Thermomechanical device of actuators

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: thermomechanical device includes a working member made in the form of one pre-deformed element or several pre-deformed and parallel and/or in-series connected elements from alloy based on titanium with shape memory effect. The working member is made in the form of a rod with working part of cylindrical or rectangular shape and fixing parts in the form of expansions on the rod ends, the sectional area of which is at least by five times more than the sectional area of its working part.

EFFECT: achieving maximum possible translational relative movements of the member at variation of its temperature at the temperature interval of reverse martensitic transformation of material.

6 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely thermo-mechanical actuators, designed for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy.

Work items such actuators is based on the fact that changing their temperature by heating of the various sources of heat they change their volume or dimensions. With the help of various tools or devices these changes is converted into mechanical energy, characterized by the development effort when moving the fixed parts of the element.

Examples of such devices include mechanisms using as the working elements of the rods of materials with high thermal expansion coefficient. When heated, this rod is moving its ends (extension) relative to the elements of the mechanism are made of materials with normal or low thermal expansion coefficient. With this motion develops thermoelastic stress, providing appropriate efforts. This principle is used in control devices thermostats vehicle reaches plastic), circuit breakers electric kettles (bimetallic plate) and others.

The restriction of the use of such devices is associated with h is scimi values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (10 -4-10-6), which calls for a significant heating (not less than 60°C) with very small displacements of the points of fixation.

Partially remove these restrictions can use materials with shape memory effect, which began to be produced from the late 70-ies of the last century. These materials when heated in the temperature range of the reverse martensite transformation (An-Ato), which is 10-30°C can be removed previously induced deformation value up to 8·10-2/Ali "Mechanism and KINETICA phase and structural transformations in titanium alloys", M., Science s.204-209/. In the process of such change of shape can develop reactive voltage up to 450-550 MPa, providing significant efforts to restore the shape.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a thermo-mechanical device that contains the work item, made in the form of one or more elements from an alloy based on titanium shape memory effect (Cragin I. and others, memory Alloys. Technology and application, Stary Oskol, "TNT", 2010, s-200, 209, 215, 217).

However, this device is too cumbersome and difficult.

The present invention is to develop a device with a working element of a material with shape memory effect, which allows you to convert those who gross energy into mechanical energy of the translational motion.

The technical result of the invention is to maximize the translational relative movement of the item (up to 6·10-2) when changing the temperature of 15-50°C within temperature range of the reverse martensite transformation material.

The technical result is achieved in a thermo-mechanical device that contains the work item, made in the form of one pre-loaded element or several pre-loaded in parallel and/or series-connected elements of an alloy based on titanium shape memory effect, and the work item is executed in the form of a rod with working part of a cylindrical or rectangular shape and the locking parts in the form of extensions on the ends of the rod, the cross-sectional area not less than five times the cross-sectional area of the working part.

The need for increased cross-sectional area of the fixing part of the rod from a material with shape memory effect in comparison to the power terminals of conventional structural materials due to their mechanical behavior. Materials of construction work in the mechanisms within the elastic stresses below the yield strength), which is directly proportional to strain. Therefore, a slight increase in the cross-sectional area of the FIC is yuusei part of an element leads to a reduction of stress and lack of noticeable changes in the shape, which could lead to the violation committed. Materials with shape memory effect work in the plastic region with significant deformations. They are characterized by two bounds yield: martensitic bottom due to flow turning (about 120-150 MPa), and the top related with the processes of slip (450-550 MPa). When the loading of the material at the specified interval stresses accumulate significant (10%) strains, which are eliminated during the subsequent unloading (sverkhuprugost) or heated above the temperature of the reverse martensite transformation (shape memory effect). In the process of loading a core element occurs when the voltage at its working parts are approaching the upper yield point, and the fixed parts of the voltage must remain below the lower limit of fluidity. Otherwise you will change the shape of the fixing part of the element, the violation of its contact with other parts of the mechanism and failure of the device. This will be especially apparent in the case when the locking element has a stress concentrators in the form of thread (threaded connection), holes (pin connection) and other

In the case of the fastening element due to friction in different collet or wedge-shaped joints, which often assumes the ri commit torsions (as in the prototype), changing the shape of the fixing part leads to disruption of the connection.

To avoid these phenomena, it is essential that when the stresses in the working side of the element close to the upper yield stress of the material, the tension in the locking part remained below the lower limit of fluidity. It is possible in the case when the cross-sectional area of the element, at least 5 times greater than the cross-sectional area of the working part.

The shape of the fixing part of an element depends on how it is mounted. If threaded connections are working and fixing parts typically have a cylindrical shape (figure 1). At pin connection they are rectangular in shape (figure 2). Wedge connection can be realized in cylindrical and rectangular cross-sectional shape of the element.

