Fault-tolerant device

FIELD: computer engineering, possible use in combination devices, and also in devices for storing and transferring information.

SUBSTANCE: device contains original circuit, four groups of AND elements, AND element, group of OR elements, seven OR elements, encoding device, register, error syndrome circuit, NOT element, decoder, even parity check circuit, corrector.

EFFECT: increased trustworthiness of device operation.

1 dwg, 1 app

 

The invention relates to computer technology and can be used to improve the reliability in the functioning of the combinational devices, as well as the storage and transmission of information (operational and permanent storage of the computer devices and the like).

Known discrete self-correcting device [1], which uses the decoding device correcting unit (byte) of the error based on application of the reed-Solomon codes with the original schema, the encoder, the redundant circuit, a decoding device that includes a circuit calculations syndrome, shaper imaginary syndromes decoder errors in a byte, the scheme of calculation of a malformed byte, switches, errors, offset errors, the input devices are connected to the inputs of the original scheme and to the inputs of encoder outputs encoder devices are connected to the inputs of redundant circuits, the outputs of which are connected to first inputs of the circuit computing the syndrome, the outputs of the original circuit connected to the second inputs of the circuit computing the syndrome and to the first inputs of the offset, the output schema of the calculation of the syndrome are connected to the inputs of decoder errors, the outputs of which are connected to second inputs of the offset, the outputs of the corrector are the outputs of the device.

The disadvantage of this device is the low reliability of funktsioniruyuschaya, since reed-Solomon allow you to correct the error in one byte of information, and to detect an error in two bytes.

The closest technical solution is self-correcting discrete device [2], containing the original schema, the first encoder, a diagram of the syndrome of the error, the decoder error corrector, second, third and fourth encoders, the first through fourth convolution scheme, the scheme of the sign of the error, the element OR the input device is connected to a source schema and to the inputs of the first encoding device, to the second inputs of encoder and outputs of the original circuit connected to the inputs of the third and fourth coding device, to the first input of the corrector whose outputs are the outputs of the device, the outputs from the first to the fourth coding devices connected respectively to the inputs of the first through fourth circuits convolution, the outputs of the first and third circuits convolution is connected to the input circuit of the syndrome of the error, the outputs of the second and fourth circuits convolution connected to the inputs of the circuit characteristic of the error, the output circuit of the syndrome of the error and the error indicator connected to the inputs of decoder errors, the first group of outputs of decoder errors connected to the second inputs of the offset, and the second group of outputs connected to the input of the OR element, the output of which is removed signal is "failure".

The disadvantage of this device is the low reliability of operation, so as not corrected errors that occur simultaneously in the information and check bits.

The aim of the invention is to increase the reliability of operation of the device due to the correction of more than 50% of the detected errors does not exceed the multiplicity k-1, subject to a maximum detection number of errors in the code set.

This objective is achieved in that the device contains the original scheme, the encoder, the scheme of the syndrome of the error, the decoder, the corrector, the information input device connected to the first inputs of the original scheme, the outputs of which are connected to first inputs of the offset, the outputs of the corrector are the outputs of the device, characterized in that it further comprises between the first and fifth elements And, from first to eighth elements OR register, the scheme of parity, the element does NOT address inputs, input write input read input "Reset", and the information input device connected to the first inputs the first element And the address inputs connected to the second inputs of the original circuit and to the first inputs of the register, the input record is connected to the third input of the source schema to the second input of the first element And to the second input register, input reading is connected to the fourth input ex is ne schemes, to the first input of the second element And to the first input of the third element And to the first input of the fourth element And to the third input register, input "Reset" is connected to the fifth input source circuit and to the fourth input of the register, the outputs of the original circuit connected to the second inputs of the second element And whose outputs are connected to first inputs of the first element OR the second input of which is connected to the outputs of the first element, And outputs connected to the input circuit of the even parity and to the first input of the coding device, the outputs of encoder connected to the second inputs of the third element And by the fifth inputs of the register, the outputs of the circuits of the even parity is connected to the second input of the coding device to the third inputs of the third element And to the sixth input of the register, the first input circuit of error syndromes are connected to the outputs of the third element And the second inputs connected to the outputs of the register, and outputs connected to the inputs of the decoder and to the inputs of the second element OR the output of which is connected to the first input of the fifth element And the first group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the third element OR the second group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the fourth element, OR the third group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs the fifth element OR the fourth group of outputs of the decoder connect the at to the inputs of the sixth element, OR the fifth group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the seventh element, OR the outputs from the third and sixth elements OR connected respectively with the second, fourth and fifth inputs of the fourth element And first to fourth inputs of the eighth element OR the output of the seventh element OR is connected to the fifth input of the eighth element OR the output of which through the element is NOT connected to the second input of the fifth element And the fifth input element And an output device that outputs the fourth element And connected to the second inputs of the offset.

