Method of producing powders of titanium-, zirconium- and hafnium-based alloys doped with elements ni, cu, ta, w, re, os, and ir

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy. It can be used in production of pyrotechnic fuses, as gas absorbers in vacuum tubes, lamps, vacuum hardware and gas cleaners. Oxide of basic element selected from Ni, Zr and Hf is mixed with alloying metal powder selected from Ni, Cu, Ta, W, Re, Os or Ir and with reducing agent powder. Produced mix is heated in kiln in atmosphere of argon to initiation of reduction reaction. Reaction product is leached, flushed and dried. Said oxide of basic element features mean particle size of 0.5-20 mcm, BET specific surface of 0.5-20 m2/g and minimum content of said oxide of 94 wt %.

EFFECT: powder with reproducible combustion time, specific surface and distribution of articles in sizes and time.

23 cl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to a method for producing powders of alloys based on titanium, zirconium and hafnium doped with elements Ni, Cu, Ta, W, Re, Os and Ir.

Powders of alloys based on titanium, zirconium and hafnium are used in bioindustria upon receipt of the firing device, for example, in air airbag and the elements that slow down the ignition, as getpagetitle in vacuum tubes, lamps, vacuum equipment and installations for the purification of gases. Due to the very high reliability requirements of the above products, for example, electrical fuses air bags, it is desirable to produce a powder of the alloy from batch to batch is produced with the same properties, in particular, regarding the burning time, the burning point, average particle size, distribution of particle size and oxidation potential. In addition, it is desirable that these properties can be set from the outset on certain values.

Obtaining powders of alloys can be due to a combined method of recovery and alloying. For this purpose, the titanium oxide (TiO2), Zirconia (ZrO2) or hafnium (HfO2) restore together with powdered alloying elements and a reducing agent, such as calcium and/or hydride calcium and/or magnesium and/or barium. Restoring provocat a closed vessel with an inert atmosphere. Oxide or reducing agent added, usually in excess. After recovering the formed oxides of the reducing agent is removed by leaching with acid and subsequent washing with water. The oxygen content of the resulting powder metal alloy lies in the experience between 1 and 5%.

Alternatively, a powder of an alloy based on Ti, Zr, Hf can be obtained from the corresponding metal by hydrogenation and dehydrogenation (HDH-way). The corresponding metal hydronaut and get this fragile form, it can be mechanically crushed into a powder of the desired particle size. In order to avoid damage due to the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen, for the hydrogenation should be used hydrogen of high purity. Grinding hydrogenated metal to the desired size of the particles should occur also in the pure atmosphere of a protective (inert) gas, for example helium or argon. For the subsequent removal of hydrogen and the formation of alloy powder metal hydride is titanium, zirconium or hafnium and appropriate, subject to the alloying powder metal hydride or metal powder decomposes in vacuum at elevated temperature and simultaneously Legorreta.

The disadvantage of thus obtained powder of the alloy is, among other things, that he does not show any vosproizvodimost the burning time, neither reproducible specific surface nor reproducible distribution of particle size and no reproducible point of ignition.

The invention aims to overcome the disadvantages of the known prior art.

Features a powder of an alloy of zirconium, which has a burn time of 4 s/50 cm to 2000/50 cm and a flash point of 160°C to 400°C and, in addition, in some cases even higher. The burning time, expressed in/50 cm, is defined as follows: a verifiable substance is first screened to eliminate the interfering agglomerates through 2 screens with widths of grid cells 250 μm and 45 μm. If necessary the sample while gently moving the brush. To determine the burning time is used fine material, which was 45 µm sieve. 15 g of the sample served in bulk as described later on metallic trench, it shall be exactly the cardboard and remove excess by shaking off. Metal gutter with two marks, which have a distance of 500 mm from each other. Before mark first applied amount of the substance the size of a pea and ignite the burner. Using photographic imagery (long exposure time) is determined by the time required for the passage of the drift between the start and end mark. The result of the analysis time Gorani is specified in the dimension [s/50 cm] (seconds 50 cm). Chute for combustion with dimensions of 3 mm × 2 mm was mounted in a strip steel with dimensions of 40 mm × 9.4 mm × 600 mm

