the subway is being constructed using jet grouting pile field. Pile diameter is 0.6 m, the cement consumption per 1 m3soil - 400 kg water / cement ratio of 1, a brand of cement MDO. For reference the grind with a specific surface area of 280 m2/kg and a specific gravity of 3 kg/l Volume of soil to 1 p.m. pile of 0.28 m3consumption of cement in the dry state at 1 p.m. - 400 x 0.28=112 kg
As the graphite powder is graphite powder for technology electro products EUT-1 GOST 10274-79 with a specific surface area of 600 m2/kg. Additional grinding powder is not required.
For conductivity measurement device used SIPAN34 with sensor 4EL.
Pre-defined amount of graphite powder to be added to the cement slurry. From the mixing station take the sample in a volume of 3 l of cement in the container with the sample is placed a sensor device for measuring conductivity, stirring the sample, added graphite powder servings of 5 grams. Determined that in 11 servings (0,055 kg of graphite powder) reading device included in the operating range
Determine the amount of cement in the sample.
When water-cement ratio 1
1 l (water)+1 kg (cement)=1,33 l/kg
3 l samples of the cement slurry containsdry cement.
The amount of graphite powder
In a mixing station for kneading 400 kg of cement to be added 400·0,0243=9,72 kg of graphite powder.
In the process of cementation produced by measuring the electrical conductivity of cement, injectisome in the borehole, λwith=460 ľs/cm, and ground-cement slurry drawn from wells, λp=128 ľs/see
The amount of dry cement in the ground-cement slurry at 1 p.m. piles by formula 1:
(i.e. 31,2 kg compared to 112 kg injectionem solution was 27.8%).
When using similar devices for measuring conductivity adding graphite powder vozmozhnostuvelichivat to 10%.
The amount of graphite powder
In a mixing station for kneading 400 kg of cement to be added 400·0,1=40 kg of graphite powder.
In the process of cementation produced by measuring the electrical conductivity of cement, injectisome in the borehole, λwith=1893 ľs/cm, and ground-cement slurry drawn from wells, λp=527 ľs/see
The amount of dry cement in the ground-cement slurry at 1 p.m. piles by formula 1:
mSP=112*527/1893=31,2 kg (i.e. 31,2 kg compared to 112 kg injectionem solution was 27.8%).
Next, the calculated CMMC(the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material) as the remainder of mSPup to 100%.
The advantage of the method described above is the ability to quickly determine the amount of cement in the ground-cement material structure with the cementation of the array, which allows rapid implementation of the correction of the cementation process.
The method of determining the amount of cement in the ground-cement construction material (CMMCwhen creating building designs by jet grouting, which consists in the addition injected into the well cement powder indicator, characterized in that as powdered indicator used graphite powder, the tone of the awn grinding which is not lower than the fineness of the cement and the weight ratio of the graphite powder is 1-10% of the weight of cement,
in this case, initially measuring the electrical conductivity of cement with the specified additive, and then measuring the conductivity allocated from wells ground-cement slurry and calculate the amount of cement in the slurry by the formula:
where mSPthe amount of cement in the slurry containing the indicated additions of graphite, at 1 p.m.,
mwiththe amount of cement in cement mortar containing this additive is graphite, at 1 p.m.,
λn - value of the conductivity of the pulp containing the specified additive graphite
λwith- the value of the electrical conductivity of cement mortar containing this additive graphite
next, determine the percentage value of mSPand CMMCdetermine the remaining value of mSPup to 100%.
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling commercial gasoline blending involves: measuring permittivity and specific conductivity, as well as temperature and pressure of components of commercial gasoline and finished commercial gasoline at different steps of the process; further reducing the measured electrophysical parameters of the components and commercial gasoline to the same conditions while controlling octane number values and making recommendations for making changes to the process. Also disclosed is a system for controlling commercial gasoline blending, which includes primary detector units, each having a capacitive type primary detector, pressure and temperature primary detectors, secondary detectors connected to the primary detectors, a local automated workstation for collecting, processing and storing information and performing all basic functions of the described method, as well as additional and service functions.