The drawing shows a block diagram of the device. The device includes: a source schema 1, the first element 2 And the second element 3 And the third element 4 And the fourth element 5 And the fifth element 6 And the first element 7 OR the second element 8 OR the third element 9 OR the fourth element 10 OR the fifth element 11 OR the sixth element 12 OR the seventh element 13 OR the eighth element 14 OR the circuit 15 of the even parity, the encoder 16, the register 17, a diagram of the syndrome error 18, the decoder 19, the element 20 is NOT, corrector 21, informational inputs 22, the address input 23 input 24 entries, entry 25 reading input 26 reset, the outputs 27 of the device, the output 28 "Failure".

An information input device 22 is connected to the first inputs of the first element 2 And to the first input source circuit 1, the outputs of which are connected to first inputs of corresponding ctor 21, address inputs 23 is connected to the second input source circuit 1 and to the first inputs of the register 17, the input 24 of the account connected to the third input source circuit 1 to the second input of the first element 2 And to the second input of the register 17, the input 25 of the reader connected to the fourth input source circuit 1, to the first input of the second element 3 And to the first input of the third element 4 And to the first input of the fourth element 5 And to the third input of the register 17, entry 26 "Reset" is connected to the fifth input source circuit 1 and to the fourth input register 17, the outputs of the original circuit 1 is connected to the second inputs of the second element 3 And whose outputs are connected to first inputs of the first element 7 OR the second input of which is connected to the outputs of the first element 2, And outputs connected to the inputs of the circuit 15 of the even parity and to the first inputs of encoder 16, the outputs of encoder 16 is connected to the second inputs of the third element 4 And to the fifth input of the register 17, the output circuit 15 of the even parity is connected to the second inputs of encoder 16 to the third inputs of the third element 4 And to the sixth input of the register 17, the input circuit 18 syndromes errors connected to the outputs of the third element 4 And second inputs connected to the outputs of the register 17, and outputs connected to the inputs of decoder 19 and to the inputs of the second element 8 OR the output of which is connected to p the pout input of the fifth element 6 And the first group of outputs of the decoder 19 are connected to the inputs of the third element 9 OR the second group of outputs of the decoder 19 are connected to the inputs of the fourth element 10 OR the third group of outputs of the decoder 19 are connected to the inputs of the fifth element 11 OR the fourth group of outputs of the decoder 19 are connected to the inputs of the sixth element 12 OR the fifth group of outputs of the decoder 19 are connected to the inputs of the seventh element 13 OR the outputs from the third 9 on the sixth of 12 items OR connected respectively with the second, fourth and fifth inputs of the fourth element 5 And first to fourth inputs of the eighth element 14 OR the output of the seventh element 13 OR connected to the fifth input of the eighth element 14 OR the output of which through the element 20 is NOT connected to the second input of the fifth element 6 And the input of the fifth element 6 And an output device that outputs the fourth element And connected to the second input of the corrector 21.

In the encoding device 15, the information bits are represented in the form of two-line information matrix:

when you do this:

1) circuit 15 of the even parity for each row of the information matrix provides even parity;

2) in the encoding device 16 are the right and left diagonal checks. The number of diagonal checks (number of control bits diagonal checks) op is Adelaide by the formula:

Rd=k+4;

3) formation of a (similarly) vector control bits RPadopted code set on the basis of the information read from the outputs of the original circuit 1.

Thus, during recording and reading information are respectively the vectors of control bits:

R=r1r2....................................Yu..., r(k+4),rCHAT,rCHAT

RP=r1PrP.................................... rP(k+4).rPCHAT,rPCHAT

The register 16 is intended for storage of signal values of the vector control bits generated when recording information in the source scheme 1.

Scheme 17 the error syndrome is a bitwise comparison and is designed to generate values of the syndrome of the error based on the transmitted and received information. the result of the addition in mod 2 values of the signals transferred and formed the control bits will give the syndrome of the error:

E=e1e2e3.........ek+4egeteget

The decoder 18 includes k+6 log (number of bits of the error syndrome) and L=l1+l2+l3outputs (number of schema matching, representing k+6 - input And schema), where

- l1-group elements And for different syndromes that characterize errors only information the ion discharges;

- l2- group elements And for different syndromes that characterize errors only check bits;

- l3- group elements And syndromes that characterize the errors that occur simultaneously in the information and check bits.

In case of an error on one of its outputs is formed of a single signal.