The ignition point is determined as follows: 10 g subject to the test substance is placed in a preheated, the so-called "block ignition and measure the temperature at which spontaneous ignition occurs. The ignition unit, consisting of an iron cube with the length of the ribs 70 mm with holes for material and thermocouple (20 mm and 8 mm in diameter, each hole 35 mm depth, the distance between the middle points of holes: 18 mm), after the introduction of thermometer or thermocouple in the intended hole is pre-heated by a gas burner to a temperature of below, but close to the ignition temperature. This point is determined using a preliminary sample. In the hole of the material preheated block ignition impose on the edge of a spatula (10 g) subject to study powder material or hydride and block with blower flame heated so long as the powder did not ignite. Achieved when this temperature is the point of ignition.

In addition, it is desirable that the metal powder alloy had a content of at least 75 wt.-% metal or metal hydride, preferably at least 88 wt.-%, especially predpochtitelno, at least 90 wt.-%, the average particle diameter of 1 to 15 μm, the preferred distribution of particle size d50 (measured by laser scattering) from 1 to 20 μm and a specific surface area of 8 ΜG from 0.2 to 5 m2/year

The average particle diameter is determined by the determinant of the size of the particles using molecular sieves Fisher" (hereinafter called FSSS). The description of this method of measurement is in the "Instructions Model 95 Sub-Sieve Sizer, Catalog No. 14-311, Part No. 14579 (Rev. (C)published 01-94" Fisher Scientific. This link provides a detailed description of the dimension.

Next problem is solved using the method of obtaining powders of alloys based on titanium, zirconium or hafnium doped with elements Mi, Cu, Ta, W, Re, Os and Ir, in which the oxide basis element is mixed with a reducing agent and subject to doping metal and the mixture is heated in a furnace in an argon atmosphere, if necessary, in an atmosphere of hydrogen (in this case, the formed metal hydrides), until then, until the start of the reduction, the reaction product is leached and then washed and dried, used oxide has an average particle size of from 0.5 to 20 μm, preferably from 1 to 6 μm, the specific surface according to BET of from 0.5 to 20 m2/g, preferably from 1 to 12 m2/g and particularly preferably from 1 to 8 m2/g, and the minimum content of 94 wt.-%, preferably 96 ve the.-%, and particularly preferably 99 wt.-%.

The proportion of Fe - and Al-impurities in the oxide is preferable, respectively, <0.2 wt.-%, particularly preferably <0.08 wt.-% (calculated as oxide). The proportion of Si impurities in the oxide is preferable, respectively, <1.5 weight.-%, particularly preferably <0.1 wt.-% (calculated as SiO2). The proportion of Na impurities in the oxide is preferably <0.05 wt.-% (calculated as Na2O). The proportion of P-impurities in the oxide is preferably <0.2 wt.-% (calculated as P2O5). Loss during annealing of oxide at 1000°C (weight constant) is preferably <1 wt.-%, particularly preferably <0.5 wt.-%. The density of the tamping oxide according to EN ISO 787-11 (formerly DIN 53194) is preferably from 800 to 1600 kg/m3. The oxide can be replaced to share 15 wt.-% additives of MgO, CaO, Y2O3or CeO2.

It was found that when the target selection oxide raw substances with the described properties and the subsequent carrying out of the process receive the products, which have a burning time of 10 s/50 cm to 3000/50 cm, the ignition energy of 1 MJ to 10 MJ, the average particle size of from 1 to 8 μm, a specific surface according to BET of from 0.2 to 5 m2/g flash point of 160°C to 400°C and in some cases exceed these values, thus, reproduction is sodimie distribution of particle sizes. The combination of the average particle size and specific surface respectively in these areas of the oxide source compound together with the specified minimum content lead to the desired product.

As a reducing agent can be preferably used alkaline earth metals and alkali metals and their hydrides. Particularly preferred are magnesium, calcium, calcium hydride and barium, or some mixture of them. Preferably the reducing agent has a minimum content of 99 wt.-%, especially preferably of 99.5 wt.-%.