EFFECT: high accuracy and enabling prompt decisions for adjusting the process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for nondestructive testing of thermal properties of building envelopes consists in the fact that actual values of thermal conductivity are measured in the inner and outer surface layers of the envelope. Then values of resistances to heat transfer in these layers are calculated in accordance with the following formulae: RI=δI,λI and RO=δO,λO, where RI and RO - values of resistances to heat transfer in inner and outer surface layers of the envelope, accordingly; δI and δO - thickness of inner and outer surface layers, accordingly; λI and λO - thermal conductivity of inner and outer surface layers, accordingly. Further the value of resistance to heat transfer in the thermal insulation layer is calculated in accordance with the following formula: RT=RE-1/αI-1/αO-RI-RO, where RT - resistance to heat transfer of the thermal insulation layer; RE - total resistance to heat transfer in the envelope; αI, αO - coefficients of heat emission in inner and outer surfaces of the envelope, accordingly. Then the actual value of thermal conductivity is calculated in the material of the thermal insulation layer of the envelope in accordance with the formula: λT=δT/RT, where λT - thermal conductivity of the material; δT - layer thickness. Then the actual value of moisture is defined in the material of the thermal insulation layer in accordance with the following formula: wT=(λT-λ0)/ΔλW, where WT - moisture of the material; λ0 thermal conductivity of the material in dry condition; ΔλW - increment of material thermal conductivity by 1% of moisture.
EFFECT: determination of thermal characteristics of a thermal insulation layer of multiple-layer building structures without damage of their integrity.
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: sample is sent via two capacitor plates, reactive resistance of the capacitor is measured, capacitance variation is determined, which is proportionate to variations of dielectric permeability of the sample, and they are registered as a coefficient of variation by linear density or a coefficient of irregularity by linear density. Measurement of the reactive resistance of the capacitor is carried out in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 10 MHz, moisture weight in the sample is calculated, and then the mass of the "dry" material in the sample is calculated. On the basis of the produced values of the dry product mass, irregularity indices are calculated by linear density of the spun products.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to accelerate the process of irregularity indices measurement by linear density of spun products by compensation of material moisture impact at measurement result.
1 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining water saturation of the core involves preparation of a reference sample from the core, extraction and drying of the reference sample, simulation of formation conditions in the reference core sample, filtration of mineralised water through the reference core sample and in-series measurement during filtration of intermediate values of current passing through the reference sample when alternating voltage is supplied to it, building of calibration relationship between amplitude of an electric signal and water saturation of the reference core sample, as per which there determined is water saturation of the investigated core sample, which differs by the fact that in addition, prior to measurements, the core is insulated with a thin dielectric cover and placed between electrodes of a capacitance-based measuring cell, and values of the current passing through the sample at different values of water saturation (0 to 100%) are determined using a contactless high-frequency conductometry, for example a non-linear unbalanced bridge method fed by high-frequency voltage with frequency of 2-10 MHz.
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy and simplifying the process for determining water saturation of the core with simultaneous enlargement of the application field of the proposed method.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring device of water content and salt concentration in multiphase fluid flow in underwater oil production equipment, which includes the following: a capacitance sensor located inside tube section (5), through which multiphase fluid flow passes, signal generator (10) connected to the capacitance sensor; the first measuring transducer (40) having the possibility of measuring the voltage on the capacitance sensor; the second measuring transducer (50) having the possibility of measuring the current passing through the capacitance sensor; outlet circuit (60) having the possibility of generating output signals (70, 72) based on signals generated with first (40) and second (50) measuring transducers, which characterise salt concentration and water content in multiphase fluid flow, and control unit (80) having the possibility of receiving the first and the second output signals (70, 72), processing the values of received signals, providing communication to external communication bus (86) and controlling the parameters of signals of signal generator (10). Invention also relates to a measuring method of water content and salt concentration in multiphase fluid flow in underwater oil production equipment.
EFFECT: possibility of controlling parameters of signals at measurement of water content and salt concentration in multiphase fluid flow in underwater oil production equipment.
16 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: detector system according to the invention has two or more tracks essentially lying at a fixed distance from each other in a structure essentially made of insulating material, the tracks being longitudinal or longitudinal in two directions perpendicular to each other, each track detecting the effect of the environment near the track.