The outputs of the decoder 18 combined respectively into one output using third element 9 OR the fourth element 10 OR the fifth element 11 OR sixth (k-th) element 12 OR to generate control signals for the corrector, respectively, for the correction of the first, second ...the k-th information bits.

The seventh element 13 OR combines the outputs of the decoder 18 (output circuits), belonging to the subset of l2and the corresponding errors only check bits (which do not require the formation of control signals for concealer).

Corrector 20 includes k elements disparities and is designed to repair errorsappearing at the outputs of the original circuit 1. When error correction is implemented function with respect to control signals ui outputs of elements OR:

When errors occur, belong to the subset of n1for the same the x syndromes, indicates failure in a variety of informational bits (having the same value of syndromes and additional checks, see Appendix), characterized by the presence of singular values on the output of the circuit 17 syndromes of errors and the absence of unit values on the outputs from the third 9 on the seventh of 13 items, OR using the second element 8 OR the eighth item 14 OR item 19 NOT, the fifth element 6 And a signal is generated "Failure".

The device operates as follows. Before you begin to input 25 signal that sets the device to its original state. When the input information to the information input 21, the address inputs 22 and signal "Write" to the input 23 of the information is written to the specified address in the source scheme 1. At the same time she arrives at the inputs of the first element 2 And open the input 23, and then through the element 7 OR the input information is fed to the input of the coding device 15. The encoder 15, based on the group of adders for mod 2, implements the parity row of the information matrix and the right and left diagonal checks.

With outputs of encoder 15 is a vector of control bits received at the input register 16 and is written to the specified address.

When reading data at the specified address signals with the ode source circuit 1 through the second element 3 And, outdoor signal "Read" input 24, item 7, OR re-fed to the input of the coding device 15, which are formed of the values of signals in the control bits of the parity check and diagonal checks matrix generated according to the received information.

The information from the outputs of the coding device 7 through the third element 4 And is supplied to the input circuit 17 of the syndrome of the error, on the second input of which receives the information read from the register 16.

As a result, the output of the circuit 17 syndrome errors are generated value of the syndrome of the error.

The decoder 18 when an error generates at one of its outputs a single signal in accordance with the incoming value of the syndrome of the error. Depending on the number of information digits, having an error control signal appears at the output of the corresponding (9...12) OR. This signal through the open fourth element 5 And is fed to the input of the corrector 20, where the correction of erroneous information bits.

If the error occurred only in the control bits, the signal appears at the output of the seventh element (13) OR (not required to apply control signals to the corrector).

The outputs of the decoder 18 combined respectively into one output using third element 9 OR the fourth element 10 OR fifth e is ementa 11 OR the sixth (k-th) element 12 OR to generate control signals for the corrector, respectively, for the correction of the first, second ...the k-th information bits.

The seventh element 13 OR combines the outputs of the decoder 18 (output circuits), belonging to the subset of l2and the corresponding errors only check bits (which do not require the formation of control signals for concealer).

Corrector 20 includes k elements disparities and is designed to repair errorsappearing at the outputs of the original circuit 1. When error correction is implemented function with respect to control signals ui outputs of elements OR:

When errors occur, belong to the subset of n1for the same syndromes, indicating an error in a variety of informational bits (having the same value of syndromes and additional checks, see Appendix), characterized by the presence of singular values on the output of the circuit 17 syndromes of errors and the absence of unit values on the outputs from the third 9 on the seventh of 13 items, OR using the second element 8 OR the eighth item 14 OR item 19 NOT, the fifth element 6 And a signal is generated ″Failure″.

Application

Correction of the error is to a given multiplicity, provided error detection in other bits of information, are achieved through an iterative code.

The procedure of constructing a two-dimensional iterative code is as follows [3]. Given a set of information symbols are divided into groups (blocks, modules) information on b bits in each group. Received information modules are in the form of the information matrix (1):

Next, the encoding information according to the method of parity (by adding on mod 2 characters of rows and columns of the resulting matrix). The result is a two-dimensional iterative code to detect and correct any single error:

where H=h1h2,...,hmthe vector of parity rows; Z=z1,z2,...,zbthe vector of parity columns. Vector parity rows and columns form a set of control bits R1={r1,r2,rm+1,...,rb}. When receiving a code combination regarding information bits of the re-formed values of the control bits R1P={r1,r2,rm,rm+1,...,rb}. In this case, the difference between the transmitted control bits and received after the receipt of the information forms the syndrome of the error E:

When this bit of the syndrome of the error e1e2...em(received regarding the vector of parity lines) indicate the module information having an error, and the digits of emem+1...eb(received regarding the vector of parity columns) indicate an erroneous discharge in the module information.

