Local waters purification method for watering of peatlands
FIELD: peat extraction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the extraction of peat, specifically to the work on the restoration of peat bogs, and in particular to the watering of worked-out peatlands. Method consists of using water from an accessible source, its redistribution to distributors throughout the peatland area. Moreover, on the developed peat bog, an artificial relief is created in the form of barrier vertical waterproof fences with the possibility of flowing to the free areas between them. In this case, watertight fences are tied to stakes, that are placed vertically and their lower ends are buried in the soil of the peat bog, while on the area of the worked peat bog the main and distribution polyethylene pipelines are laid on the bottom, they are equipped with distribution wells, in the upper part of which are provided evenly on the sides of the surface with holes for draining the water and provided with a lid, in addition, the incoming first well of the main pipeline is combined with a mobile pumping station in the form of SNP, and the outgoing end portion thereof is connected to a partitioning hydraulic engineering structure, dividing the worked-out laid operational road into an upper and a lower portion, a well in the center of which the bottom is supplied with a discharge vertical pipe, connected by means of a knee at a level difference with a polyethylene main pipeline with distributing pipelines of the second section, while a well with an installed vertical discharge pipe is supplied from above with a lid in the form of an external cylinder with a screw elevator with the possibility of moving the outer cylinder along the height.
EFFECT: technical result is the provision of efficient injection of local waters into the main and distribution pipelines with wells-dampers, ensuring controllability and flexibility of the system for flooding the developed peatlands to resume marshes to its original state and improve the ecological situation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the reclamation of sludge pits, production of artificial earth mixtures based on drilling sludge and can be used in the mining and oil-producing industries. The method consists in the subsequent collection of liquid oil, then, bituminised oil from water surface of the pit, pumping-out of a water phase from the pit, creation of cutting backfills, collection of the bituminised oil from the surface of the drilling sludge, collection of the bituminised oil, oil sludge and oil-contaminated soil from the diking surface of the drilling sludge pit, mixing of the obtained drilling sludge with peat and sand in the following ratio, vol %: drilling sludge not more than 75.0, peat not less than 18.0, sand not less than 7.0, at the total content of the components, which is equal to 100 vol % in the volumes providing the obtainment of soil performing a function of soil-forming rock, with further quality control of the soil, reinforcement of its surface, creation of a fertile layer and by planting; with that, the total volume value of the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock, volume of a material for the creation of cutting strips, volume of a material for the reinforcement of the soil surface, volume of a material for the creation of the fertile layer is chosen based on the equality or non-exceedance of the volume of the drilling sludge pit.
EFFECT: obtaining the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock - a component of natural environment, which has improved quality characteristics.
2 cl, 7 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: material for reclamation of solid domestic waste landfills and quarries comprises the natural soil and industrial wastes. As the industrial wastes it comprises final slag formed during the production of ferrovanadium using aluminium-silicothermal manner with the mass ratio of natural soil to the industrial wastes equal to 1:1.
EFFECT: expansion of range of technical means.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, displacement and piling of soil layer and overburden rocks into separate band dumps, mining of a pit field, filling of the mined space with construction wastes to the border of the upper level of ground water, and the composition of the wastes is close to natural minerals with different size of fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying of a draining layer with construction wastes having thickness of not more than 0.6 m and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At the same time they first perform design and planning works for construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then above the draining layer they do primary fill of the mined space of the pit with a mixture made of overburden rocks and ground construction wastes with fraction size of the latter not more of 100 mm that are mixed in equal proportions. Fill is carried out to complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then a layer of soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group is applied onto the surface planed with a bulldozer, and at least in one year they perform final planning, then ploughing of the planed surface with subsequent levelling, afterwards roads are connected, and hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the restored area is divided into sections to bury remains.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of soil excavation for creation of a fertile layer and improvement of environmental situation.
SUBSTANCE: in the river valley the dams of embankment are constructed for creation of fields of filtration and prevention of spreading of sewage water from the reclamated plot. At that the sewage water from the dredging water reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles is fed through the hoses on the planned surface of the reclamated plot, and the place of pulp supply is periodically changed on the area of the reclamated plot.
EFFECT: return of the clay material in the pore space of coarse-grained sediment dredging that leads to saturation of deposits with fine soil and to improvement of the hydrothermal regime and increase in soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.
EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for prevention of soil and groundwater pollution, in particular to the creation of concrete blankets on the landfills and storage of industrial, household and mainly liquid wastes. Subgrade 1 is prepared and protective layer 2 is arranged in it. Protective layer 2 is previously placed between two layers of geotextile 3 and 4. Mixture of sodium and calcium bentonitic clay 5 is used as the protective layer 2 in ratio of 75% Na-bentonite and 25% Ca-bentonite. Layer of mineral soil 6 with surface treated with fixing agent 7 is laid on top of the protective layer 2. Polymer liquid emulsion from wastes of polyisobutylene is used as a fixing agent at t=34-40°C.