EFFECT: invention provides a reliable design for monitoring large areas at a low cost, which can be easily deployed, can be built into structures, such as buildings made of cement and concrete, and is also suitable for simple production and monitoring.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has a capacitive sensor (1) which is immersed in the controlled medium, which consists of two pairs of coaxial cylindrical electrodes (2 and 3), one of which (2) is filled with oil which does not contain moisture. A rectangular electric pulse is transmitted to the first electrode of the sensor (1) from a test signal (5) generator. Responses of the sensor (1), which are picked up from the second (external) electrodes, are detected by peak detectors (6 and 7) whose output signals are transmitted to a differential amplifier (8). The output signal from the differential amplifier (8) is transmitted to the input of a unit for determining moisture content (9). That unit (9) has a comparator (10), one of the inputs of which is connected to a reference signal source (11). The input signal from the unit for determining moisture content (9) is transmitted to a microcontroller unit (12) which filters the comparator (10) signals. Upon persistent generation of the signal for exceeding the moisture content level of the controlled oil, the output stage (13) is switched by the microcontroller unit (12) to a state signalling that the level has been exceeded.
EFFECT: broader functional and operational capabilities of the device, simple measuring technique, high measurement accuracy, reduced probability of the effect of stray parameters of electrode circuits on sensitivity of the measuring circuit, possibility of using the device as a signalling device for the critical level of moisture content of oil.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to monitor soil structure, in which moisture is periodically measured in natural soil with a thermostat-weight method. According to the invention, capacitance of a soil sensor is measured with insulated electrodes at the frequency from 50 kHz to 1 MHz, and the proportionality ratio (k1) is calculated between relative changes of capacitance and moisture of natural soil, the value of the appropriate coefficient (k2) is determined between relative changes of capacitance and moisture of the same soil with the damaged structure, the value k1 is divided into k2, and the parameter of natural soil structure is produced.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to both monitor soil structure and assess its initial structure by comparison with the same soil of damaged structure.
SUBSTANCE: device according to the invention comprises a capacitance sensor 1 and a temperature sensor 3, connected to generators 3 and 4, an analogue-to-digital converter 5 and a data processing unit 6, installed in a body 7. A unit of coupling with a computer 8, an indication unit 9 and an autonomous supply unit 10 are installed in a device handle 11. A generator circuit 3 is assembled on a field transistor with an RC-filter in a source circuit, voltage drop on which is proportional to electric conductivity of benzine and is used as a correction to results of measurements and characterises percentage of water in benzine.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of octane number measurement in case water is present.
SUBSTANCE: adhesive is applied onto prepared surfaces which are joined; the adhesive joint is treated in a magnetic field and during the entire hardening period of the adhesive joint, change in capacitance of a flat capacitor (glued pairs) is continuously measured by a digital device, and the information is then sent to a personal computer.
EFFECT: continuous monitoring of internal stress arising when forming an adhesive joint during treatment with a magnetic field.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to strengthen natural soils and mineral materials for construction of roads with using of hydraulic mineral and water-dissolved polymer binders, including cement and latex of copolymers on the basis of sterol, ethers of acrylic acid, butadiene, acrylonitrile, ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride or their mixtures with additives of thickeners on the basis of cellulose, defoaming agents of siloxane type and ether of glycol with regulation of pH by caustic, the specified polymer binder is used, polymer particles in which have dimensions from 50 to 200 nm, preferably 80-160 nm, with an additive in the amount of 0.1-5.0 wt parts per 100 wt parts of dry substance of the specified binder as a coalescer - ether of glycol of simple mono- or diester of ethylene- or diethylene glycol or aromatic hydrocarbon, for instance, white spirit, the value pH equal to 6.5-9 is set when using caustic in the form of 1-2% solution.
EFFECT: higher strength, water resistance.
