Electronic measuring instrument with extended capability to detect hardware faults

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electronic measuring instrument contains first processor (21) which executes processing of measured values during first processing cycles using first algorithm, and second processor (25) implementing coordination of tasks including initialisation of the first processor (21). The second processor (25) during time intervals exceeding first processing cycle reads from the first processor (21) control data record and based on this record executes first algorithm to check function correctness of the first processor.

EFFECT: creation of electronic measuring instrument with high probability of hardware faults detecting.

9 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to an electronic measuring device, in particular an electronic measuring device with enhanced ability to detect hardware failures.

When a certificate is issued to the electronic measuring instrument according to the standard in accordance with IEC61508 (SIL 2) there is a requirement that a possible hardware failure of the device should be detected with high probability and displayed as a fault condition on the receiver measured values. The statistical failure rate, which is the correct display of the fault condition on the receiver measured values, referred to as SFF (Safe Failure Fraction - the proportion of reliable failure).

Therefore, the basis of the invention was based on the task of creating an electronic measuring device with a high probability of detection of hardware failures.

Statistical analyses the frequency of failures has shown that, in particular, processors, and other semiconductor elements with a high degree of integration, such as storage devices and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), significantly contribute to the statistical determination of the total failure rate of the electronic measuring device.

This problem is solved by an electronic measuring device containing the first is rocessor, during the first cycles of treatment using the first algorithm performs the processing of measured values, and the second processor, providing mainly coordination and/or communication, and optionally a second processor in the time intervals that exceed the first loop reads from the first processor control record data based on it executes the first algorithm and examines the first processor to the correct function.

The first processor is essentially specialized digital processor processing signals with very fast-running loops. The second processor is, for example, the microcontroller, which has significantly lower performance compared with the digital processor signal processing.

The control data record may contain, for example, the raw measured values of the sensor, the variables status and calculated on the basis of the first processor totals. The test is conducted, for example, by direct comparison read from the first processor of the result with the result obtained by executing the first algorithm second processor.

The second processor includes a program memory. According to a variant of development of the invention, the second processor may perform regularly fill the preliminary review of its program memory via a checksum or cyclic redundancy code (CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check).

In addition, the second processor includes a memory for recording-reading that it can be checked regularly according to a variant of development of the invention in the presence of static errors using test patterns.

The second processor includes an arithmetic unit and a memory for recording - reading, which he according to the variant of development of the invention can be routinely checked for the presence of static errors by the control algorithm.

According to another variant of development of the invention, the second processor may compare and verify the data in the program memory of the first processor using locally mapped area of memory.

According to one aspect of the invention, the second processor can check the known constant values in the data memory of the first processor by comparing with locally displayed values.

According to another aspect of the invention, the second processor may regularly check the configuration registers of the first processor by comparing with locally displayed values.

According to a variant implementation of the invention an electronic measuring device contains a two-wire interface 4...20 mA. As an option, the control circuit can test the function of the second processor and the associated clock generator in the case of QCD is to signal malfunction regardless of the first and second processors via the current signal 4...20 mA.

Read more the invention is illustrated using the example of execution shown in the drawings, which depict:

figure 1 - block diagram of the electronic portion of the pressure sensor according to the invention,

figure 2 - block diagram of self-control.

Depicted in figure 1 modular electronic part of the pressure sensor according to the invention contains a touch of the electronic part 1 and the main electronic part 2. The main electronic part 2 processes the sensor signals received from the touch of the electronic part via the serial interface.

Touch electronic part contains, in particular, touch ASIC 12, the main purpose of which is to receive signals of pressure and temperature from the pressure cell 11 or the primary sensor, and optionally in the regulation of signal level. For this purpose, depending on the measuring principle the primary sensor is the source of power to a resistive sensors and capacitive interface for capacitive pressure sensors, which can be connected cell for measurement of absolute, relative or differential pressure. Rationing is adjustable through the amplifiers, so-called "Programmable Gain Amplifieres (PGA)", made in the form of differential and absolute amplifiers. Then the normalized values of the conversions is raised from analog to digital form and via the serial interface are transmitted to the main electronic part 2. Specific sensor data such as coefficients of compensation etc. shall be included in the touch memory, electrically erasable programmable read-only memory 13 (EEPROM).

Specialized IC 12 is able to detect drifts in the internal amplifiers and analog-to-digital converters and to send a message about them in the main electronic part 2 via the serial interface in the form of telegrams about the error.

