Method for separately mining and transporting thick coal seam with gangue, and backfilling goaf with gangue
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining. Method for separately mining and transporting thick coal seams with gangue and backfilling a goaf with gangue comprises tunneling transportation roadway (1) and track roadway (2) in parallel in the shaft. Connecting the transport roadway and the track roadway to form an open-off cut. Employing comprehensive mechanical solid filling and coal mining technology for coal recovery and goaf backfilling during coal mining. Mining the coal seam and the gangue seam in layers from top to bottom in sequence. Transporting the coal down to the transportation roadway via front scraping conveyor (10), and transporting the coal out of a working face via belt conveyor (5) in the transportation roadway. During gangue seam mining, reversing the front scraping conveyor to transport the gangue to the track roadway, transporting the gangue to goaf (14) via reverse gangue loader (6) and feeding scraper (7) in the track roadway, and backfilling the gangue to goaf (14) via backfill scraping conveyor (12).
EFFECT: method improves quality and degree of coal mining.
1 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: slag includes acid electrolyte with solution density ρ=1.310 g/cm3, and slag of steel-smelting production is electric steel-smelting slag. The cement-free binder including slag of steel-smelting production, burnt rocks of mine dump and slag produced as a result of neutralisation of spent electrolytes of acid accumulators by lime, contains electric steel-smelting slag as slag of steel-smelting production, and slag contains electrolyte with solution density ρ=1.310 g/cm3 at the following ratio, wt %: burnt rocks 14, steel-smelting slag - electric steel-smelting 78, slag 8.
EFFECT: increased strength.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including a binding agent, an inert filler and water, where the binding agent and the inert filler are made from ore benefication wastes, with a fraction size of not more than 20 mm, one part of which is subject to dry activation by preliminary agitation leaching, separation of a liquid phase, drying and activation in a disintegrator, and the other part is mixed with a leaching solution; the obtained pulp is activated in the disintegrator; the liquid phase is separated; a deposit is dried and a dry mixture of the compound is prepared, wt %: a binding agent - the specified product of dry activation 42, inert filler - the specified deposit 58; after that, water is added in terms of 280-290 l per 1 m3 of dry mixture; rotation speed of a working element of the disintegrator is at least 200 Hz.
EFFECT: achievement of sufficient strength at reduction of content of metals and cost.
SUBSTANCE: stowing composition comprising portland cement, plastifying agent, fine-grained filler - sand and water, additionally comprises as a binder the milled tailings of wet magnetic separation of ferrous quartzites with an average particle size of 2.071 microns, as a plastifying agent - superplasticiser SP-1, and the sand with an average particle size of 62.26 microns with the following ratio of components, wt %; the said cement - 13.48; the said sand - 56.43; the said wastes - 2.70; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.138; water - the rest.
EFFECT: decrease in cement consumption, and increase in the strength of the stowing composition, use of sand with a lower fineness modulus.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick edge ore bodies with unstable ores, for instance, kimberlite pipes, by the underground method. The method includes division of a deposit into panels and layers with their extraction in stopes in descending order and subsequent filling with hardening mixtures, parameters of layer stoping are increased along height and width to chamber dimensions, and along the length they are divided into sections, besides, chamber stopes and sections in the vertical-longitudinal section are given the shape of the isosceles trapezoid. Then their mining is carried out in stages so that during mining of each subsequent section the level of the haulage horizon is reduced by the height of the sectional haulage mine, for this purpose, initially, in the chamber-stop roof for all of its sections they arrange a common drilling-filling mine, and the sectional haulage mine, for each subsequent section, is mined under the filling massif of the earlier mined section, besides, after complete mining of the previous section its haulage mine in the reverse order is expanded to the width of the previously filled section, at the same time the direction of mining of chambers-stopes on each subsequent underlying layer is changed for the opposite one.
EFFECT: increased intensity of deposit mining in case of unstable ores, due to provision of stability of ore walls of stope entries during the whole period of performance of stoping works and exclusion of breaks in a filling massif, and also improved conditions for ventilation of mines.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick steeply-dipping valuable ore bodies by the open-underground method. The method includes development of a pit to design depth with arrangement of the board to the limit position, mining of bottom and near-edge-zone reserves of ore with application of underground mines, transportation of broken ore in underground mines. Development of near-edge-zone reserves of the ore is carried out after extraction of bottom ones with a chamber system of development under protection of a combined rock-filling massif at the side of the pit space, besides, the rock-filling massif is formed as bottom up in layers, alternating filling of the waste rock and filling of the hardening filling mixture of the formed space between the dump and the board of the pit on each layer.