10 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of intense soil strengthening under an existing building includes formation of a peripheral row in the zone of performance of restoration works along the perimetre of a strengthened base of sagging soil and cellular structure in the zone of the strengthened base of the soil by drilling of depth wells to the depth of sagging soil, filling of injectors into wells, their sealing and injection of a hardening mortar under pressure in a certain sequence of sagging horizon strengthening. Relative to the structure contour they create a process base zone of multi-level support horizons of a counterforce body, in which at the bottom they form a root of stabilisation of sagging soil by the method of forced main and additional stage-step injection of an active mass of the mortar, distribution and regulation of sagging soil in volume density at joints of sections of the contact and combination of complect-active heterogeneous systems, direct and reverse pressing of a zone of relaxation sections in volume density of sagging soil at joints of contact sections under alternating directivity of supply of an active mass of mortar at variable angles in horizontal planes of multi-level support horizons. Intensive development is created to move mortar through soil by forced and transverse shift forces relative to each other in different levels of horizons of a counterforce body in direction of counteraction of strengthened soil resistance forces. Locations of nodal directivity of mortar injection into soil are distributed and formed with possible correction of required linear and angular parameters of directivity of reciprocal displacement of the mortar, consolidation and formation of the soil structure. Injection of the mortar into shafts of depth wells is carried out in steps by horizons and formation into a single volume-space structure of soil to the entire depth of the active base zone of relaxation sections of the counterforce body. Introduction of an additional injection of mortar and creation of a retaining force is carried out in the form of supply of a by-mortar and serial selective direction, distribution and formation of its position at local sections of horizontal transitions of basic zones of relaxation sections of the counterforce body in the sagging soil under the existing building.
EFFECT: higher intensification and efficiency of soil strengthening under an existing residential building.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in treatment of the latter by a stabiliser containing latex polymer, which is applied mixed with water. Treatment of soil or foundation is carried out by introduction of the stabiliser by means of a cutter by the cutting method as the stabiliser is mixed with ground or foundation. The latex polymer is represented by latexes from the group that includes sterol-butadiene latex, (meth)acrylate latex, ethylene-vinyl acetate latex, ethylene/propylene latex, ethylene/propylene-dimer latex, butadiene-acrylonitrile latex, silicon latex, polybutadiene latex, latex from natural rubber or mixture of two or several of the specified latexes. The stabiliser additionally comprises a thickener based on cellulose, a defoaming agent selected from the group including silicons, glycol ethers, natural fats or oils and fatty alcohols, and also at least one chloride or at least one hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, besides, the stabiliser has the following composition (wt %); 0.1 - 50 latex polymer, 0.05 - 5 thickener, up to 5 defoaming agent, 0.01 - 10 chloride or hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, residue to 100 - water.
EFFECT: fixation and stabilisation of soils or foundations, making it possible without removal and recycling of oil soil and special costs to perform construction-earth works.
6 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to construct preferably high and high-rise buildings and structures on unevenly compressible soils, according to which, after erection of another group from one or several floors of the building, they measure subsidence of foundations, average inclinations of the upper slab above this group of floors and average inclinations of upper slabs above all previously erected groups of floors. On the basis of measurement results and their analysis they decide on deformations of the base and strain stress behaviour of the building at the moment of measurements and until completion of the building, and also on the necessity to impact the soil or the foundation. At first the foundation is erected as designed not for a full load from the building, but for its part, for instance, from the half of the building, in process of erection of this part of the building they measure deformations of foundations and inclinations of slabs, they are used to assess actual characteristics of soil deformability, strain stress behaviour of the building at the moment of measurements and for its completion, and also the necessity to increase the bearing capacity of foundations. Afterwards, if necessary, works are performed to increase the bearing capacity of the foundations by means of increasing of foundation size, strengthening of soils under foundations, for instance, by means of injection of setting solutions, addition of a solid reinforced concrete board to the previously erected foundations, or pressed, screwed or bored piles. The bearing capacity of foundations is increased only in that part, that volume and at that level of height of the constructed building or structure, which provide for safety and permissible level of building deformations until its completion.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of soil compressibility characteristics in a foundation base in process of erection of a building, a structure, increased validity of analysis of strain stress behaviour of a structure during erection and upon completion of construction, reduced labour intensiveness.
1 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: earth mixture contains the following components, wt %: homogeneous mixture of natural soil, not containing inclusions with size of more than 50 mm 69.0 - 88.0, portland cement 1.5 - 5.5, bentonite powder, modified by soda, for drilling muds 0.8 - 3.3, water - balance. The earth mixture may contain portland cement PC 400 and additionally a lime additive in the amount of 0.5 - 2 wt %.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of a binder with preservation of higher values of earth mixture bearing capacity, stability of volume filling to strengthening, possibility to again use strengthened soil.
