Method of underground solid mineral deposit mining

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.

EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to mining and underground construction, aimed at creating a more secure and cost-effective technology development of solid minerals by underground method by applying the effective management regime deformations undermined rocks (its stress-strain state), reliable maintenance of roadways, reducing the cost of manufacture of the mined-out space.

Known methods of underground mining of solid minerals from the mined-out space materials obtained on the surface and fed into the goaf mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic means, as well as waste rock produced during the sinking of preparatory workings [1, 2]. The disadvantages of these methods:

- the high cost of obtaining, processing and delivery in a goaf stowing materials, along with the need to use binding components to make filling the array with a certain strength significantly increases the cost of extracted mineral;

- relatively low compared to the rock mass strength backfill array limits the treatment options workings, which reduces the capacity to clean the aqueous slaughter at continuous improvement deposits or substantially complicates the technology of extraction of the secondary chambers in the two-stage testing;

- due to the manifestations of compression properties of backfill material, it is impossible to create a complete contact of the upper boundary formed by filling the array with roof cleaning formulation even when carrying out activities on its DataBlade, which leads to deformation and collapse rock mass rock (violation of posted here backfill and other auxiliary openings), stress concentration in the zone of support pressure during continuous recess or uneven loads on the ore pillars secondary chambers and, consequently, the risk of manifestation of rock bursts.

There is a method of development of solid minerals, based on sequential extraction of the ore body within the stable area of outcrop of the roof and the management of mountain pressure by forming supporting elements in the array underworked rocks, moving them to the stope and fill the resulting cavity filling material with specified compressive properties [3].

However, despite the advantages of this technology are (potentially broad applicability, flexibility of management regimes rock pressure, high efficiency), its implementation is hampered by lack of special technical means of contouring rock BC the Cove in underground conditions.

There is also known a method of mining with the formation of support structures by blasting the roof rocks of the primary chamber drilling and blasting method with void filling in chipped rock and educated in the roof cavity solution hardening bookmarks [4], which is essentially a modification of the solution [3], adapted to the conditions of the development of thick flat ore body using the developed techniques.

The disadvantages of this method:

- drilling, loading wells and blasting of the rock roof of each primary chamber is made from specially conducted by brown-filling production, which leads to an increase of the cost of production of minerals;

- failure to accommodate brown-filling production in the roof of the primary chamber in a weak, unstable rocks, disturbed PetroChina, possible due to borehole blasting ore in the primary chambers;

- repayment of brown-filling production in the process of break-down of the roof of the primary chamber restricts and complicates the conditions of the feed solution hardening bookmarks in the smitten rock, excludes the use of this formulation for technological purposes (in particular for the production of DataBlade), as well as to monitor the condition of the backfill array and manifestations of rock pressure;

- RA the PTA ledge near the thump of hands PetroChina primary camera associated with increased risk.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of underground mining, which provides:

- reduced specific volume of mine preparation works at the creation of artificial support structure, erected in the primary chamber through the blasting of the rock roof of this chamber and filling solution hardening bookmarks voids in the smitten rock and the cavity formed above the primary chamber;

- ability to work on the tab and DataBlade voids in the smitten rock in the cavity above the primary camera anywhere along the length of the last required under the terms of the implementation of the technology, blasting rocks and comfortable under the terms of the production of filling operations;

- the opportunity prior to the commencement of development of the reserves secondary camera) to control the state of the rock mass over the entire secondary chamber, and if necessary, work on strengthening this array (cementing, smolinka, unceremonial etc.);

- increase safety while working on drilling for blasting rocks of the roof of the primary chamber and the flow of filling material to fill the voids caused by refusal of the location of brown-filling production over a goaf primary chamber and, in particular, from the works near ledge thump of hands of PetroChina p is Rechnoy camera.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of underground mining of deposits of solid minerals, including development within the mining fields of minerals in the primary chambers, holding the roof of deposits mines, designed for production drilling and/or filling operations, the drilling of these workings wells roofing primary camera, breaking with the use of these wells for roof rock primary camera with filling them smitten rock, the flow of solution hardening materials in mezhkuskovomu space smitten rock and the cavity formed in the roof of the chamber, and the subsequent mining of mineral secondary camera once formed, at least two adjacent primary cells artificial rock-concrete pillars will acquire the specified strength, excavation, designed for production drilling and/or filling operations, have deposits in the roof above the ore pillars secondary chambers or in the ore pillars secondary chambers, the breaking of the roof rocks of primary cells produced by the method of nagasarete wells and solution hardening materials for filling mezhkuskovomu space in the smitten rock and cavities formed in the roof of the primary cameras, served on Sonam between brown-filling production and and cavities and/or remaining after the formation of cavities nezaryazhennymi parts of the wells, dispersed along the length of the brown-backfill excavations and the height of the cavities.