Depending on the proportion of the alloying funds obtained powder pure powders of metal alloys, partially hydrogenated metal powders or alloy powders of alloys of metal hydrides. The higher the hydrogen content and the higher the proportion of the alloying element product of the process, the more time burning, i.e. a powder metal alloy burns slower and the higher flashpoint (powder metal alloy ignite at higher temperatures and Vice versa.

Leaching the reaction product is produced using concentrated hydrochloric acid, which is used particularly preferably in slight excess.

The invention is disclosed in more detail below on the basis ol the Mer

Example 1 Manufacture of a powder of an alloy of zirconium/tungsten target 50/50 composition (Zr/W)

21,6 kg ZrO2(powdered zirconium oxide, natural Badelt) with the following characteristics: ZrO2+HfO2minutes 99,0%, HfO2from 1.0 to 2.0%, SiO2Max. of 0.5%, TiO2maximum of 0.3%, Fe2O3Max. of 0.1%, losses incandescent max,5%, average grain size (FSSS) from 4 to 6 μm, the proportion of monoclinic crystal structure min 96%, specific surface area (BET) of from 0.5 to 1.5 m2/g and

16,0 kg of a powder of metallic tungsten with the following characteristics: W min. at 99.95% (without oxygen), the oxygen max 0,5%, Al 10 ppm, Cr max 80 ppm, Cu max 5 ppm, Fe max 100 parts per million, Mo max 100 parts per million Na max 20 ppm, Ni max 100 ppm, Si max parts per million, the average particle size (FSSS) of 0.7 μm ±0.1 ám, shock density from 0,150 to 0,220 DM3/kg density at shaking from 0,570 to 740 g/l and

31.5 kg of calcium in the form of granules with the following characteristics: Ca minutes of 99.3%, Mg max 0,7%,

mixed together in the mixing tank 20 minutes in an argon atmosphere. The mixture is then introduced into the vessel. The vessel was placed in an oven, which was then closed and filled with argon to a gauge pressure of 100 hPa. The reaction furnace was heated for one hour to a temperature of about 1250°C. once the reaction mass reached a temperature of the furnace was begun reaction recovery:

ZrO 2+2Ca+W→ZrW+2CaO.

Sixty minutes after turning on the furnace heating it again off. After the temperature dropped to <50°C, the reaction mass was removed from the crucible and videlacele of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Got the powder metal alloy zirconium/tungsten with the following characteristics:

96,1% Zr+Hf+W, 2.2% of Hf, 0,7% O, 0.06% of H 0,38% Mg, 0,076% Fe, 0.25 to Al, a 1.2 μm average grain size, distribution of particle size d50: 2.5 μm, specific surface area: 0.5 m2/g flash point: 220°C, the burning time 55/50 cm

Example 2 Production of a powder of an alloy of zirconium/tungsten target 50/50 composition (Zr/W)

16,2 kg ZrO2(powdered zirconium oxide, natural) with the following characteristics: ZrO2+HfO2minutes 99,%, HfO2from 1.0 to 2.0%, SiO2max 0,2, TiO2maximum of 0.25%, Fe2O3max 0,02%, losses incandescent max,4%, average grain size (FSSS) from 3 to 5 μm, the proportion of monoclinic crystal structure min 96%, specific surface (BET) from 3,05 to 4.0 m2/g and

12.0 kg of a powder of metallic tungsten with the following characteristics: W min. at 99.95% (without oxygen), the oxygen max 0,5%, Al max 10 parts per million, Cr max 80 parts per million, Cu Max. 5 parts per million, Fe max 100 parts per million, Mo max 100 parts per million, Na Max. of 20 parts per million, Ni max 100 parts per million, Si max 30 parts per million, the average particle size (FSSS)of 0.7 μm ±0.1 ám, shock density from 150 to 0,220 DM3/kg density at shaking from 0,570 to 740 g/l and

