# Image processing device based on two dimensional estimate multiplication method

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device has a unit for storing input realisation, switches, approximation units, estimation storage units, arithmetic adder, a unit for storing useful component estimates, a control unit, a delay unit, a clock-pulse generator, two units for breaking down into intervals, each having a random number generator, a unit for averaging related values, a ranging unit and a register for storing random number samples. The control unit has a shift register for sampling column random numbers, a shift register for sampling row random numbers, a delay unit for sampling column random numbers, a delay unit for sampling row random numbers, a counter and a unit for checking conditions.

EFFECT: two dimensional estimation of the useful component in conditions with insufficient prior information on statistical characteristics of additive noise and useful component function.

2 dwg

The present invention relates to information-measuring device and can be used in computing, control systems and signal processing.

In the General case, a simplified mathematical model of the measurement results (images) is a two-dimensional discrete sequence of Y_{i,j},type:

,

where S_{i,j}- low frequency slowly changing a useful component;

η_{i,j}additive noise component, distributed according to a Gaussian law with zero mean and constant variance;

N is the number of rows, M is the number of columns of the two-dimensional array image.

The main task - allocation of two-dimensional assessment of the useful component in the conditions of insufficient a priori information about the statistical characteristics of the additive noise and the useful component.

A similar problem can occur: 1) in the work receiving / transmitting devices or far space communications; 2) in radio engineering in signal processing; 3) digital image processing; 4) in meteorology and Economics in the processing of measurement results.

There is a method of moving average [Gonzalez, R. Digital image processing. / Gonsales,
Rvus. - M.: The Technosphere. - 2005. - S. 1072]. To use just one realization of Y_{i,j},the original process.

For the original image is determined by the size of the mask smoothing filter m, i.e. a natural number of m<N. the moving average Method involves the memorization of the original image Y_{i,j},define the size of the filter mask m (the width of the "sliding window"), for which the computation of the arithmetic mean,, replacement of the Central values of Y_{i,j},found averageshift "sliding window" on one value to the right, calculate the arithmetic average of the selected values of realization, and so as long as the filter mask will not move around the image.

The width of the “window” choose odd, because the smoothed value is calculated for the Central value.

Signs of a device similar to the matching characteristics of the proposed technical solution, the following: memorizing discrete signal, the allocation of time segments, finding the arithmetic mean value of the signal is caught in the selected periods of time, replacing the original two-dimensional the discrete implementation of the measurement results of the smoothed values.

The disadvantages of the known devices are:

- inability to process rows or columns of the image at the boundaries of the mask if the center of the filter is approaching the borders of the image;

- the moving average method calls residuals autocorrelation, even if she was not in the original useful component (the effect of the Slutsk-Yul).

Barriers to achieving the desired technical result are as follows:

- if the width of the “window” smoothing equal to 2p+1, the first p and last p values of the initial implementation of the measurement results is not treated;

because of the Central importance of the “window” smoothing is calculated as the arithmetic average of the neighbouring values assessment is a useful component become dependent.

As a non-linear filters are filters based on rank statistics [Gonzalez, R. Digital image processing. / Gonsales, Rwoods. - M.: The Technosphere. - 2005. - S. 1072]. The response of such a filter is determined by pre-ordering (ranking) values of the pixels covered by the mask filter, and then select the value on a specific position in an ordered sequence (i.e. having a certain rank). Filtering is reduced to the replacement of the original values (in C is ntre mask) on the output value of the response of the filter. The most well-known median filter, which replaces the Central value of the filter mask on the median value of the distribution of all values of the measurements that belong to the scope of the filter mask. In order to perform median filtering for image element, you must first be sorted by ascending values of the pixels inside the mask, then find the median value and assign the value of the processed item.

Signs of a device similar to the matching characteristics of the proposed technical solution, the following: sampling the signal at a time, memorizing the input of the implementation of the measurement results, the allocation of time segments, replacing the input and results of measurement of the smoothed values.

The disadvantages of the known devices are:

- inability to process rows or columns of the image at the boundaries of the mask if the center of the filter is approaching the borders of the image;

- due to the nonlinearity of the processing method is not strictly distinguish between the effect of median filtering on the signal and the noise;

- median smoothing can only be viewed as an effective method of pre-processing the input and results of measurements in the case of impulse noise.

Barriers to achieving the desired technical is the result, are as follows:

- median filtering is a nonlinear method of treatment;

- the dependence of the efficiency of the smoothing of the measurement results on the shape of the useful and noise component.

The structural scheme of the device that implements the method, comprises a generator of such pulses, the switch control unit, a register storing unit rank, the block selecting the middle value, the output register that stores initial discrete implementation of the measurement results.

The known method of least squares and device for piecewise linear approximation [Bendat J., Persol A. Applied analysis of random data: TRANS. from English. - M.: Mir, 1989. - 540 with author's certificate No. 1624479]. To use this method rather one-dimensional realization of Y_{1}, Y_{2}, ..., Y_{N}the original process.