As the code combinations of the rows and columns have minimum distance d=2, then the minimum distance of this code is d=4. This code allows you to correct any single error and detect a significant share of multiple-error.

Patterns of errors not detected two-dimensional iterative code shown:

1. Patterns of errors not detected two-dimensional iterative code: (a) errors of multiplicity 4; b) error ratio of 6.

2. Patterns of errors two-dimensional iterative code, leading to erroneous correction: (a) error ratio of 5; (b) error ratio 7.

In the General case, one can construct an iterative codes higher dimensions (three-dimensional, four-dimensional, and so on), where each information symbol will be the component simultaneously of two different code words. The parameters of iterative codes the dimension of x as follows [3]:

where ni, kidiaccordingly DL is on, the number of information bits, the minimum distance between the code sets of rows and columns.

On this basis, to build an iterative codes you should use a test that has the highest detection capability.

So, the organization diagonal checks the considered matrix will help to identify patterns of errors not detected by the iterative code that implements parity rows and columns.

The structure of the diagonal checks that detect considered errors is presented on Fig.3.

Left diagonal checks are generated by the rule:

The results of the right diagonal checks are formed by summing the values of the following information categories:

In this case, the total number of diagonal checks equal to 2l, or

Example 1. Let's consider the word consists of four information bits, which have zero values. For this code set information matrix has the form:

In this case, the parity rows and columns of the information matrix will give a zero value and, in addition, will have a zero value results all right and the lion the x diagonal checks. If an error occurs, all the information bits have even an error is not detected two-dimensional iterative code, since parity rows and columns of the information matrix are zero values:

At the same time, right and left diagonal checks will result 101.

Approval 1. Iterative code that implements the right and left of the diagonal scan detect all odd errors that are not detected two-dimensional iterative code, and identifies odd errors, perceived two-dimensional iterative code as corrected.

In turn, there are patterns of errors not detected by the iterative code that implements the right and left diagonal check, and parity check rows and columns. Structure of the considered errors are presented in Fig.4.

Fig.4. Patterns of errors not detected diagonal checks and inspections of rows and columns.

For example, regarding the information matrix with zero diagonal checks will not be detected following structure errors:

In order to exclude the appearance of the considered errors, the information matrix should contain no more than two lines.

2 approval. For information the ion matrix b× 2 iterative code that implements the right and left of the diagonal scan detect the maximum number of possible errors (except for sets 2k-1 forbidden code sets that can be transformed enabled code sets).

Thus, when using iterative code that implements the right and left diagonal check and parity, code set is transmitted in the form:

For the considered example, the encoding information is as follows:

r1=y1; r2=y2⊕I3; r3=y4; r4=y3; r5=y1⊕I4; r6=y2.

The result of the addition of signal values of the control bits sent and received will give the syndrome of the error:

where the bits of the error vector r1,r2.........rlcorrespond to right diagonal checks, rl,rl+1.........r2l- left and formed relative to the received information bits;

values obtained control bits.

Property 1. There are configuration errors in the information and check bits, for which the error syndromes have the same value.

To distinguish between these errors form the programming of the values of the syndromes of errors there are extra diagonal checks:

Thus, each error from a variety of errors M=(2n)k can be put into correspondence with the value of the syndrome of the error and the value of additional diagonal checks.

Property 2. Each set of values of the syndrome and error values for additional inspections corresponds to a subset of the Q-error of different configurations.

Corollary 1. To distinguish between errors that belong to this subset, it is necessary to limit the ratio of corrected errors and to increase the number of control bits (to implement the additional coding information bits).

In this regard, the proposed encoding method includes the following provisions:

4) in order to ensure the correction of about 50% errors, consider the correction of errors, the frequency of which does not exceed k-1;

5) for each row of the information matrix provides even parity, i.e. the information matrix is represented in the form:

6) to the obtained information of the matrix are arranged right and left diagonal checks. The number of diagonal checks (number of control bits diagonal checks) is determined by the formula:

With the consideration of the m two control bits parity number of control bits will be:

7) code set is transmitted in the form:

8) the result of addition of values of the signals transferred and formed the control bits will give the syndrome of the error:

6) during the formation of the syndrome of the error relative to the received and generated values of the control bits are organized additional diagonal scan, the number of which is determined by the expression:

7) as a result we have a lot of errors of a given multiplicity (in this case from a single to multiplicity k-1, defined by the expression:), characterized by a certain value of the syndrome of the error and additional checks;

8) the set N is divided into four subsets

N=n1+n2+n3+n4where n1- syndromes that have the same additional checks (unrecoverable error, a sign of failure);

n2- a subset of groups (each group consists of 2k-the same values of the syndromes) in the presence of errors in the information bits;

n3- a subset of groups (each group consists of 2k-the same values of the syndromes) if there are errors only in the control bits;

n4- a subset of groups (each the group includes 2 k-the same values of the syndromes) when errors occur simultaneously in the information and check bits.