EFFECT: reduced losses and dilution in mining of near-edge-zone reserves of ore from overlying rocks.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of mineral fields with filling of the mined space. The composition of the filling mass includes portland cement, a filler and water, besides, it additionally comprises a surfactant of a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is represented by stale wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and converter sludge at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement - 8.0; specified sludge - 12.70; specified wastes - 56.64; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.08; water - balance.
EFFECT: exclusion of natural fillers, increased mobility of filling mass and increased volumes of recycled anthropogenic wastes for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, namely, to undermining of ore bodies with filling of the mined space with hardening mixes. The method to determine extent of undermining of hardening fill under mechanical damage of ore massif includes formation of a hole in the ore massif and fixation of a stiff rod in it for fixed depth, supply of hardening filling mix into the mined space, damage of the ore massif with a part of the contact layer of the hardening fill massif. When mining the ore massif, they damage the rod in the ore massif and in the contact layer of the hardening fill massif, and the extent of undermining of hardening fill is determined according to the difference in the following formula: Δ=L-L1-L2, where Δ - extent of undermining of the hardening fill massif; L - total length of blind cavity, arranged inside the rod; L1 - length of rod deepening in the hole of the ore massif; L2 - length of blind cavity that is left after damage of the ore massif.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to determine extent of undermining of hardening fill massif.
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a preparation method of a porous hardening mixture for stowing of the mined-out underground space, which involves joint crushing and grinding of a mineral filler and a binding agent in a cone-type inertia crusher, mechanical activation of the obtained mixture, addition of water to the mixture and its supply to the stowed space. Besides, mechanical activation of the mixture is performed till water is added to it at the value of crushing force of (4÷8)·105 N. And before the mixture is supplied to the stowed space, foam is added to the stowing mixture.
EFFECT: reduction of a binding agent consumption at sufficient strength of a stowing mixture.
SUBSTANCE: method includes tunnelling of a complex of stripping, preparatory and cutting underground mines, ore breaking and delivery, mine pressure maintenance, transportation, lifting of ore to a horizon of a ore-collecting hopper. Stopes are mined with the help of chamber systems with subsequent filling of the mined space. Tunnelling of a row of mines and process chambers is carried out outside the ore massif in foot wall rocks. Two separate mobile grinding modules are installed in process chambers, which are connected to each other by systems of transportation of a solid stowing mix components, including broken rock. The first module of coarse grinding is placed in preparatory or cut mines, and the second one - fine grinding directly above the filled space and combined with a module for mixing of the solid stowing mix, at the same time unloading from the module of fine grinding is carried out via a receiving tray and a well into the filled space. Grinding of rocks in the fine grinding module is provided to the content of - 0.074 class not below 32%.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of mining.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition of a mixture for filling of mined space includes wastes of enrichment processes, lime, sodium lignosulfonate and water. The specified wastes are current tails of floatation dressing of polymetal ores with moisture of less than 30% at the following content of components, kg/m3: current tails of floatation enrichment of polymetal ores with moisture of less than 30% 1800 - 2010, lime 80 - 120, sodium lignosulfonate 1.2 - 1.5 and water - balance to 1 m3. The method to manufacture the composition of the mixture for filling of the mined space includes drying of current tails of floatation enrichment of polymetal ores to moisture content of less than 30%. Sodium lignosulfonate is previously dissolved in water, and then mixed with dried tails and lime.
EFFECT: simplified and cheaper filling mixture with preserved operating properties.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of determining a position of mechanisms in a working face in underground mining is provided, comprising the following steps: a video camera is mounted in a roof timber area of a roof support with the viewing direction mainly in the direction of an air flow, or opposite it, the camera is oriented so that the vanishing point of the image from the camera is in the area of the right or the left upper corner of the image from the camera, illuminated markings are provided on the mechanisms along the working face in the area of the image from the camera and they are operated, as well as the positions of the mechanisms are determined by means of electronic processing of the markings located on the camera image. Also a system and a video camera for implementing the method are proposed.