The method of least squares allows for measurement result Y_{1}, Y_{2}, ..., Y_{N}the original process to obtain an estimateminimizing the target function of the form:

Whenis a polynomial of the first degreethe coefficients a and b can be found by minimizing the target function of the form:

Differentiating an expression is (2) a and b and equating to zero, we obtain a system of linear equations:

The solution of the system is:

When evaluatingthe sum of the squared deviations of values from the values of the realization of the measurements is minimal (2).

Signs of a device similar to the matching characteristics of the proposed technical solution, the following: memorizing discrete signal, the approximation by the method of least squares, replacing the original discrete implementation of the results of measurements approximated values.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- when using this method requires a priori information about the function of the useful signal;

- useful error component is along the implementation, in the General case, nonlinear dependence and reaches its maximum values at the boundaries of the interval of approximation;

- when polinomialnoi valuation models useful component of a rigorous solution to the problem of minimizing the objective function of the method of least squares is not always there because of the nonlinearity of the solved system of equations;

- limitation of the method of least squares to the parallelization and the construction of a multi-channel processing.

Barriers to achieving those required the technical result are as follows:

- efficiency assessment is a useful component depends on the volume of sales, the statistical characteristics of the additive noise and the availability of a priori information on the functional dependency models are useful component.

The structural scheme of the device for piecewise linear approximation contains a group of series-connected registers, the first and second myCitadel, the adder, the first and second accumulating adders, and delay elements, a generator of clock pulses, two multipliers and two divider by a constant factor.

Closest to the invention is a method of selection trend by multiplication estimates his only source implementation (RAZOR) and device for its implementation (patent No. 2207622, IPC 7 G06F 17/18).

The considered device-prototype assumes: 1) memorizing the input realization of Y_{1}, Y_{2}, ..., Y_{n}2) split the input on potentially random numbers having a uniform distribution law; 3) test conditions that potentially include not less than L values of the initial implementation, if the condition is not met, then the newly generated random number partitioning; 4) the presence on each pointervalue input realization estimates of the coefficients of the approximating polynomial of a+bk+ck^{2}using the method of least kVA the preparations;
5) repeat the procedures in paragraphs 2-4 K times; 6) finding a smoothing function as the arithmetic mean “piecewise quadratic” approximating functions in each moment of time.

The disadvantages of the known devices of the prototype are:

- the impossibility of implementing the known method of RAZI in real-time;

- lack of practical guidelines for choosing the number of intervals partitioning and the number of outbreaks assessments;

- large computational costs.

Barriers to achieving the desired technical result are as follows:

- to use the method of reproduction is necessary to remember all the input implementation.

Device for selection trend by the method of reproduction estimates his only source implementation (RAZOR) contains a block of storage of the measurement results, switches, random number generator, the block address associated values, the power ranking, register storing a sample of random numbers, blocks of approximation, the storage registers of the estimated arithmetic summing device, the storage unit estimates the useful component, the processor clock.

The essence of the proposed device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method of propagation estimates is the following. Streamlined mathematics is Skye model input sequence of measurement results presented in accordance with the expression (1).

Based on the method of breeding estimates a device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method of propagation estimates. We consider partitioning the original image into rows N and columns M at intervals of random length. Splits are formed by dividing the interval (1, N) random numbersand the interval (1, M) random numberson m intervals (figure 1):

where the Superscript 1 denotes the line breaks; Δ is a random length of interval partitioning;- the current reproduction; K is the number of outbreaks.

The partitioning column is formed by dividing the interval (1, M) numberson m intervals:

where the Superscript 2 denotes the partitioning columns.

Splitting rows and columns divides the two-dimensional signal arrays with different number of cells in width and in length. For each data set using the approximation values of the original image plane, opisyvayuschaya equation of the first degree of the formthe result is a set of estimates,,,.

The factor value is in Ah, B and C are determined using a two-dimensional least-squares method to find which minimizes the target function of the form:

Differentiating the last expression in a, b and C and equating to zero, we obtain a system of linear equations:

The solution of the system is:

The split procedure of rows and columns (1,N) and (1,M) on m intervals of random length is repeated K times. Moreover, for each partition is formed of a two-dimensional evaluation using the method of least squares. The resulting assessment, is defined as the arithmetic mean multiplied assessments

Device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method of propagation estimates (figure 2) contains the block storage input 1, input by the information input device, the output of which is connected to the first inputs of the switches 2.K, to the second control input which is connected to the output control unit 7, which contains a shift register that samples a random number of columns 7.1 and the shift register is sampling a random number of rows 7.3, the inputs which are consecutively supplied random number interval limits split image from the outputs of registers storing a sample of random numbers 12.1 and 12.2, respectively, the information output control unit receives the random number from the second outputs of blocks 7.1 and 7.3, the output of the delay block sampling random numbers columns 7.2 and output of the delay block fetch random rows 7.4, which are then passed to the second control inputs of the switches 2.K and second control inputs of storage units assessment 4.K through the delay unit 8, the output of the counter 7.6 connected to the input unit check condition 7.5, the output of which is connected to the control input of the counter 7.6 and the second input the shift register fetch random rows 7.3; the first and the second input of the control unit 7 is connected to the output of the block is split into intervals A.1 and A.2, respectively, each of the blocks of the partition intervals A.1 and A.2 contains the random number generator 9.1 (9.2), distributed according to the uniform law, the output of which is connected to the input of the block address associated values 10.1 (10.2), the output of which is connected to the input of block ranking 11.1 (11.2), the output of which is connected to the input of the register storing the sample of random numbers 12.1 (12.2), whose output is an information output unit split into intervals A.1 and A.2; to the outputs of the switches C connected to the inputs b of the shackles approximation K, the outputs are connected to first inputs of the storage units assessment 4.K, the outputs are connected to inputs arithmetically summing device 5, the output of which is connected to the input of the storage unit estimates the useful component 6, whose output is an information output device, the timing device is provided by the clock 13.

