Underground extraction method

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 11 dwg

 

This invention relates to mining and mining method. In particular, the invention relates to a method of underground mining. More specifically, the invention relates to a method of underground coal mining.

In this description, the term “ore” should be given a wide interpretation, and it covers such minerals, such as coal, etc.

In underground mining, especially coal mining, which is used continuously operating electric machine, the ore body usually develop penetration in the ore body of the first group of parallel, spaced at a distance from each other adits and subsequent sinking of the second group of parallel, spaced at a distance from each other tunnels perpendicular to the first group of tunnels that leads to the creation of setcompany layout of the tunnels and to the formation located at a distance from each other ore pillars between adjacent tunnels, which act as supports for the roof of the mine. The dimensions of the tunnels usually depend on the size of the electric head electric machine used for digging tunnels. The distance between adjacent tunnels and, therefore, the dimensions of pillars left in the ore body, is determined by the mechanical structure of the breed in the environment of the mine and safety considerations the environment. The number under consideration is the safety issues is the question of the accumulation of harmful and explosive gases in unventilated areas of the mine. In General, whenever the excavation of the tunnel use the managed person continuously operating electric machine having a moving electric head, horizontal transverse tunnels should be located at intervals, supplying fresh air to the operator of the machine and remove harmful gases, such as methane accumulating in developing the adit, as well as the exhaust and coal dust from the machine. Usually in the absence of artificial ventilation, the distance between the transverse tunnels cannot be greater than the distance between the tunneling machine head, i.e. the bottom breast and location of the driver on the machine. This can have the result that the percentage of extraction in the development of the ore body electric machine for an initial series of cuts is relatively small, and the production process is inefficient.

The technical task of the present invention is a method of developing an underground ore body, which eliminates the above disadvantages of the known methods and allows to increase the efficiency of the process of extraction of ore.

This technical problem is solved by creating ways to develop an underground ore body, which according to the invention by snakeboarding machines are in the ore body the set of first vein is elezioni galleries, horizontally located at a distance from each other, are held in ore body a lot of second tunnels horizontally located at a distance from each other, while the second or every second adit intersects at least one corresponding first tunnel, resulting in the formation of the first retaining wall to support the roof of the mine, the first retaining walls consist of zones of the ore body between adjacent second passages, each first retaining wall is part of the at least one first tunnel, passing horizontally through it, forming a horizontal channels, each of which is across the corresponding second tunnel between the corresponding parts of the first tunnel formed in the adjacent retaining walls, to form a continuous ventilation of the tunnels, lay the second tunnel for formation of the second retaining walls to support the roof of the mine and produce the first retaining wall.

The first ventilation adits can be essentially parallel to each other. Additionally, the second tunnel can be essentially parallel to each other. The second tunnel can be oriented essentially perpendicular to the first ventilation tunnels.

The method may include introducing air ventilation the Oh production, and outputs the air vent production, horizontally located at a distance from introducing the air vent output, and each of the first tunnel may pass through a portion of the ore body between introducing air and output air vent mount.

Every second tunnel may be passed through the electric machine of continuous operation. Typically, these electric machine of continuous action are mobile electric machines having rotating electric head. Electric head usually has one or more bits for urbania in the ore body. It is clear that the length of the ventilation tunnels will be limited to only working parameters of the spiral drill and machine, resulting in a rotation of the helical auger, and geological parameters and layout of the mine. In addition, after the formation of the cross-ventilation of the tunnels the length of each passage of the drilling machine of continuous operation will be limited only by such limitations as the provision of vehicle maintenance, the provision of such auxiliary equipment, such as conveyors for removal of ore and geological factors. Instead, the driving of each of the second tunnel can be achieved by drilling and blasting.

It is clear that such first ventilation adit can provide ventilation in vremenem or may enter the ventilation system of the mine when connecting to the vent output.

Preferably parallel to each other ventilation adits are located horizontally across the rear sight in the ore body. In addition, the second tunnel is preferably oriented along the rear sight and perpendicular to the ventilation of the tunnels.