7,2 kg magnesium (magnesium in the form of chips) with the following characteristics: Mg min 99,5%, the density at Max. shaking from 0.3 to 0.4 g/cm3

analogously to example 1 was introduced into the vessel in the oven. The furnace was heated to a temperature of about 1050°C. once the reaction mass reached a temperature of the furnace was begun reaction recovery:

ZrO2+2Mg+W→ZrW+2MgO

The heating of the furnace was shut off after 20 minutes after the start of the recovery. After the temperature dropped to <50°C, the reaction mass was removed from the crucible and videlacele of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Got the powder metal alloy zirconium/tungsten with the following tests:

97.9% of Zr+Hf+W, 53% Zr, with 0.9% Hf, 44% W, 0,083% Fe, 0,075% Al, 0,19% Mg, 0,087 Si, 0.04% of H, the average grain size of 1.2 microns, the distribution of seoinfo size d50: 2,6 MK, flashpoint: 200°C, the burning time 44/50 cm

Example 3 Manufacture of a powder of an alloy of zirconium/tungsten target composition 40/60 (Zr/W)

13,0 kg ZrO2(powdered zirconium oxide) with the following characteristics: ZrO2+HfO2minutes 99,%, HfO2from 1.0 to 2.0%, SiO2max,2, TiO2max,25%, Fe2O3max 0,02%, losses incandescent max 0,4%, average grain size (FSSS) from 3 to 5 μm, the proportion of monoclinic crystal structure min 96%, specific over the awn (BET) of from 3.0 to 4.0 m 2/g and

14.4 kg of powder metal W with the following characteristics: W min. at 99.95% (without oxygen), the oxygen max 0,5%, Al max 10 parts per million, Cr max 80 parts per million, Cu Max. 5 parts per million, Fe max parts per million, Mo max 100 parts per million, Na Max. of 20 parts per million, Ni max 100 ppm, Si max parts per million, the average particle size (FSSS) of 0.7 μm ±0.1 ám, shock density from 0,150 to 0,220 DM3/kg density at shaking from 0,570 to 740 g/l and

5.8 kg Mg (magnesium in the form of chips) with the following characteristics: Mg min 99,5%, the density at Max. shaking from 0.3 to 0.4 g/cm3analogously to example 1 was introduced into the vessel in the oven. The furnace was heated to a temperature of about 1050°C. once the reaction mass reached a temperature of the furnace was begun reaction recovery:

ZrO2+2Mg+W→ZrW+2MgO

The heating of the furnace was shut off after 20 minutes after the start of the recovery.

After the temperature dropped to <50°C, the reaction mass was removed from the crucible and videlacele of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Got the powder metal alloy zirconium/tungsten with the following characteristics:

97.8% of Zr+Hf+W, 41% Zr, 0,78% Hf, 56% W 0,028% Fe, 0,090% Al, 0.14% Of Mg, 0,097% of Si, 0.14% of H, the average grain size of 1.2 μm, the distribution of particle size d50:2,2 µm, flashpoint: 200°C, the burning time 37/50 cm

Example 4 Production of powder of zirconium alloy/Nigel, the target composition of 70/30(Zr/Ni)

36 kg ZrO2(powdered zirconium oxide) with the following characteristics: ZrO2+HfO2minutes of 98.5%, HfO2from 1.0 to 2.0%, SiO2max,6%, TiO2max 0,15%, Fe2O3max 0,05%, Na2O Max. up to 0.3%, losses incandescent max 0,5%, average grain size (FSSS) from 1.7 to 2.3 µm, and

26,4 kg calcium (calcium in the form of shavings) with the following characteristics: Ca minutes of 98.5%, Max. Mg of 0.5%,

2.0 kg of Mg (magnesium in the form of chips) with the following characteristics: Mg min 99,5%, the density at Max. shaking from 0.3 to 0.4 g/cm3mixed together in the mixing tank 20 minutes in an argon atmosphere. The mixture is then introduced into the vessel. The vessel was placed in an oven, which was then closed and filled with argon to a gauge pressure of 100 hPa.