EFFECT: providing the opportunity of simultaneous monitoring of the straightness of the working face, recording of a vertical and horizontal deflection of roof supports and the conveyors, controlling automatically the stroke of the roof supports, or to monitor the mining machine.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: powered roof support is offered for dipping and steep formations of medium thickness, containing the sections, each of which comprises a roof beam, a shoe, a pneumocushion and an embankment, and also a hardware compartment capsule and an advancing mechanism. Besides, the roof support section is designed with a possibility of adjustable spacing and impulse air supply into pneumocushions of the spacer elements and contains an ultrasonic generator with the wave guide transmitting ultrasound to the shoe, exciting in it the oscillations favouring to sliding of the roof support section. The embankment consists of pivotally connected sectors which are softly supported by the shoe through pneumatic shock-absorbers. The advancing mechanism contains two spacer bars with shot pins fixed on a carriage with a possibility of their movement on guides, located on lateral surfaces of the capsule of the hardware compartment using a double action pneumojack.
EFFECT: improvement of adaptability of the roof support to changes of the formation hypsometry, stabilizing the roof support section and its survival in emergencies related to rock failure.
SUBSTANCE: face equipment for working in solid working system at underground coal deposit working by bottomhole conveyor that can displace along cleaner and assemblies of shield support secured thereat at the angle. Note here that to define absolute elevation of preset bottom-hole equipment elements (12, 15, 31) along the breakage front (10) a fluid filled hose level (17) is laid. The latter is connected top accurately defined elevation point located at one of parallel excavation entries (13, 14) of basic station (19). Note here that pressure gages (22) are interconnected and connected with central data processing unit with distribution over the length of face equipment at separated elements (12, 15, 31) to hose duct (18, 23, 24) of hose level (17).
EFFECT: accurate definition of elevation mark.
14 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: section of powered support comprises a base, a boundary element connected to the base by means of four-link chain, pivotally connected by the support element to the boundary element, hydraulic props and hydraulic jacks of the skidding. At that the upper part of the boundary element of the section is hingedly connected to the spring-loaded panel, the opposite end of which is hingedly connected to the toothed bar, contacting with the other end with the electrical generator gear, which is mounted on the inner side of the boundary element and connected by the wire to the battery, placed on the lower surface of the support element.
EFFECT: transformation of energy from breaking rocks into electricity, which enables to reduce the need in stope in the electrical energy delivered from the surface, to improve the complex extraction of energy resources of massif of mineral deposit.
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a powered support for inclined heavy formations, which includes sections, each of which includes a bar, a shoe, a pneumatic post and a goaf enclosure, as well as a capsule of a hardware compartment and a hauling mechanism. The pneumatic post is located on a support yielding arch consisting of hinged sectors spring-loaded with plate springs and softly supported from the shoe through air shock absorbers. Besides, the hauling mechanism consists of two manipulators supported from bed soil and an ultrasonic generator with a waveguide providing smooth sliding of the shoe along bed soil at hauling of the support.
EFFECT: proposed support provides further improvement of serviceability of the support on steep dip due to improvement of the design; improving stability; reducing energy consumption at hauling of the support and ultrahigh flexibility.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a powered support that includes the sections, each of which includes a cap piece, air bags, a shifting element, a capsule of an apparatus compartment, a shoe, and a downhole and goaf enclosure. As a shifting element, two manipulators are used, which are located on both sides of the apparatus compartment and which are strutted with their grips against bed soil. In the shoe centre there is a retractable cylinder with a semispherical support on the end and an air bag inside it, which give a possibility of performing jumping movements with transfer of the section under a newly exposed roof after the face advance. Besides, between the goaf enclosure and a capsule of the apparatus compartment there are air bags that serve for shock absorption of the rocks fallen onto the support.
EFFECT: increasing serviceability of a support at oblique incidence owing to simplifying the structure, improving stability and reducing energy consumption at shifting of the support.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mechanised timber comprises base sections made in the form of a pneumatic sliding blade with a number of pneumatic bags as an element of the thrust, linear sections with roof bar, and a shifting mechanism. And the linear section has as an element of the thrust the pneumatic rack which is a polymer film sleeve reinforced with polymer hoops, which rests on the capsule of the apparatus cabinet, and the roof bar of the linear section is covered with an elastic polymer layer. The shifting mechanism consists of two external discs, one of which belongs to goaf fence, and another - the linear sections between which the pneumatic bags are located, and two internal discs with the pneumatic bags between them. And the disc located closer to the goaf fence, is connected by the rods to the capsule of the apparatus cabinet of the linear section and the disc located closer to the linear section, is connected by the rods to the goaf fence.