The main electronic part 2 consists mainly of the following components:

the processor performance pressure 21 (specialized integrated chip with built-in digital processor signal processing)used including as a serial in touch e-part 1 taking the raw data and calculates on the basis of the output value. Depending on the mode of operation output value may indicate pressure, level or flow. The result of the calculation is given, for example, in the form of pulse-impulsora modulated signal. Another purpose processor 21 is to generate the clock signal for the entire electronic part of the measuring Converter.

The main electronic part includes, in addition, a dedicated IP connection 22; this chip is the interface of the measuring Converter for the connection with the external environment. It has an integrated Converter DC voltage providing a current supply device, and a current generator, which is based on the pulse modulated pulsing signal processor processing the pressure applying for the 4-20mA loop current corresponding value. In addition, it has built a HART modem for communication at the field level, high-precision inverter voltage, frequency, and hardware control device.

In addition, part of the main electronic part includes a microcontroller 25 required to initialize the measurement processor. In the adjustment mode in it is the service via dip switch or remotely via HART. This also provides a display 23.

Other functions of the microcontroller 25 may be, for example, failure handling, clearing the measurement data in a user-friendly unit, the start control device in a specialized IP communication, logging, minimum and maximum values exceeding the measuring range, the resulting counter for Consumption and non-volatile data storage.

As the CPU 21, the processing pressure is used specialized IP with built-in digital processor for signal processing. Its advantage Zack is udaetsya fast and extremely energy efficient calculation of the measured values. At full load the power consumption by the processor, the pressure is about 600 μa.

Although the microcontroller 25 in principle also able to perform these calculations, however, at the same speed calculations of its energy increases several times that too much for the device, supplied from the current loop 4-20 mA. The microcontroller used in those areas where it is not required to make time-critical payments. In result, it becomes possible to use the module with greatly reduced tact with the aim of reducing the current consumption to an acceptable level.

During initialization of the device you must have in mind the following feature. Given the presence of several different sensor units and options main electronic part, finding the right software solutions for each possible combination of sensor and electronic parts would be associated with too high costs. This can be avoided by dividing the software into two parts, namely, sensory and specialized.

The sensor portion is stored in the sensor electronic parts touch, electrically erasable programmable read-only memory 13. If the sensing part receives the first clock signal from the master electronic part, it reads its software part of the elec is rejeski erasable programmable ROM and serial connection sends it to the main electronic part. Here the touch program is read by the microcontroller 25 from the digital processor 21 of the signal processing is combined with a specialized program, which it receives from the program memory main electronic parts. After that, both software parts together, i.e. the offset address in the memory change so that for different variables did not have the same memory area. At the end of this process became solid again, the program is recorded in a digital processor signal processing. After that, you just need to download the configuration settings of the measuring conversion in the data memory of the digital processor signal processing, after which the transmitter is ready to use and can count measured values based on the incoming raw data.

The pressure sensors according to the invention mainly provide compliance with the requirements for operational reliability up to SIL 2 according to IEC 61508. The standard provides quantitative requirements in respect of compliance with the minimum values of the characteristics of technical security devices, such as the share of credible failures (SFF). For the observance of the quantitative requirements (for example, the share of credible failures > 90%) of the requirement is : the execution of the instrument, as a rule, additional diagnostic and monitoring functions. Analyses of the nature of the failures, effects and diagnostics (FMEDA-Failure Mode, Effects and Diagnostics Analysis) electronics at the component level of self-control, which will be discussed below, contributed to the interpretation SIL2.

For self-provided software package, which among other things provides cyclic redundancy code, and checksum RAM and ROM microcontroller and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory.

Self-control includes, in addition, selective control functions of the digital processor of the signal processing by the control calculation by the microcontroller. For this purpose, as shown in figure 2, must be read from the digital processor 21 of the signal processing of the input variable, the variables state and output value. On the basis of input values and variables status calculated output value, which should provide a digital processor signal processing. Then comparing the measured values with the calculated output value. If there are any differences, then the message will arrive in the Supreme audit court of the software of the measuring transducer, which in turn contribute to specialized the connection 22 gave the error signal (HART). On the basis of this signal processing unit results which is connected to the measuring transducer, detects a failure of the device and provides the necessary measures, for example, sends a message about the replacement of the failed device.