And also that:

brown-filling production over the ore pillars secondary camera located at a distance from the contact of the ore with the roof of the normal so that the sole production was on the same level as the ceilings of the cavity, which has a height of hpis determined by the system of equations:

,

where hp- the desired height of the cavity, m;

α is the desired angle of inclination of the walls of the cavity, deg;

m - extraction capacity of the ore body in this primary chamber, m;

a - width of this primary camera, m;

S - brown width-backfill excavations, m;

δ - set the value of the deviation level is smitten rock from the level of the contact of the ore body with a roof, m, above the first second has a positive sign, in case of incomplete filling the chamber smitten rock - negative;

Top- the rate of loosening of the roof rocks in the rock breaking.

- from brown-filling openings located above each second ore entirely secondary chambers, wells amerivault the roof of two adjacent primary cameras;

- from brown-filling openings located above each ore entirely secondary camera, amerivault the roof of two adjacent primary camera counter wells;

The invention is further explained in the description of his nature, outlining the main principles of selection parameters and order of implementation of the method, accompanied by drawings, in which cross sections of the extraction field, working on the two-stage system shown:

- figure 1 is a diagram illustrating the position of the elements of the system design for the proposed method with unilateral breaking of the roof rocks of the primary chamber;

- figure 2 is also a two-way rotating drum and the roof rock of the primary chamber opposing wells;

- figure 3 - location of the brown-filling production within the ore body.

The essence of the claimed solution, in contrast to the known, is that mining, used for drilling and/or bookmarks in the process of erecting artificial rock footings have not over the primary chambers, and over the pillars of the secondary chambers or directly in these pillars. The position of the brown-filling production relative to primary and secondary chambers is determined by the extraction power and angle of occurrence of the ore body; structure and strength properties of rock roof; adopted by the width of these cameras; ratio of loosening the location of the roof when the rotating drum; asked the degree of filling of the primary chamber smitten rock.

The method is as follows.

Within the extraction field (pad) along with the development of the primary camera 1 (see figure 1) are located over between them whole ore 2 (or under certain conditions within it), mining and production 3. Amerivault roof primary camera with 4 wells. Charge wells 4 explosive within loop 5 the future of the cavity in the roof of the primary chamber and striking the rock roof method nagasarete. Crushed rock roof above their own weight moves in the mined-out area of the primary chamber. Under favorable conditions (extraction capacity and sustainability of the roof) wells can be drilled and loaded directly from the primary chamber using, if necessary, one or two upper rows of wells drilled from generation 3, for contouring the upper boundary of the cavity.

In the smitten rock from mining 3 channels wells were cleaned from tamping, and, if necessary, extended serving solution hardening materials. Along with wells submission of filling materials can be made through breakthrough, connecting brown-filling production with a cavity above the primary chamber (Fig. not shown). The use of sboc greatly simplifies the control over the state erected backfill array.

Possible option of serving in a goaf primary camera original solution hardening materials with the subsequent breaking and dive into it rocks the roof.

In repulsed breed solution serves a higher strength after curing which is formed artificial rock-concrete bearing 6, which is intended to perceive the corresponding vertical load and to ensure the sustainability of the walls, obrazuemyh when developing secondary cameras.

The cavity formed in the top of the primary chamber after blasting rocks, fill with a solution with a lower content of binders, as created here is an artificial array 7 works in terms of volume compression and after exhausting some flexibility, reduce stress concentration in the surrounding rock mass, capable of high load.

