Method for processing of sea buckthorn berries

FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, complex processing of sea buckthorn berries for obtaining of food products.

SUBSTANCE: method involves processing prepared sea buckthorn berries in microwave oven at microwave radiation frequency of 2,450±50MHz, wherein juice is separated by gravity in an amount of from 30% to 65% by weight of berries; rubbing remaining mass through sieves for producing of pulp. Berries are heated-through in microwave oven to temperature of from 50°C to 80°C. Rubbing process is carried out by means of sieve made from non-corrosive material and equipped with apertures having diameter of from 0.8 mm to 1.5 mm. Total yield of food product (juice and pulp) constitutes 80-87% by weight of basic crude berries. Pulp is used for producing of jam.

EFFECT: increased depth of extracting useful substances and provision for producing of food product in the form of sea buckthorn extracts.

2 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to food industry, in particular for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries, and can be used on large specialized processing plants, sea buckthorn, and individual farm gardener, growing and processing of sea buckthorn berries for personal use.

Known widely used method of processing of sea-buckthorn berries using pressing, which according to the recipe get the juice out unclarified juice to 74%, while losses on technological operations up 7% and waste sorting and pressing to 26% (see a Collection of recipes for fruit and vegetables. / Comp. Mgori, SPb: GIORD, 1999, s). According to other data, from each tonne of sea-buckthorn berries pressing up:

- 700 kg juice of the first pressing;

110 kg of highly concentrated juice second pomace;

- 190 kg of raw pulp.

From each kilogram of the juice of the first pressing is possible to prepare 5 kg buckthorn drink, 1 kg of juice second Marc - 8 kg of drink.

Of 190 kg of raw pulp, after drying receive approximately 60 kg of dry pulp, of which sea buckthorn oil is about 30 kg and meal for feeding birds and young animals (See. Varlamov G.P. and other Cleaning and processing of sea buckthorn. - M.: INFRA - M, 2001, p.10; 229).

In the simplicity of implementation of the disadvantages of the method the net Pres the Finance should include, when such processing of sea-buckthorn berries for food purposes receive only one product in the form of dilute drink from the juice, which significantly increases the volume of the transported food products, increasing costs for recycling with limited range.

Also known technology for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries, which, along with the Pharmacopoeia of sea buckthorn oil to produce a Supplement made from the pulp of the sea buckthorn, clarified juice and food additive of the cake (see Tereschuk L.V. New technology of complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries // Storage and processing of farm products, No. 8, 1999, p.46-48).

When this technology first sea buckthorn berries come in a special cage, where it achieved a high degree of crushing of cellular structures pulp and skins and seeds remain in the upper part of the device intact, because it does not pass through the gap between two cylindrical rods.

Grinded grinded pulp and shell centrifuged. You get three layers: the bottom - puree weight; middle - clarified juice; upper - sea buckthorn pulp with a high content of lipids.

Puree mass (lower layer) and the pulp of sea buckthorn (top layer) is recommended to dry in mild temperatures (55...60° (C) to a moisture content of 14.0±0,5%.

Sea buckthorn pulp top the Loya used for the generation of sea-buckthorn oil, which can be used as a product as a dietary Supplement in food production.

Sea buckthorn oil cake is the residue formed after oil extraction, is used as an additive in the manufacture of composite products, including medicinal purposes.

Sea buckthorn weight of the lower layer after drying is used as an additive "Polis" (THE 9164-029-02068315-98).

Obtained by centrifugation clarified sea buckthorn juice is recommended to kopirovat with sugar and milk whey in the production of drinks.

This technology of complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries allows you to get several kinds of sea buckthorn products.

However, a limiting factor in the introduction of this advanced technology is that the industry is not yet produces the necessary disintegrator, which are the main primary processing device, process, probably due to the fact that sea buckthorn berries have a wide range of sizes berries and seeds that it is not possible to make a universal or adjustable gap between the rod-roller cage mill for fine grinding. In addition, centrifuge for separating finely ground sea buckthorn pulp is a fairly expensive device, requiring skilled services the project, that increases the cost of such production and limits its application.

Also known "Method of processing of sea-buckthorn berries (see RF Patent №2099971, A 23 L 1/212, publ. 27.12.97. Bull. No. 36), for which use line processing of sea-buckthorn berries (see RF Patent №20999987, A 23 N 15/00, publ. 27.12.97. Bull. No. 36). In the process produce processing berries microwave field, the extraction of juice from the heated berries on screw centrifuge, drying husks, serial pomace extraction with liquid carbon dioxide and a water-alcohol solution with separation of extracts, clarification of juice and packing juice and extracts, the extraction is carried out in the field of ultrasonic vibrations, the extract is subjected to freeze-vacuum drying, and the dried meal disintegrate and packaged.

The proposed method allows to increase the depth of the extract extracted substances and to obtain additional product nutritional condition in the form of extracts of sea buckthorn,

With the high quality and degree of processing of sea-buckthorn berries by this method to some shortcomings should be attributed to the fact that for its implementation requires special equipment for gas-liquid extractors and freeze-vacuum drying, precise performance of a given technology, and excellent customer service. In this regard, such a method m which can only be used on large specialized enterprises for mass processing of berries.