EFFECT: creation of sustainable workable timber for excavating powerful and average power abrupt layers under conditions of rapid manifestation of rock pressure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed lining comprises bed, canopy with extending deflector, two hydraulic props of goaf and face sides and appropriate supports. Two abutments tie the canopy goaf part with the face side supports. Hydraulic jacks are arranged on both lateral sides of the bed while top and bottom barriers are made on goaf side. Besides, it incorporates electrical and hydraulic equipment. Note here that section is integrated with cutting-supplying machine composed by horizontal screw equipped with cutters. Note here that said bed represents a telescopic design. Bed top part between goaf side supports has two lengthwise cut-outs. Bottom part can be extended by hydraulic jacks coupled with top part of the bed. Goaf side bottom barrier is welded and secured by ribs to the bed extending part. Hydraulic jack stroke makes at least that of lining section displacement while stiffness ribs are fitted in aforesaid cut-outs. Canopy is equipped with extra extending deflector arranged on goaf side whereto goaf barrier is welded. Bottom part of said extra extending deflector is provided with process opening to secure detachable brackets to support roll of wire tie or polymer screen.
EFFECT: higher safety, efficient maintenance of working space.
SUBSTANCE: section of lining of mining face comprises a base, a floor slab with the hood, hydraulic racks of goaf and bottomhole raw, the supports corresponding to them, jibs connecting the goaf part of the floor slab with the supports of the bottomhole raw, hydraulic jacks of advance mounted on both sides of the base, the upper and lower barriers at the goaf side with technological gaps made in them and electrical and hydraulic equipment. The section is structurally connected to the excavation and a delivery vehicle made in the form of a horizontally oriented auger equipped with a cutter. The upper barrier at the goaf side of the lining section normally to the floor slab the hydraulic cylinders of the jacks are welded supplying additional cutting tool mounted in parallel to the excavation and delivery vehicle, in the floor slab at the goaf side the technological gap is made, in which the additional cutting tool is placed in the starting position. The base is made telescopic - the upper part of the base in the space between the supports of the same raw is made a series of grooved shape with two longitudinal slots, the lower part is made pulled out due to hydraulic jacks connected to the upper part of the base. The lower barrier at the goaf side of the section of lining with welding and reinforcement ribs is connected to the pulled out part of the base, and the amount of stroke of the jacks of pulling out of the base is not less than the advance increment of the section of lining and the reinforcement ribs are inserted into the slots of the upper part of the base.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of maintaining workspace of the mining face and extension of the scope.
SUBSTANCE: proposed support comprises axially symmetric rectangular-cross-section air shell of two equal parts, pressure-gage and air feed hoses and device to fill and control air overpressure. Note here that said support is equipped with extra axially symmetric rectangular-cross-section air shell of two equal parts, pressure-gage and air feed hoses, independent of the main one and arranged between its parts. Note here that at initial stage, pressure in extra air shell is kept making not over 1/5 of main air shell pressure while extra shell height in as-filled state makes at least 1/3 of the support total height in air-filled state.
EFFECT: simplified design and erection, lower costs and higher reliability.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing a panel by carrying out in-seam workings in the upper layer, followed by workings in the lower layer and joint mining layers in reverse order. To prepare the excavation site the ventilation and conveyor gates on the upper and lower layers to the border of the panel are carried out, where they are connected by mounting cameras in which the mechanized complexes are mounted. On the rear fences of hydroficated baring of the upper layer the additional fences are mounted, moving on rollers on the upper lining of the hydroficated baring of the lower layer. When leaving the pillars on the flanks of stope in the upper layer in hydroficated sections of the baring mounted on the flanks in the lower layer, the windows are equipped for release of carbon to the face conveyor. When non-pillar method of preparing on the conveyor and ventilation gates of the lower layer, travelled with coal-cutting with stone to gates of the upper layer, the face-end support is mounted, on which the sections of the hydroficated baring of the complex of the upper layer are moved.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the safety and the concentration of mining operations, and reduce the amount of development workings on the rock.