Thus, formed in two adjacent primary cells artificial support structures create favorable conditions for development of the rear secondary chamber 2 (on the sustainability of its PetroChina): roof its unloaded from the horizontal stresses are often effective regional tectonics, having a greater value compared to vertical stress; a wedge-shaped PetroChina secondary chamber and rugged topography of the surfaces of the walls of the cavities and,as a consequence, no danger of a shift in contact with the support to maintain the stability of this PetroChina.

In addition, excavation 3 and well 4 can be used if necessary:

- to strengthen the array of PetroChina secondary camera its unceremonial (including with the use of these wells), the injection of cement mortars, polymer materials and the like;

- to control the shrinkage of filling mass and the production of DataBlade;

- for geophysical observations of rock pressure with the aim of rational justification of the procedure and the mode of development and the primary and secondary chambers.

When the horizontal bedding of the ore body or a gentle fall, when the primary camera on the rear secondary chamber occupy a symmetrical position, brown-filling production under the terms of the uniformity of the stress distribution on horizontal platforms PetroChina secondary camera placed symmetrically relative to the vertical axis of symmetry of the rear sight so that the width of the array of rocks on the ground level generation 3 between the cavities on top of their boundaries (figure 1 are denoted by the letters AB) was equal to the width of the rear secondary chamber b.

Then the distance from the contact pillar from the reservoir to the soil brown-filling production hindefinition what is the height of the cavity h Pformed over the primary camera, and the angle of its walls α.

The source and the desired parameters are connected by a system of equations:

,

where hp- the desired height of the cavity, m;

α is the desired angle of inclination of the walls of the cavity, deg;

m - extraction capacity of the ore body in this primary chamber, m;

a - width of this primary camera, m;

S - brown width-backfill excavations, m;

δ - set the value of the deviation level is smitten rock from the level of the contact of the ore body with a roof, m, above the first second has a positive sign, in case of incomplete filling the chamber smitten rock - negative;

Top- the rate of loosening of the roof rocks in the rock breaking.

Example of calculation of parameters of the cavity is given for the following conditions: m=10 m=15 m, S=4 m, δ=3 m, Kp=1,25.

Then the system of equations takes the form:

or after conversion

By substituting the second equation into the first receiving dependence

6,5hp=58,

from which it follows that the height of the cavity hp=8,9 m

Accordingly, the angle of its walls, on the basis of the dependence of tgα=8,9/2=4,45 is α=77°.

Option, when hIn=hPfavorable for the production of papers p is the tab for the entire height of the cavity, as it creates the possibility of filing solution hardening materials at any location along the length of the camera, including repeated and repeated, consistent with the sequence and volume thump of hands of the breed. For ease of manufacturing operations and quality control blasting and bookmarks output can be connected to the cavities of Bonami or more wells.

When hIn>hPthis increases the amount of drilling and complicated technology of cavity formation.

Variant implementation of the method with hIn<hPassociated with the filing of a solution of filling material into the cavity under pressure, and in cases of partial admissibility bookmarks cavity on its height or the conditions of the roof rocks dipping into the solution. Then in a goaf camera, first served mortar backfill mixture, and after that produce the breaking of rocks. Last, plunging, displaces the solution, thereby filling and voids, and cavities. If necessary, the regulation of the process solution supply and blasting of rocks carried out with the use of retarding solution.

The proposed method of field development with the construction of artificial rock footings using mines placed over the entire secondary camera has the capability of transformation schemes dissolved, and the provisions of these workings and conducting drilling and blasting and backfilling operations with regard to mining and technical conditions of the extraction field.

In particular, in the construction of supports in primary cells increased width blasting rocks of the roof can be carried out by a system of counter wells drilled from the mine workings located above the pillars adjacent secondary cameras (see figure 2). In this case, the increase in mining and preparation work can be compensated by increasing the quality of construction of support structures and more favorable mining conditions secondary cameras.

In the case of oblique deposition of the ore body, when the cameras come on the line stretch, the breaking of the roof rocks of the primary chambers is performed by the wells drilled from the mine workings above the uprising in the ore pillars secondary cameras (see figure 3). The main group of wells provides the breaking of the roof rocks of the primary camera on the decline. Individual wells may be used for a more reliable blasting rocks of the roof of the chamber located on the uprising. Conducting excavations ore provides a higher efficiency of mining operations due to the implementation of associated production.