The reaction furnace was heated for one hour to a temperature of about 1250°C. once the reaction mass reached a temperature of the furnace was begun reaction recovery:

ZrO2+2Ca/Mg→Zr+2CaO/MgO.

sixty minutes after turning on the furnace heating it again off. After the temperature dropped to <50°C, the reaction mass was removed from the crucible and mixed with 13 kg of Ni (powder) with the following characteristics: max,1%, Fe max to 0.01%O maximum of 0.15%, S max 0,002%, average grain size (FSSS) from 4 to 6 μm in the mixer for 30 minutes.

The mixture is then introduced into the vessel. The vessel was placed in an oven, which was then closed and alkali argon to excess pressure 100 hPa. The reaction furnace was heated to a temperature of about from 500°C to 1000°C. After the reaction doping

Zr+2CaO/MgO+Ni→ZrNi+2CaO/MgO

the reaction mass was removed from the crucible and videlacele of concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Got the powder alloy zirconium/Nickel with the following characteristics:

98.3% of Zr+Ni (incl. Hf), Zr 70,2%, Ni of 28.1%, Hf 1,4%, Ca 0,09%, Fe 0,046%, Al Of 0.13%, S of 0.003%, the burning time 210/50 cm flash point: 40°C, the average grain size (FSSS):4,2 mm.

Example 5 Manufacture of a powder of an alloy of titanium/copper, the target composition of 75/25 (Ti/Cu)

1.2 kg TiH2(powdered titanium hydride) with the following characteristics: TiH2minutes 98,8%, H min 3,8%, N max 0,3%, Max. Mg to 0.04%, Fe max 0,09%, Cl max 0,06%, Ni maximum of 0.05%, Si max 0,15%, C max 0.03%, the average grain size (FSSS) from 3 to 6 μm and 10.0 kg Cu (copper in powder form) with the following characteristics: Cu minutes of 99.3%, a density at shaking from 2.6 to 2.8 kg/DM3, sieve analysis at 325 mesh from 50 to 65 μm, a sieve analysis at 150 mesh from 10 to 20 μm,

mixed together in the mixing tank 20 minutes in an argon atmosphere. The mixture is then when the load of 5 kg was applied to a sheet of plate. Sheet plate was placed in an oven, which was then closed and filled with argon to a gauge pressure of 100 hPa. Then made the pumping furnace. The reaction furnace was heated in several stages for 6 hours under a vacuum to the maximum the temperature of about 800°C. The reaction proceeded as follows:

TiH2+Cu→TiCu+H2

Approximately 4 hours (depending on the pressure in the furnace) the furnace heating was off. After the furnace was cooled to room temperature, the mass was removed and the agglomerates were broken. Received alloy Ti/Cu with the following analysis: 72,4% Ti, 25.3% of Cu, 0.02% of H, 0.05% of Al, 0.02% of Fe, 0.005% of Mg, Cd<0,001%, Zn<0,002%, Hg<is 0.0002%, the distribution of particle size d50: 17,7%, average grain size (FSSS) of 9.4 microns.

1. A method of obtaining a powder of an alloy based element of group 4 of the Periodic system of elements selected from titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf), doped with Nickel (Ni), copper (cu), tantalum (TA), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), osmium (Os), or iridium (Ir), including mixing oxide powder of the base element, having an average particle size of from 0.5 to 20 μm, specific surface according to BET of 0.5-20 m2/g and containing at least 94 wt.% oxide, metal alloy metal powder and a powder of the reducing agent, heating the mixture in a furnace in an argon atmosphere prior to the reaction, recovery, leaching the reaction product, washing and drying.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the alloy metal powder has a grain size of 0.5 to 15 microns.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the alloy metal powder has a minimum content of 99.5 wt.% metal.

4. The method according to claim 1,characterized in that the proportion of Si-, Fe - and Al-impurities in the alloying elements is <0.1 wt.%.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture is heated in a furnace from 800 to 1400°C.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the oxide powder has an average grain size of 1 to 6 microns.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the oxide powder has a specific surface according to BET of from 1 to 12 m2/year

8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the oxide powder has a specific surface according to BET of from 1 to 8 m2/year

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the oxide powder has a minimum content of 96 wt.% oxide.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the oxide powder has a minimum content of 99 wt.% oxide.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of Fe - and Al-impurities in the oxide is, respectively, <0.2 wt.% in terms of the oxide.