Once the pillar of the ore body will be developed as described above, will remain the first group of parallel retaining walls as supports for the roof of the mine. Each of the first retaining walls will have a number of horizontal vent holes formed in them and are part of the first galleries. The width of the first retaining walls will be determined by the constraints imposed by the mechanical properties of the rock. The first retaining wall in the rear sight can be conveniently selected for secondary operations excavation.

It is clear that the length of the ventilation tunnels will be limited to only working parameters of the spiral drill and machine, resulting in a rotation of the helical auger, and geological parameters and layout of the mine. In a preferred variant embodiment of the invention the ventilation shafts pass through the pillar and between introducing air vent output, and outputs the air ventilation generation, educated in the ore body. Can be two adjacent pillar, having among themselves a common misleading or deducing the air ventilation the th generation, each pillar on the side opposite this General formulation, is limited to the other output from among the outputs, or to introduce air ventilation openings. Each pillar can be passed spaced from each other ventilation tunnels, passing through the pillar between its output and introducing the air vent mount.

Hereinafter the invention will be explained in more detail in the example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

1 is a schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body in the first phase of development of the underground ore bodies by the method according to the invention,

2 is a schematic side view of a section along II-II in figure 1,

3 is a schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body on the second phase of development,

figure 4 is a schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body in the third phase of development,

5 end view of a section along IV-IV in figure 4,

6 is a end view of a section along IV-IV using an alternative system of channels

Fig.7 schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body at the first phase of development according to the second variant of the method according to the invention,

Fig schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body on the second phase of development according to the second variant of the method according to the invention,

Fig.9 schematic view in plan of allowing the and ore body on the third phase of development according to the second variant of the method according to the invention,

figure 10 is a schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body at the fourth phase of development according to the second variant of the method according to the invention,

11 is a schematic view in plan of the section of the ore body at the end of the fourth phase of development according to the second variant of the method according to the invention.

In the drawings the position 10 in General, the marked portion of the underground mine, which uses the production method according to the invention.

Figure 1 shows the ore body 12 from coal. In the ore body 12 to facilitate production defines two rectangular ore pillar 14, 15. It is clear that depending on the conditions in the mine pillars 14, 15 need not be rectangular, especially where the extraction is performed in the direction to the pillars remaining in the developed space, lintels, borders of fields, etc. Around each of the ore pillars are drifts 16 to accommodate communications and movement of machinery. It is clear that it may be sufficient only drift. The roof 18 of the mine around the ore pillars 14, 15 supported by pillars 20 between the roadway 16, while each column represents the body of the bypassed coal. To remove the developed coal provides the main trunk conveyor 22, which is connected auxiliary belt conveyors 24. In the pillar 14 shows the group completed on reechnyh essentially horizontal ventilation of the tunnels 26, which are passed through snakeboarding machine 28. Sakabula machine 28 (not shown in detail) of a known type and includes the drill head to provide rotational and axial movement of the spiral drill, means for actuating the drill head and the spiral auger, mounted on the drill head for rotation and axial movement. Spiral drill contains many sections borax or scrapers, which, with the possibility of removal are connected end to end to education borax pre-selected length. In General, the machine can be controlled to move along the passage 16 in the shaft 10, with the spiral auger is oriented for drilling tunnels 26, essentially transversely oriented relative to the roadway 16. In a preferred embodiment of the invention sakabula machine 28 has multiple drilling heads, so that you can drill many tunnels 26. Instead, one drilling head can be used to extract the auger scrapers from one of the shafts 26, while the other drill head can be used for sinking another gallery 26. In addition, sakabula machine 28 has an auxiliary bearing part including a conveyor system for removing selected ore. Sakabula machine 28 is shown in the process of sinking the last cross ventilation what is in 26.1. Ventilation shafts 26 do not extend the full width of the pillar 14, while retaining the Central wall 30 between opposing groups of ventilation tunnels 26. On the other hand, it is clear that depending on the conditions of the ventilation tunnels can extend the full width of the pillar 14 without saving the Central wall 30.