The objective of the invention is to develop a simplified method for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries with large range and high output main food products. For complex processing of berries should be used commercially produced food equipment and devices, and the method can be used regardless of the size of the berries and their seeds on large specialized enterprises and home for the processing of sea buckthorn berries on food products for personal consumption, in gardening or farming, growing of these products.

The task is solved in that the prepared sea buckthorn berries treated with the microwave field frequency of 2450±50 MHz microwave ovens with heating up to a temperature in the mass of berries from 50 to 80°S, placing them in a perforated container of radiotransparent material, while in the process of microwave heating of berries gravity stands out the juice in an amount of from 30 to 65% of the initial mass of berries, which flows into the team capacity and is used as a food product or for further processing. The remaining mass of the berries, after microwave processing and separation of the juice rubbed on the screens of corrosion resistant materials with holes with a diameter of from 0.8 to 1.5 mm to obtain sea buckthorn puree, in the amount of from 50 to 20% by weight of the berries. Waste on the screens in view of the seed and balances the skin of the berries is used separately, dosseva and grinding for more products, or used for feeding animals and poultry. From the obtained gravity of the juice it is possible to make sea buckthorn syrup or beverage, puree - buckthorn jam as a new original food product, as the waste - meal - after drying can be processed at a food additive in powder form, for such complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries using serial microwave ovens, household, or industrial, depending on production volumes, and a cleaning device - manual fluctuance or kitchen machines with interchangeable lens working bodies and in their combination, the method increases the yield of major food products from the berries of sea buckthorn to 80-87% by weight of berries, without accounting powder meal (additional products).

Subtle effect of the proposed method is that due to the proposed subsequent cleaning of sea-buckthorn berries after microwave processing and separation by gravity of sea buckthorn juice from the berries in these settings, also get a new product - buckthorn puree - based sea-buckthorn jam, practically does not require boiling, which increases the overall percentage yield food to 80-87% in a simplified and affordable processing of sea-buckthorn berries regardless of the size of the berries and seeds without the use of any from Calneh or specialized devices and equipment for processing of these berries. Thus the proposed method can be as large processing enterprises with specialized equipment (industrial microwave ovens and installation), and at home in the presence of a domestic microwave oven with a frequency of 2450±50 MHz and a food processor with interchangeable lens device, increasing yield valuable food during processing of sea-buckthorn berries.

The drawing shows a diagram of the proposed method for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries using microwave office of the juice and RUB the berries after microwave processing.

The proposed method for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries are carried out by the scheme (see drawing) as follows.

For household or laboratory conditions prepared for the processing of sea buckthorn berries - fresh, chilled or frozen - loaded into special dishes made of radiotransparent material with perforated bottom, mounted on the tank for collecting juice, cover with a lid and placed in the working chamber of the microwave oven operating at a frequency of 2450±50 MHz.

Set the operation mode, time, and power include microwave oven. In the process of microwave processing of berries is heated to a temperature in the mass of berries from 50 to 80°With the juice oozing from berries, flows in the lower sokoburu tank by gravity.

After microwave processing the separated juice is the number of from 30 to 65% by weight of berries, sent for further processing, and the remaining mass of berries rubbed on the screens of food grade corrosion resistant material with a hole diameter of 0.8 to 1.5 mm and get sea buckthorn puree in an amount of from 50% to 20% fundamentals for jam that does not require boiling, and waste in the form of a skin of berries and seeds.

For a production environment and with large volumes of processing of sea-buckthorn berries, you must use industrial microwave furnaces equipped with Zakataly for juice or trays and cleaning machines used in the food or in canning industry.

Specified in the way of technological parameters: the frequency of the microwave field 2450±50 MHz, the temperature of the microwave heating of the berries from 50 to 80°, juice yield in microwave ovens gravity 30-65% by weight of the berries, the diameter of the holes of the sieve for cleaning from 0.8 to 1.5 mm, the output puree wiping 50-20% by weight of the berries, the total number of food products from 80 to 87%, is determined experimentally, empirically in the process of research and testing method, are the main determinants for the implementation of the method and allows to obtain a homogeneous puree and subsequent jam high density of sea buckthorn. Changes in these parameters lead to the violation of technological process of processing and reduce the amount and quality of food products from the berries of sea buckthorn.

Practical validation of the proposed method for processing of sea-buckthorn berries conducted in the experimental laboratory at the faculty of agricultural products Ural State agricultural Academy, Ekaterinburg, Russia) in 2002, sea buckthorn Berries were received from Sverdlovsk breeding station of horticulture (SSSS), ensure varietal purity and quality of the berries. For processing berries used a domestic microwave oven with the volume of the working chamber 28 liters; steamer "Puraflam for microwave ovens with a perforated basket; fruchterman "Mulineks No. 2 and food processor "Mulineks" c rubbing device, as well as tableware for berries, juice, puree, waste, laboratory thermometer mercury to 100°C, scale and small laboratory utensils (spatulas, spoons).