To increase the force of the impact elements are used in combination, placed in parallel and/or sequentially to each other. The connection between them may be due to intermediate connectors. In case of parallel connection of elements, in proportion to their number increases stress recovery device. In the case of serial connections, in proportion to their number increases moving the endpoints of the fastening device. Combin the management ways of connecting elements, you can ensure that the device needed to work with the required effort and movements.

Examples of execution.

Titanium alloy VTI were made 2 element with working part cylindrical shape with a diameter of 5 mm and clamping the ends of a diameter of 8 and 12 mm In the first case, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the fixing and working part was 2.5, and the second to 5.8. The items were hardened from a temperature of 900°C and subjected to a tensile strength at 5% at normal temperature. The elements were introduced into the slot on one side of the corner connectors (figure 3), the other side of which is clamped in the grips of the bursting machine. The working part of the element was heated using a gas burner to a temperature of 300-400°C, which occurred restore the original form of the element caused by this approximation captures machinery & development efforts to 280 MPa. After cooling to normal temperature and discharge gripper machine elements with a diameter of the fixing portion 12 mm are easily understood and have not changed shape. The locking part 8 mm diameter crashed into the edge of the connection area and has jammed in them. After disassembly connection with the application of effort form element was broken, which did not allow its reuse.

Of the alloy sheet TN (alloy based on titanium nickelide) 2 mm thick laser cut were cut elements, with working part of the rectangular widths of the nd 3 mm and a retaining portion with a width of 10 and 20 mm In the locking parts were made holes with a diameter of 4 mm, Thus the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the fixing part in the area of the openings and the cross-sectional area of the working part was 2.0 and 5.3 respectively. Of the elements was made consistent (figure 4), parallel (figure 5) and a series-parallel combination (6). For this purpose, the elements of the pre-deformed by elongation at normal temperature for 8%, and then using pins through the holes in the fixing part connected among themselves and fasteners to be placed in the grips of the bursting machine. For some cases, fastener at one end of the device was hung to a beam, and the other was assigned a weight of 0.1; 0.5 or 1.0 kg In the next step, the working elements of the device was heated by a flow of warm air from the dryer to a temperature of 70-80°C (temperature recovery of the shape of the alloy was 55-65°C). When heated in a tensile testing machine until a specified temperature device from one element developed force recovery 1250 N. In the case of a parallel arrangement of two elements, the force was increased about 2 times to 2490 N. Moving fasteners was insignificant and was determined by the stiffness of the bursting machine.

When hanging the minimum load to a single element form elementprefixes fully recovered and cargo were moved by 7.8% of the length of the element. The increase in weight was reduced move, but increase the work produced under the load.

The consistent location of the work items in the device increased displacement in proportion to their number.

When a series-parallel arrangement of the elements performed by the device work increases in the number of times elements included in the device. This effort increases the number of parallel elements, and moving from the serial number.

The developed device used for practical application. For example, prior to tightening the flange of the pipeline. In this case, on each side of the connection pipe wore two half rings fastened together by bolts. Half had 6 slots, into which was inserted a pretensioned cylindrical elements of the alloy TN. These elements had a diameter of 5 mm, fixing 12 mm and a length of 40 mm After heating by warm air from the building dryer to a temperature of 80-100°C semiring closer to 2 mm, having developed under this effort is about 8000 N sufficient for drawing the flanges and rubber seals. After that, the connection itself was bolted, and the elements after cooling again lengthened, allowing them to easily understand the host.

Another application of the developed device was a device for loosening a threaded connection (large diameter pipe joints rigs). To this end the lever clamping device, Unscrew part of the tube having at one end a cylindrical pin with a diameter of 6 mm, was attached to the end of the element, with the locking part of the corresponding hole. This element was attached to a chain of similar items in the amount of 8 pieces. The other end of the chain elements by means of the cable through the hole in the locking part of the element was attached to the power elements of the drilling platform. Pre elements Rychagov pressure was stretched by 6% at normal temperature. After heating elements gas burner was reducing its length by 40 mm and development efforts to 1200 N. It was enough to unseat threaded and further unwinding manually.

Thus, the goal of the invention, for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy of the translational motion using the device for a working element of a material with shape memory effect is resolved. It provides travel up to 6·10-2the length of the working part of the elements with the development of stress recovery form to 350-400 MPa, which can be recognized horsemanship result.

Thermo-mechanical device that contains the work item, made in the form of one pre-deformed element or several pre-deformed in parallel and/or series-connected elements of an alloy based on titanium shape memory effect, and the work item is executed in the form of a rod with working part of a cylindrical or rectangular shape and the locking parts in the form of extensions on the ends of the rod, the cross-sectional area not less than five times larger than the sectional area of its working parts.



 

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1 ex, 1 tbl

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2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

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2 cl, 1 tbl

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2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

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20 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

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2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: mechanical engineering; piston internal combustion engines.

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EFFECT: improved quality of valve and increased reliability in operation.

16 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex, 15 dwg

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