In figure 2 the side view of the section of the pillar 14 of the ore body 12 shows two ventilation shafts 26, passed snakeboarding machine 28 in the pillar 14. The shafts 26 are passed snakeboarding machine in coal seam 34 between the base and roof of the mine, respectively, 36 and 18. It is clear that the size of the tunnels 26, passed snakeboarding machine and shown in the drawing, do not need to be in scale. In one preferred embodiment of the invention tunnels 26, passed snakeboarding machine, have a diameter of 1.25 meters, and the centers traversed the tunnels are located from each other at a distance of approximately 6 meters. In addition, the height of the coal seam 34 from the base 36 to the roof 18 will be determined by natural factors.

Figure 3 completed excavation cross ventilation adits 26 through snakeboarding machine 28, and the second phase of the production method shown in the process of its implementation. As shown, the drilling machine of continuous operation 40, having a rotating drill head (not shown), westfleet the driving of the first longitudinal tunnel 42 through the pillar 14 of the ore body 12. Longitudinal tunnel 42, passed electric machine 40 is essentially perpendicular to the vent tunnels 26, passed snakeboarding machine 28. Each pass of the drilling machine 40 may begin on either side of the pillar 14. Usually there is a system of removal of underground water.

In addition, around the ore body 12 is made of the ventilation path 46, and, where necessary, ventilation wall 48 to the direction of flow of ventilating air. After the electric machine 40 in the direction of the technological process is the system 50 of the conveyor and a machine for cleaning coal, which is connected with the main conveyor 22 to delete the selected coal. Moreover, in accordance with the requirements of safety may need artificial ventilation of each of the ventilation shafts 26 to the intersection of this tunnel 26 longitudinal tunnel 42, especially in gas-bearing coal seams. This ventilation can be ensured by suitable mechanical or Electromechanical means.

Figure 4 when the first phase extraction using the electric machine 40 produced the entire pillar 14 of the ore body 12. It is clear that after the sinking of the longitudinal tunnels 42 in the ore body 12 remains some of the early coal retaining walls 32, thus retaining wall 32 is located between the corresponding adjacent tunnels 4. Across the longitudinal tunnels 42, the selected electric machine 40 is the number of channels 52, containing perforated pipe 54. Each of the channels 52 is positioned horizontally across the longitudinal tunnel 42 between the respective parts 56 of the first tunnel formed in the adjacent first retaining walls 32, whereby the group is created continuous ventilation and drainage adits 58. Finished laying longitudinal tunnels 42, and backfill material 60 are shown as shaded parts of the tunnels 42; backfill material 60 provides the formation of the second retaining wall 61 to the roof 18 of the mine, in order to develop the remaining portion of the first retaining walls 32 of the ore body 12 when the secondary production process. Figure 5 shows the location of perforated channels 52 together with suitable seals 62 holes, covered spiral borer.

Figure 6 shows an alternative and preferred embodiment of the invention, in which each of the channels 52 has approximately the same diameter as that of the parts 56 galleries, and a length approximately equal to the distance between adjacent first retaining walls 32.

7-11 shows part of an underground coal mine 10, which uses the second variant of the production method according to the invention. 7-11, compared with 1 to 6 same positions on the are the same component parts, if not specified otherwise.

7 the first group of transverse holes, forming a first ventilation shafts 26, passed in the rear sight 14 snakeboarding machines 28, two of which are shown on the drawing. Nekaloriyny machine 28 is shown in the process of completing the drilling of the last cross ventilation adits 26.1 and 26.2.

On Fig the second group of cross-drilled holes, forming a first ventilation shafts 27, passed on the opposite side of the pillar 14 by snakeboarding machines 28, two of which are shown on the drawing. Nekaloriyny machine 28 is shown in the process of completing the drilling of the last cross ventilation adits 27.1 and 27.2. Ventilation shafts 26, 27 do not extend the full width of the pillar 14, while between opposing groups of ventilation tunnels 26, 27 left Central wall 30. It is clear that depending on the conditions of a specific location of the ventilation shafts 26, 27 can extend the full width of the pillar 14.