Note that for errors not exceeding multiplicity k-1, no erroneous code sets that can be transformed allowed (OK) code sets. On the basis of the received encoding rules formed the decoding strategy that solves the problem of recognizing errors in the information and check bits, and rules for the correction of errors, which includes the following items:

1) revealed the same additional checks, which of the set N are excluded syndromes of errors belonging to the subset of n1observed (uncorrected errors in which a signal is generated "Failure");

2) to define groups of similar syndromes (indicating an error in the corresponding information bits) for a subset of n2;

3) define groups of syndromes of errors belonging to the subset of n3that do not require correction of information bits;

4) identify clusters of similar values of the syndromes of errors belonging to the subset of n4and to correct errors in the corresponding information bits.

For this example, implements the proposed encoding method are:

- total number of error - 7504;/p>

- the number of common syndromes of errors, with the same additional checks (a subset of n1) - 1824 (the number of detected errors);

- 5680 - the number of corrected errors (75%);

- the number of errors in the information bits - 224 (l1=14 groups, each of which includes 16 of the same syndromes);

- the number of errors in the check bits - 2064 (l2=129 groups, each of which includes 16 of the same syndromes);

- the number of errors that have distortion at the same time in the information and check bits - 3392 (l3=212 groups, each of which includes 16 of the same syndromes).

The table presents the values of the syndromes of error for subsets of n2n3n4(excluded syndromes errors subset of n1that have the same value additional checks).

The proposed encoding method allows you to:

to correct the error specified ratio;

to find the maximum number of errors (with the exception of the erroneous code sets that can be transformed enabled code sets);

to signal a malfunction of the memory device when the occurrence of the unrecoverable error.

Sources of information

1. Shcherbakov NS Reliability of digital devices. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, 224 S., 39, 4.

2. A positive decision on the application (21)99111190/09 from 15.01.03 (filed 31.05.09), authors: Tsarkov A.N., Kinless BY, Novikov N., Romanenko Y.A., Pavlov A.A.

3. Has had AA, P. Rudnev improving the reliability of digital devices methods of redundant coding. M: Energy, 1974, 270 S.

Failover device containing the original scheme, the encoder, designed to exercise the right and left diagonal checks and forming vector control bits, the syndrome of the error, the decoder, the corrector is designed to correct errors that occur at the outputs of the source schema, the information input device connected to the first inputs of the original scheme, the outputs of which are connected to first inputs of the offset, the outputs of the corrector are the outputs of the device, characterized in that it further comprises the first through fourth groups of elements And the fifth element And element group OR from second to eighth elements OR register scheme parity, the element does NOT address inputs, input write input read input "Reset", and the information input device connected to the first inputs of elements And the first group of address inputs connected to the second inputs of the original circuit and to the first inputs of the register, the input record is connected to the third input of the source schema to the second inputs ELEH the clients And the first group and to the second input register, the log reader connected to the fourth input of the source schema to the first inputs of elements And the second group to the first inputs of elements And the third group to the first input element of the fourth group and to the third input register, input "Reset" is connected to the fifth input source circuit and to the fourth input of the register, the outputs of the original circuit connected to the second inputs of elements And the second group, the outputs are connected to first inputs of the first group of elements OR, the second inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the elements And the first group, and outputs connected to the input circuit of the even parity and the first the inputs of encoder outputs of encoder connected to the second inputs of elements And the third group and to the fifth input of the register, the outputs of the circuits of the even parity is connected to the second input of the coding device to the third inputs of elements And the third group and to the sixth input of the register, the input circuit of the syndrome of the error connected to the outputs of the elements And the third group, the second inputs connected to the outputs of the register, and outputs connected to the inputs of the decoder and to the inputs of the second element OR the output of which is connected to the first input of the fifth element And the first group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the third element OR the second group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the fourth element IL is, the third group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the fifth element OR the fourth group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the sixth element OR group of outputs of the decoder are connected to the inputs of the seventh element, OR the outputs from the third and sixth elements OR connected to the second inputs of the elements of the fourth group and first to fourth inputs of the eighth element OR the output of the seventh element OR is connected to the fifth input of the eighth element OR the output of which through the element is NOT connected to the second input of the fifth element And the output of the fifth element And is output "Failure", the outputs of the elements And the fourth group is connected to the second inputs of the offset.



 

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