Device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method of propagation estimates is as follows. The original image is supplied to each of the K channel is divided into m intervals in rows and columns. Splitting is obtained by dividing the interval of the original discrete realization of the random numbers of uniform distribution law. For each of the resulting array is the approximation of the discrete values of the initial implementation of the plane, opisyvayuschaya equation of the first degree is a two-dimensional least squares method. Thus determined By estimates of the original two-dimensional discrete implementations for each of the received array. The procedure of splitting the original two-dimensional discrete implementation of the m intervals of random length is repeated K times in accordance with the method of RAZI [Patent No. 2207622, IPC 7 G06F 17/18.]. The resulting two-dimensional assessment of the useful component is defined as the arithmetic mean of the Jamu multiplied estimates at each point in time. The obtained values are received at the output device.

Device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method of propagation estimates is as follows. In the storage unit of input 1 is written to the original two-dimensional discrete implementation. Blocks are split into intervals A.1 and A.2 form a ranked sequence of random numbers distributed according to the uniform law eliminated the “bundles”, which are consecutively supplied to the inputs of the control unit 7, in which the input of the shift register sampling random numbers columns 7.1 and the input of the shift register fetch random rows 7.3 are consecutively supplied random number interval limits split image from the outputs of registers storing a sample of random numbers 12.1 and 12.2, respectively, to the output control unit receives the random number from the second outputs of blocks 7.1 and 7.3, the output of the delay block fetch random rows 7.2 and output of the delay block sample random number of columns 7.4, thus are the four coordinates of the current field approximation, which is transmitted to the second control inputs of the switches C and second control inputs of the storage units of assessment 4. through the delay unit 8, the counter 7.6 produces the number of random numbers used to split the string, the validation block usloviya the condition of attainment of a boundary line image, where control signal to reset the counter 7.6 and panning one value of the shift register fetch random rows 7.3. For the obtained arrays in blocks approximation 3.K is the approximation of the original two-dimensional discrete realization of the plane, opisyvayuschaya equation of the first degree is a two-dimensional least squares method. The results of the approximation is written into the storage units of assessment 4.K. IN each of the channels To values estimated from outputs of blocks 4.K arrive at the inputs arithmetically summing device 5, where the resulting two-dimensional assessment of the useful component will be determined as the arithmetic average of the estimates obtained in each of the K channels of the device at fixed time points. Thus, the obtained two-dimensional assessment of the useful component to the input of the storage unit estimates the useful component 6, the output of which data is fed to the output device. Synchronous operation of the device is provided by the clock 13.

The technical result - the allocation of two-dimensional assessment of the useful component in the conditions of insufficient a priori information about the statistical characteristics of the additive noise and the useful component.

Device for image processing based on the two-dimensional method reproduced the I estimates contains the block storage input implementation, the entrance of which is an information input device, To channels, each of which consists of a switch block approximation and storage unit assessment, arithmetically summing device, the storage unit estimates the useful component, the output of which is an information output device, the output of the storage unit of the input implement is connected to the first inputs of the switches, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of blocks approximation, the outputs of which are connected to first inputs of the storage units of assessment, the outputs are connected to inputs arithmetically summing device, the output of which is connected to the input of the storage unit estimates the useful component; block breaker at intervals contains the generator of random numbers distributed according to the uniform law, the output of which is connected to the input of the block address associated values, the output of which is connected to the input unit of ranking, the output of which is connected to the input of the register storing the sample of random numbers, whose output is an information output unit split into intervals, characterized in that the device further comprises a second block split at intervals, to the second control inputs of the switches and to the input of the delay unit connected to the information output control unit, which which contains the shift register sampling random numbers column and the shift register fetch random rows the first output of which is connected to the input of the delay unit sampling a random number of columns and the input of the delay block fetch random rows, respectively, which outputs and the second outputs of the shift register sampling random numbers and column shift register fetch random rows are information output control unit, the output of the counter is connected to the input of the test conditions, the output of which is connected to the control input of the counter and the second input of the shift register fetch random rows; to the inputs of the control unit connected to the outputs of the blocks of the partition intervals; the outputs of the delay block is connected to the second control inputs of the storage units of assessment, the synchronisation device is provided by clock pulses.

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