12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the proportion of Fe - and Al-impurities in the oxide is, respectively, <0.1 wt.% in terms of the oxide.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of Si impurities in the oxide is <1.5 wt.% in terms of SiO2.

14. The method according to item 13, characterized in that the proportion of SiO2impurities in the oxide is <0.3 wt.% in terms of SiO2.

15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of Na impurities in the oxide is <0.05 wt.%in terms of Na 2O.

16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the proportion of P-impurities in the oxide is <0.2 wt.% in terms of R2O5.

17. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that loss incandescent oxide at 1000°C (weight constant) is <1 wt.%.

18. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the density of the tamping oxide according to EN ISO 787-11 is from 800 to 1600 kg/m3.

19. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixture additionally contains additives of MgO, CaO, Y2About3or SEO2up to 15 wt.% from the portion of oxide.

20. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the reductant used alkaline earth metals and/or alkali metals and/or their hydrides.

21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that as the reductant use of Mg, Ca, CaH2or VA.

22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reducing agent has a minimum content of 99 wt.% reductant.

23. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 22, characterized in that the leaching reaction product is carried out with hydrochloric acid.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: compound includes material containing calcium, barium and strontium carbonates; with that, it contains the following components, wt %: CaO 16.0 - 40.0, BaO 10.0 - 24.0, SrO 2.5 - 11.5, CO2 18.0 - 30.0, SiO2 2.0 - 15.0. In addition, compound can contain carbon-bearing material or metallic aluminium in quantity of 2-35 wt %, or titanium-bearing material in quantity of 0.01-35 wt %, or rare-earth metals in quantity of 2-49.5 wt %.

EFFECT: invention allows improving refining and modifying properties of compound due to optimisation of chemical composition and addition to compound of new elements.

5 cl, 4 ex, 5 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing a degradable aluminium alloys involves adding to molten aluminium or aluminium alloy, one or more alloying elements selected from a group comprising gallium (Ga), mercury (Hg), indium (In), bismuth (Bi), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn), wherein the one or more alloying elements are added in form of solid pre-moulded additives and dissolving the alloying elements in the molten aluminium or aluminium alloy to form a degradable aluminium alloy. If the one or more alloying elements are liquid at ambient temperature, said one or more alloying elements are combined with a nonmetallic or metallic carrier. The nonmetallic carrier is made of plastic, ceramic or refractory materials, and the metallic carrier is selected from a group consisting of lithium, magnesium, nickel and zinc.

EFFECT: obtaining a degradable aluminium alloy and components made therefrom, having a balanced combination of properties, specifically rate of decomposition, strength, impact viscosity and density.

21 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves charging onto cast iron melt mirror of cover material in the form of Barrier-200 flux-perlite powder and introduction to molten cast iron of solid modifying agent in the form of solid cerium-magnesium-nickel additive. Before solid modifying agent is introduced to the melt mirror, the first layer of cover material is added and kept till a dense viscous layer is formed; then, the second cover material layer is applied onto the first layer and solid modifying agent is introduced into the melt with further back filling of the introduction point with hot cover material. Solid modifying agent is kept in water before it is introduced to cast iron melt.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency of action of protective cover, which will allow increasing the weight of melt of modified cast iron, restricting the interaction of solid modifying agent with liquid cast iron in the air, and reducing magnesium and cerium loss.

5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: strengthening nanodisperse particles of zirconium oxide is introduced to molten metal based on aluminium-magnesium alloy. Molten metal is crystallised in a centrifuge field with gravitation coefficient of 150-200 g and molten metal life cycle of 8-10 sec/kg.