The proposed method of development of deposits of solid minerals management rock pressure artificial rock-concrete structures built by the conditions of the roof rocks of the primary camera and the solution supply twarde the existing materials in the voids smitten rock and the cavity formed by brown-backfill excavations, sits just above the ore pillars secondary chambers or directly in these pillars, in comparison with the known method development provides:

- reducing the cost of mining and preparatory work by reducing the number of existing brown-backfill excavation;

- increase in the efficiency of mining operations due to the associated production of ore at the Foundation brown-backfill excavations in the ore pillars secondary chambers;

- safety brown-backfill excavations for the entire period of construction of rock-concrete pillars, which expands the technological capabilities of the method according to the regulation front blasting and filling operations;

- the use of brown-backfill excavations for monitoring the condition of the roof and implementation processes its strengthening;

- the use of brown-backfill excavations at the stage of testing the secondary chambers, in particular, for blasting ore and ventilation chambers;

- increase safety during production drilling and blasting and filling operations, since the latter is carried out excavations that are isolated from potentially dangerous generated spaces.

Using the above method only by reducing our consumption of solutions backfill materials and reduction of specific consumption of binding components for their preparation allows the it to reduce the cost of 1 ton of ore on Oistamo slaughter by 30-50%.

Sources of information

1. Hamsters NR. Foreign experience of bookmarks in the mines. M.: Nedra, 1984, 224 S.

2. Chavdarova SCI, Bukin A.N., Guggul J.V. and other Management of mountain pressure. Development system with a hardening bookmark Dzhezkazgan mine. Alma-ATA: Nauka, 1988, 100 S.

3. A.S. No. 1397607. The method of controlling rock pressure. Author: Wyo.

4. Zhukov V.V., Yoon RB, Urumov, VA commercial testing of new technology bookmarks cameras. Horn. W. 1996, No. 1-2, s-101.

1. Method of underground mining of deposits of solid minerals, including development within the mining fields of minerals in the primary chambers, holding the roof of deposits mines, designed for production drilling and/or filling operations, the drilling of these workings wells roofing primary camera, breaking with the use of these wells for roof rock primary camera with filling them smitten rock, the flow of solution hardening materials in mezhkuskovomu space smitten rock and the cavity formed in the roof of the chamber, and the subsequent mining of mineral secondary camera once formed, at least in two adjacent primary cells artificial rock-concrete pillars will acquire the specified strength, characterized in that the excavation, designed the processes for production drilling and/or filling operations, have deposits in the roof above the ore pillars secondary chambers or in the ore pillars secondary chambers, the breaking of the roof rocks of primary cells produced by the method of nagasarete wells and solution hardening materials for filling mezhkuskovomu space in the smitten rock and cavities formed in the roof of the primary cameras, served on Sonam between brown-filling workings and voids, and/or remaining after the formation of cavities nezaryazhennymi parts of wells distributed along the length of the brown-backfill excavations and the height of the cavities.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that brown-filling production over the ore pillars secondary camera located at a distance from the contact of the ore Deposit with a roof according to the norms so that the sole production was on the same level with ceilings plane, the height hpis determined by the system of equations

where hp- the desired height of the cavity, m;

α is the desired angle of inclination of the walls of the cavity, deg;

m - extraction capacity of the ore body in this primary chamber, m;

a - width of this primary camera, m;

S - brown width-backfill excavations, m;

δ - set the value of the deviation level is smitten rock from the level of the contact of the ore body with a roof, m, is revistei first second has a positive sign, in case of incomplete filling the chamber smitten rock - negative;

Top- the rate of loosening of the roof rocks in the rock breaking.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that brown-filling openings located above each second ore entirely secondary chambers, wells amerivault the roof of two adjacent primary cells.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that brown-filling openings located above each ore entirely secondary camera, amerivault the roof of two adjacent primary camera counter wells.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the orientation of the camera along the strike of the inclined ore deposits of brown-filling production have in the ore pillars secondary chambers and wells amerivault the roof of the primary chamber adjacent to the development from the fall of the deposits.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.

EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.

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2 dwg

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FIELD: mining, particularly underground mineral mining, for instance for slate coal deposit development.

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4 dwg

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2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground mining.

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EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher efficiency, higher personnel safety.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher efficiency, higher personnel safety.

2 dwg

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 11 dwg

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