Digital processor 21 of the signal processing main electronic part performs calculations very quickly. To control this IC requires the presence of a unit capable of at least as quick to make calculations or processing data from the digital processor signal processing. In this exemplary embodiment for conducting self-selected microcontroller 25. This decision provides for the execution of control calculation by the microcontroller 25. However, it does not require additional hardware and are available different hardware it guarantees improved reliability. However, it should be borne in mind that the lower the speed of the microcontroller 25 does not allow the calculation of a digital processor for processing signals in real time.

But the microcontroller 25 only carries the sample. The only time-critical process is to record the variables condition (temporarily save the values obtained by the last measuring cycle), the raw pressure data temperature touch electronic part and the calculated output value of the digital processor 21 of the signal processing. Subsequent calculation of the output values in the ICC practically does not depend on time, it can be interrupted with any frequency other program blocks.

Self-control generally consists of three blocks of the program: the main program, block recording of measured quantities and unit independent calculation with subsequent comparison. Full self-control is like state machines, and for billing specially used two separate process. This provides a different degree of priority of both processes at interrupt level. The recording of measured values requires a high priority, necessary for a complete, valid write data at a specified time. If this process took place at a lower level, then the self would not happen, since owing to the interruption of the data could never have been produced. In contrast to the calculation does not require a high priority, since it is not limited by time.

In sensory and specialized program are, respectively, the variables containing the value of the previous measurement (magnitude of attenuation, noise filters). It should be borne in mind that these values change very quickly, as a complete course in digital processor signal processing takes less than 10 MS. To control calc is the required digital data on the relevant time, because otherwise it will be impossible comparison with the accuracy a bit. This is due to the rapid entry of the relevant variables using the "internal code", i.e. the optimal code at the Assembly language level, which does not require the call registers and long-term multi-level operation.

Each new batch of data in the digital processor signal processing, causes an interrupt, which can be used for synchronization of self-control. Upon contacting the program interrupt processing occurs automatically increment counter (Framecounter). When a particular state of the counter as more functionality is integrated account status variables.

The recording of measured values includes writing data of pressure and temperature sensory specialized IP temporarily stored results of the previous calculation and the calculated output value of the digital processor signal processing. After recording the values, you must ensure that the recorded values indeed correspond to the same temporal moment of measurement.

After that, the microcontroller 25 executes the program digital processor signal processing for control calculation based on the recorded data. At the end of the control calculation performance is by comparison between the calculated and measured values. If the microcontroller detects too much difference between the calculated and measured values, the ASIC communication command is issued on the issuance of current errors and, if necessary, an error message via HART.

1. Electronic measuring instrument containing the first processor 21, which is a specialized digital signal processor of the signal processing performed by the execution processing of the measured values during the first cycles of treatment using the first algorithm and the second processor 25, which is a microcontroller, which has significantly lower performance compared with the digital processor of the signal processing performed with coordination tasks include initializing the first processor, and optionally a second processor 25 in the intervals of time longer than the first loop, reads from the first CPU 21 of the control data record and on the basis of this recording is the first the algorithm to check the correctness of the functions of the first processor, in which the control data record contains the raw sensor data, the variables of state and the appropriate totals calculated by the first processor.

2. Electronic measuring device according to claim 1, Otley is audica fact, what is checked by direct comparison read from the first CPU 21 of the result with the result obtained by executing the first algorithm second processor 25.

3. Electronic measuring device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the second processor includes a program memory and checks it using a checksum or cyclic redundancy code (CRC).

4. Electronic measuring device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the second processor further comprises a memory for recording - reading, which this processor can regularly check for static errors using test patterns.

5. Electronic measuring device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the second processor includes a memory for write - read that this processor can regularly check for static errors using the control algorithm.

6. Electronic measuring device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the second processor compares and verifies the data in the program memory of the first processor with locally mirrored memory region.

7. Electronic measuring device according to claim 6, wherein the second processor checks the well-known constant in the data memory of the first processor by comparing with locally defined values.

8 Electronic measuring device according to claim 6, wherein the second processor checks the configuration registers of the first processor by comparing with locally defined values.

9. Electronic measuring device according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the electronic measuring device contains a two-wire interface 4-20mA, and a control circuit, configured to verify the function of the second processor and its clock generator in case of failure of the signal regardless of the first 21 and the second 25 processors refusal through current signal 4-20 mA.



 

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