2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to strengthen foundation bases in seismically dangerous zones includes indentation of injectors into soil and supply of a hardening mortar through them under pressure first along the periphery of the strengthened area until closure of adjacent sealing zones, and after hardening of the mortar - inside the produced contour. Previously the strengthened area is broken into equal parts of the rectangular shape. After supply of the hardening mortar along the periphery of the strengthened area they supply a mortar along the periphery of each part of the rectangular shape also until closure of the adjacent sealing zones. After hardening of the mortar they supply the hardening mortar inside the produced contours of the rectangular shape, besides, injectors inside contours are installed in the staggered order.
EFFECT: higher reliability of a foundation due to strengthening of a foundation base with increased coefficient of attenuation of seismic oscillations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: equipment for jet cementation for creation of pillars of fixed soil, having nonround cross section, comprises a mast, a rotator, moved along the axis parallel to the mast and controlled when rotated around the specified axis, a set of hollow pump rods, temporarily disconnected with the rotator, a feeding facility for injection of a cement mortar of fixing fluid medium into soil via a string of pump rods, and a facility for variation of rotation speed in at least one specified angular range around the axis. Additionally it comprises a rotor directly attached to one of pump rods of the string and technologically connected with at least one signal-generating device, installed on the non-rotary part of the equipment and made as capable of control signal generation to change speed of rotator rotation in response to the angular position of the rotor, and a through clamp, installed on the rotary mandrel of the rotator, equipped with a fixation facility, which may be put in action for pressing of the pump rod and make it built into the rotator, and which may be deactivated, to release the pump rod and provision of rotator movement relative to the pump rod.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and depth when performing works to strengthen soils, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity.
13 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to to construct buildings, structures and other vertically extended objects on unevenly compressed soils with introduction of additional stiffening elements into a structural scheme of the buildings, structures, such as reinforced concrete belts, impacting soil for changing its properties in process of building erection, measurement of deformations and/or stresses in the main and additional elements of the building, besides, measurements of stresses and deformations are carried out after erection of each group of floors in a surface structure, further, having detected the stressed-deformed condition of the building with account of its stiffness within the floors erected to the moment of measurements, and having assessed acceptability of arisen subsidence and stresses to the moment of measurements, actual deformation and strength characteristics of foundation soils, expected values of stresses and subsidence to the moment of erection of the last building floor, afterwards they decided on necessity and scopes of local impact at the foundation soil until final erection of the building, besides, in case of necessity to impact the foundation soil, they stop erection of the building or continue only in the part, the foundation of which does not require impacting soil, if necessary, the required impact at the soil is carried out, for instance, fixation of cement-sand mortars, afterwards they continue erecting the building, differing by the fact that after erection of another group, for instance, from 2-5 floors of the surface building, they measure the average slope of the upper slab above this group of floors and average slopes of upper slabs above all previously erected groups of floors, further on the basis of the ratio of average slopes of slabs they decide on deformations of the foundation and the stressed-deformed condition of the building to the moment of each measurement, on further development of deformations and change of the stressed-deformed condition to final erection of the building, on the necessity to impact the soil, on termination of building erection or continuation of its construction in the part, the foundation of which does not require impacting soil, on the necessity to introduce additional stiffening elements into the structural scheme, besides, if slope measurements have been made, only upon completion of construction, by the ratio of slab slopes they decide on previously generated deformations of the building, the structure.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and discrimination capacity of analysis of stressed deformed condition of a building, a structure, in process of its erection or upon completion of construction.
4 ex, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ballast prism contains crushed stone joined with a binding material on the basis of synthetic latex into an elastic monolith with open through pores. At the same time 0.15-0.20 of the volume is represented by a rubber-like fraction of 10-20 mm, produced by crushing of used car tyres and other recycled products from rubber-like materials.
EFFECT: reduced damage of crushed stone with appropriate resource increase.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises injecting polymer composition, a cryogel, into road bed ground via well. Note here that said polymer composition is injected on both sides of rod bed to make stabilising bearing lattice structure of ground bonded by polymer composition. Proposed polymer composition comprises polyvinyl alcohol, a network-forming agent, boric acid and water. Note here that, additionally, it comprises basalt fiber and/or mineral additives at the following ratio of components in wt %: polyvinyl alcohol 3.0-10, boric acid 0.2-1, basalt fiber and/or mineral additives 0.5-1, and water making the rest.
EFFECT: higher strength of road bed.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.