Figure 9 completed the sinking of cross-ventilation of the tunnels 26, 27 through snakeboarding machines 28 and developed the Central wall 30 for education bringing the air ventilation shafts 31, crossing the first ventilation shafts 26, 27. Air is supplied through introducing air generation 64. This creates the ventilating path p is current from entering the air openings 64 through the first ventilation shafts 26, 27 to output the air ventilation adit 31. To the direction of flow of ventilating air ventilation baffles 48. In the drawings the direction of the flow of input air is shown by arrows 41, and the direction of the flow of output air - arrows 43.

Figure 10 shows a further stage of development of the ore body 12, in which the pillar 14 is drilled and discourage continuous explosion wide production drifts from 16 in the direction of bringing the air ventilation adit 31 along each of the first ventilation tunnels 26, 27, through which extend shafts 26, 27 and form the group developed a second tunnels 42 (shown in various stages of completion). It is clear that instead, the second tunnel 42 could be completed using the electric machine or other suitable method. To remove underground water usually create a system of removal of such water (not shown). In addition, removal of the mined coal is provided by the system of the conveyor and a machine for cleaning coal (not shown). Moreover, in accordance with the requirements of safety may need artificial ventilation of each of the ventilation shafts 26, 27 to the intersection of this tunnel 26, 27 displays the air ventilation adit 31, especially in gas-bearing coal seams. This ventilation can be ensured approaching what they mechanical or Electromechanical means.

Figure 11 pillar 14 mountain body 12 is fully developed during the first phase of production, and the first ventilation shafts 26, 27 are extended for each education group finished second tunnels 42, whereby connect introducing air generation 64 and outputs the air ventilation adit 31 and leave the first group of retaining walls 32 between adjacent second passages 42 to form supports for the roof 18 of the shaft 10. If desired, the first retaining wall 32 may be developed in the second phase of production.

According to the invention features a method of mining underground ore body 12 using conventional mechanical mining equipment 40, 50, 52 and suitable snakeboarding machine 28. This method allows for cross-ventilation of the ore body 12 that enables electric machine 40 to operate relatively freely. Security underground personnel increases due to cross-ventilation tunnels 26, which prevent the accumulation of harmful and explosive gases in the ore body 12. As expected, the application of the production method according to the invention will significantly increase the speed of extraction of underground ore and will promote more efficient use of electric machines 40 and left lower parts of the ore body 12 for the purpose of fastening. By bookmarks about Lelchitsy secondary development of the ore body 12, not developed during the initial phase of production, which allows the excavation of a very large part of the ore body 12. It is assumed that compared to other methods of production during the initial phase of production will be chosen much larger part of the ore body 12 and that will be correspondingly smaller part of the ore body 12 for excavation in the secondary phase extraction after laying-out part of the ore body 12. In addition, according to the second variant embodiment of the invention features a method of mining underground ore body 12 using conventional mechanical mining equipment or suitable snakeboarding machine 28 for drilling and blasting explosion. Moreover, this method allows you to vent the ore body 12 that allows the team to service drilling machine or drilling and blasting to act relatively freely, performing work by mechanical means or explosive way.

1. The method of mining underground ore body, which through snakeboarding machines are in the ore body the set of first ventilation tunnels horizontally located at a distance from each other, are held in ore body a lot of second tunnels horizontally located at a distance from each other, while the second or each is th second tunnel crosses, at least one corresponding first tunnel, resulting in the formation of the first retaining wall to support the roof of the mine, the first retaining walls consist of zones of the ore body between adjacent second passages, each first retaining wall is part of the at least one first tunnel, passing horizontally through it, forming a horizontal channels, each of which is located across the respective second tunnel between the corresponding parts of the first tunnel formed in the adjacent retaining walls, to form a continuous ventilation of the tunnels, lay the second tunnel for formation of the second retaining walls to support the roof of the mine and produce the first retaining wall.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first ventilation adits perform essentially parallel to each other.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the second tunnel perform essentially parallel to each other.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the second tunnel oriented essentially perpendicular to the first ventilation tunnels.

5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that formed in the ore body comprising air vent production and output air vent production, horizontal location is routed away from entering the air vent production, and in which the first or each first adit passes through part of the ore body between introducing air and output air vent mount.

6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the driving of the second or each of the second tunnel is realized by means of electric machines.

7. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the driving of the second or each of the second shafts carried out by drilling and blasting.



 

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 11 dwg

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