EFFECT: production of gradient material with spatially non-homogeneous structure and high properties.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: selection of components is performed using the following relationship: Ccom=i=1kCiρi¯niKi, where Ccom - specified property of composite material; Ci - the same property of i metallic powder; ρ¯i - relative density of i metallic powder; ni - porosity index of particles of i metallic powder; Ki - concentration of i metallic powder; i - metallic powder number (i=1…k). Relative density is determined based on equality of contact forces: σт1ρ1¯n1F=σт2ρ2¯n2F;σт1ρ1¯n1F=σт3ρ3¯n3F;σт1ρ1¯n1F=σтkρk¯nkF;σT1k - resistance of plastic deformation of metallic powders; F - contact areas of particles of metallic powders and equations of the composite density: ρ¯com=i=1kρ¯iKi, where ρ¯com - specified relative density of composite material.

EFFECT: improving determination accuracy of the specified physic and mechanical properties of composites.

2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves introduction to molten aluminium alloy of modifying additive and melt crystallisation; with that, as modifying agent, Al-Sc-Zr alloy combination is used, which contains 0.002-0.02 % Sc and 0.002-0.02 % Zr and which is introduced to the melt in the form of a rod prior to crystallisation.

EFFECT: limit crushing of grain structure of aluminium alloys, which allows obtaining ingots with non-dendrite structure.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: when preparing aluminium alloy containing Mg, to the molten alloy there added is Ca, Sr and Ba in such amount that calcium content is 0.001-0.5 wt %, and their ratio is within the limits enclosed between the lines attaching five points in dwg. 1: point E (Ca: 28 atm %, Sr: 0 atm %, Ba: 72 atm %), point F (Ca: 26 atm %, Sr: 30 atm %, Ba: 44 atm %), point G (Ca: 54 atm %, Sr: 46 atm %, Ba: 0 atm %), point H (Ca: 94 atm %, Sr: 6 atm %, Ba: 0 atm %), point T (Ca: 78 atm %, Sr: 0 atm %, Ba: 22 atm %), at exclusion of ratios on the lines formed between the above points.

EFFECT: method allows inhibiting losses due to oxidation of molten alloy without using Be capable of doing harm to human health.

6 cl, 5 ex, 11 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of refractory highly porous permeable cellular alloys. It can be used for production of filters, catalyst carriers, noise absorbers, heat exchangers in heat engineering, machine building and chemical industry. High alloy, for example, "Х60Ю20", is ground to average particle size of 0.6-1.4 mcm to be mixed with iron powders in amount of 30 wt % and additionally added ultra dispersed cobalt in amount of 1.5-2.0 wt % and those of nanosized nickel in amount of 0.5-0.6 wt % as a precursor in the mixer for 24-32 h to obtain mix of powders with relative density 0f 0.5-0.6. Obtained mix is mixed with organic mixer to obtain suspension to be applied on porous material. Organic matters are removed at exposures at T=270-280°C for at least 2 hours. Sintering is performed for at least 2 hours at T=1280°C in heating for at least 32 hours and cooling for at least 24 hours.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining material in the form of a cast section involves preparation of aluminium melt containing 1-2 wt % of iron and 0.2 - 0.6 wt % of silicon, introduction to the melt at the temperature of 900-1100°°C of boron in the form of boric acid and titanium in the form of chips in the ratio allowing to obtain in cast structure of titanium diboride particles in the amount of 4 to 8 wt %, and crystallisation by casting to a mould.

EFFECT: obtaining boron-containing composite material on aluminium basis, which has high level of absorption of neutron emission in combination with the best mechanical properties and processibility.

5 ex, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy and may be used for production of fine passivated powders of metals or alloys. Powder with mean particle size smaller than 10 mcm consists of one of reactive metals: zirconium, titanium or hafnium or contains one of said metals. It is produced by metallothermic reduction of the oxides of said metals or halides by reducing metal to be retarded by adding of passivation gas or gas mix in and/or after reduction of oxides or halides and/or by adding of passivation solid substance before reduction of oxides or halides. Note here that reduction and passivation are performed in one evacuated and gastight reaction pot.

EFFECT: ruled out spontaneous ignition of reactive powders of metals or oxides owing to retardation.

22 cl, 5 dwg, 4 ex

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