The process according to the scheme (see drawing) was performed in two main stages. At the first stage when the warm-up to 50-80°s, when the frequency of the microwave field 2450±50 MHz in a microwave oven by gravity separated from the berries juice in an amount of from 30 to 65% of the initial mass of berries.

In the second phase, after separation of the juice, the remaining berries rubbed to obtain a puree and then jam by mixing mashed potatoes with sugar in the ratio 2:1 by weight.

The results in 2002, 2xa series of exploratory experiments on the processing of sea-buckthorn berries 8 varieties, presents SSSS (Sverdlovsk breeding station of horticulture), using microwave technology branch of juice followed by wiping to obtain a puree for further manufacture of syrups and jams by mixing products with sugar in with the 2:1 are presented in tables 1 and 2.

Table 1

The results of the processing of sea-buckthorn berries using microwave technology and cleaning cloth (collection 19.09.02. processing 20.09.02.) - 1 series of experiments
no versionGrade sea buckthornJuice yield, %Output puree, %The total yield
1Katun56,626,483,0
2535-73-256,226,182,3
3Panteleeva42,338,080,3
4Radiant33,649,282,8

In the first series of experiments used the berries of sea buckthorn varieties: "Katun", "Hybrid No. 535-73-2"; "Panteleeva" and "Radiant".

In the second series of experiments used the berries of sea buckthorn promising zoned in the Sverdlovsk region varieties, the most common collective gardens and the gardeners (Chu, Giant, Excellent, my Favorite).

Lots of berries for processing according to variety, the time and power of microwave processing is the same for all variants. The size of sieves for cleaning a diameter of 1.0 mm Grade sea buckthorn "Chui", 2tha series of experiments, b is l control when tasting and sensory assessment of the quality of the final product.

Table 2

The results of the processing of sea-buckthorn berries using microwave technology and cleaning cloth (collection 27.09.02. processing 28.09.02.) 2Ia series of experiments
no versionGrade sea buckthornJuice yield, %Output puree, %Total yield, %
5Chui59,123,282,3
6Giant61,322,784,0
7Superb61,225,086,2
8Favorite42,340,282,4

From tables 1 and 2 it follows that in quantitative terms the yield of juice and puree from different varieties varies quite widely, depending on the cultivar and is in the range from 61,3 33.6% of the juice from the pulp of the berries.

In the conducted experiments the maximum yield of juice obtained from varieties of "Giant" (option # 6) - 61,3%, minimum - grade "Radiant" (option # 4) - 36,6%.

The output of the mash (wiping) after separation of the juice maximum cultivar "Radiant" (option # 4) and 49.2%, minimum 22,7% in grade "Giant" (option # 6). The remainder (seeds and skins) after separation of the juice and allocation puree was about the 10.9% of the grade "Katun" (option # 1) (the small-fruited) to 6.7% in grade "Giant" (option # 6) (the garden).

The total output of the main food products from the berries of the sea buckthorn was according to the experiences from 80,3 up to 86.2% of the initial mass of berries. The maximum yield obtained from the berries of a grade of "Excellent". In the control class "Chui" the total output of food products (juice + puree) amounted to 82.3%, which is the average for these experiments.

A visual assessment of the samples it was evident that the juice and syrup have different coloring product from Burgundy red samples (#1 and # 2) to light yellow(№3; №4; №7; №8).

The gem color is more uniform throughout the volume of samples and more intensely colored than juice and syrup. Especially brightly colored jam of sorts "Katun" (No. 1), "535-73-2" (No. 2) and "Chui" (No. 5).

According to the results of experiments visually it is possible to assume that the bulk kartinov and carotinoids from berries (providing orange and red color of the berries) in the processing goes into a puree and then to jam, as the juice is lighter.

Upon receipt of the syrup by adding sugar juice, with a ratio of 2:1 by weight product color changes somewhat (dark).

The most dense (not spreading) jam obtained from samples No. 1; 2; 5; 6. Samples of sea buckthorn # 3 and # 7, you can get jam medium density. Jam of the samples of sea-buckthorn berries, No. 4 and No. 8 does not retain the form (spreads) and requires boiling.

the factors experiments show the feasibility of the method, his perspective and that the proposed method for complex processing of sea-buckthorn berries allows you to extend the range of products and to receive various food products (juice, syrup, puree and new product jam) from sea buckthorn, using existing equipment and appliances with increased total output of food products (table 1 and 2) to 86.2% from almost any varieties of sea buckthorn.

The method is available and can be used as gardeners and farmers, as well as in industrial processing of sea-buckthorn berries.

The method of processing of sea-buckthorn berries, including the preparation of berries, microwave processing in a microwave oven, the separation of the juice, skins and seeds, characterized in that the berries are processed holistically sequentially in two stages, the first stage carry out the separation of the juice by gravity in the number of 30-65% of the initial mass of berries in the process of microwave heating in a microwave oven to a temperature of 50-80°when the frequency of the microwave field 2450±50 MHz, in the second stage, the remaining mass is rubbed through a sieve with holes of 0.8-1.5 mm to obtain a puree, and remaining on the sieves waste sent for further use or for drying and grinding, and puree obtained when wiping, used for the production of sea buckthorn jam.



 

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