EFFECT: high operational reliability, durability, as well as stability of coating on the slopes and in case of subsidences of the base are provided.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to hydraulic engineering, namely to the means for strengthening the surfaces of various objects of natural or synthetic origin, including the banks and beds of watercourses, surfaces of dams and dikes, as well as underwater lines of pipelines, bridge supports. Besides, the device may find application also in the field of construction. Unit of movable joint for web forming of concrete mats comprises the connecting element and fastenings. Fastenings are embedded into the concrete units of mats. According to the first option of the device, the units are asymmetric in plan and are designed with bevels, forming the cavity in the web. According to the second option of the device, the units are designed with recesses outside the plane of maximum size of the unit in plan, forming the cavity in the web. According to the third option of the device, the units are designed with bevels or recesses in its corner portion, forming the cavity in the web. Connecting element is disposed in the cavity indicated in options of the device, and is connected with fastenings with possibility of unit displacement.
EFFECT: protection of mat fastening against the mechanical damages and manufacturability of creation of movable joint of concrete mats are increased.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. For predicting the destruction of riverbanks, including the determining of adverse sites of the surveyed territories and ranking the sites, the coastal zone of the river is preliminary examined and the coastal areas with the square S equal to 1 m2 are selected. Then, on each of the selected sites the site square, covered with vegetation, is determined, they are summed and the square1 is obtained, m2. Then the rate of total projective covering soil with vegetation is calculated as the ratio S1:S,%, on the same sites the benchmarks are set at a distance of 2, 4, 6 meters from the shore horizon and the readings on the ground level on the benchmark are taken as the reference point of the condition monitoring of sites of riverbank. Then the wash height h, cm, is monthly measured at each benchmark, relative to the reference point, and then the average total index of wash height hav in three benchmarks is calculated, then a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the processes of soil losses from coastal areas of the river bank is performed, and on its basis the relationship is set between the value of the total index hav and the total projective cover, and then the degree of degradation of sites is evaluated, they are ranked to undisturbed and disturbed. Prediction of destruction of sites of the riverbank is made on the basis of the complex use of total index of wash height hav and total projective cover.
EFFECT: invention provides increase in reliability of prediction of destruction of river banks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coast-protecting structures. The method to protect river coasts at foothills consists in the fact that at first they horizontally lay reinforced concrete beams 4, to the ends of which at the side of the river they fix tetrahedrons 5, the skeleton of which is represented only by structure ribs. After that, gabions 1 are laid, besides, stone laid into gabion boxes protrudes from net cells by 3-4 cm. The gabion structure is protected from abrasive at high speeds of the flow and increased concentration of abrasive.
EFFECT: increased reliability of coast-protecting structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a protective system, in particular to the protective system intended for preservation and restoration of the shoreline. The protective system (1) comprises a gabion having opposite side walls (13, 15) interconnected at regular intervals along the length of the gabion by several separating walls (7, 9), and the gaps between neighbouring pairs of partition walls (7, 9) bound together with the side walls at least one separate compartment (7) of the gabion. At least one separate compartment of the gabion is bounded by respective opposite side walls or opposite parts of the side walls in the respective opposite side walls. The partition walls are hingedly connected to the side walls, and the separate compartment of the gabion extends from it outwardly with at least partial converging of panels of the open frame (21), forming in whole or in part the protruding compartment (5) of the gabion. The method of preservation or restoration the shoreline comprises the following steps, including creation of the above-mentioned protective system; at least partial filling at least one compartment with the filling material, preferably sand, stones and/or vegetation; at least partial filling the protruding compartment with oyster shells, and performing at least partial facing the shoreline with the protective system.
EFFECT: protective system is used for changing the direction of the wave energy, especially sea wave energy, to preserve the shoreline, as well as for restoration the shoreline.
36 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.
EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used when creating the impervious protection of water entities, canals and reservoirs of industrial wastes made on subsiding soils. Ground base is prepared. Bentomate mattress is laid. Revetment from concrete or reinforced concrete slabs is performed. In this case, strip of bentomate mattress is placed on mattress under the joints of concrete slabs. Width of additional strip of bentomate mattress depends on geological and subsiding soil properties.
EFFECT: high production manufacturability and simplification of works on creation of impervious coating is provided.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.
EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.
17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.
EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of fire extinguishing for small contour peatlands is to prepare the trench (ditch), in which the pipelines 1 with holes 2 are laid. In the cavity of the pipelines 1 the additional pipelines 3 with perforation 4 are placed. In the storage water reservoir through the automatic water level regulator of the tail bay 7 the water level is set, then the water enters the well-distributor 5. The well 5 is connected by the low-pressure pipeline with automatic water level regulator of the tail bay 7. The water from the well-distributor 5 is supplied to each perforated pipeline, the inlet of which is connected with the well-distributor 5 at the level of its bottom. The water is supplied to the pressure pipeline 8 from the storage water reservoir 36 using mobile pumping station. The pressure pipeline 8 is hydraulically connected to the automatic water level regulator 7. The drain of storm rainfall or snowmelt is fully retained in the storage water reservoir and flows into the perforated pipelines 3 and then into the cavity of the main pipeline 1 with holes from which water comes into the upper layers of peat.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in peatlands, reduced risk of emergencies, and improved overall environmental situation around the peatlands.