Discharge camera for plasma chemical reactions
SUBSTANCE: discharge chamber includes two coaxial electrodes, a dielectric barrier and removable discharge initiators, installed on one of the electrodes. The dielectric barrier is located between the electrodes with gaps relative to each of the electrodes. The discharge initiators enter the annular grooves made in the electrode. The gap of H size between the dielectric barrier and the electrode with the grooves is filled with a flowing working gas. The discharge initiators are fixed in the paired annular grooves with removable clamping elements in such a way that the distance L between the areas of the above initiators, facing in the direction of the dielectric barrier, and the dielectric barrier satisfies the condition 0.25H≤L≤0.5H. The gap between the dielectric barrier and the other electrode is filled with a circulating electrically-conductive fluid.
EFFECT: increase of the maximum capacity of the discharge chamber on the initiated barrier discharge of a repetitively pulsed action.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of reforming with application of catalyst. Described is method of reforming hydrocarbons with water vapour, including contact of supplied gas in reactor of catalytic partial oxidation or installation for autothermal reforming. Reactor operates at temperature 800-1600°C and pressure of 20-100 bar. Egg shell type catalyst, consisting of active compound in form of alloy of nickel and one metal from iridium and ruthenium, on supporter, containing aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide or their combinations. Catalyst has cylindrical shape and has one or several through holes, where distance from centre to external catalyst surface constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, catalyst height constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, with diameter of one or several through holes constituting from 3 to 30 mm. At least 90 wt % of iridium or ruthenium in catalyst are located in external envelope which has depth up to 10% of external catalyst surface or to 10% of periphery of one or several through holes of catalyst.
EFFECT: realisation of method of catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming at reduced drop of pressure in catalyst layer without reduction of catalyst activity.
12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of petrochemistry and more specifically to a method of producing synthesis gas which is used as the feedstock, for example, for the synthesis of methanol, dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch method. The method of producing synthesis gas comprises oxidative conversion of methane-containing gas at a temperature more than 650°C in through-flow riser, using as oxidant the microspherical or crushed catalyst based on metal oxides, capable of multiple redox transitions, at that the catalyst is continuously passed through the riser upwards in the methane-containing gas flow with a residence time of the feedstock in the reaction zone of 0.1-10 s, separating the catalyst passing from the reactor from the product and regeneration of the catalyst by oxidation with carbon dioxide in the regenerator from which the regenerated catalyst enters the reactor. The oxidative conversion of methane-containing feedstock and regeneration of regenerated catalyst is carried out simultaneously and continuously.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the removal rate of the product, to reduce energy consumptions for transportation of oxygen-containing agent, to reduce the risk of explosion and ignition, as well as to adjust the composition of the synthesis gas.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining hydrogen from reagents, including liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and/or oxygen-containing compounds, including those, obtained from biomass, and their mixture. In order to obtain hydrogen used are: section of reagents heating; section of catalytic partial oxidation with short contact time, in which synthesis-gas is obtained; section of heat recuperation; section of converting carbon monoxide, present in synthesis-gas, into carbon dioxide by reaction of water gas conversion; section of said carbon dioxide removal; section of condensate cooling and removal.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain H2 and CO2 of high purity and purge gas with average heat-generating ability, which can be used in combustion processed and/or introduced into installation fuel supply system.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst for heterogeneous reactions, which includes copper, chromium, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional component is disclosed. The catalyst contains, as the additional component, 0.5-5 wt % of a silicon compound with respect to the oxide and the catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components, and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO 50.0-57.0; Cr2O3 11.0-16.0; ZnO 9.5-13.0; SiO2 0.5-5.0; aluminium oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst having high strength, thermal stability and which can be used in different chemical processes.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a system for hydrogen development and a method for controlled hydrogen development. A method consists in carrying out a reaction of a metal agent selected in alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys and mixtures consisting of alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys consisting of at least one alkali metal, and at least one alkali earth metal with water for producing hydrogen and a residual product of reaction in the form of metal hydroxide specified in alkali hydroxides and alkali earth hydroxides; the metal agent is condensed by heating in vacuum; the liquid metal agent is supplied into a homogeneous reactor by extrusion by means of feed units, and water is simultaneously supplied to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of water in accordance with an amount of the liquid metal agent; the hydrogen and residual product are transported into the separation units and separated; separated hydrogen is transported into a hydrogen receiver; the residual reaction product is transported into a metal hydroxide receiver; the oxygen ingress into the metal agent feed units, water feed system, reactor, separators and hydrogen receiver by the selective use of vacuum.
EFFECT: developing the method for controlled hydrogen development.
22 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a copper-zinc catalyst, which includes copper, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional silicon compound. The catalyst contains 0.5-5.0 wt % of a silicon compound, with respect to the oxide, which is mixed with copper and zinc oxides. The catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO - 40.0-55.0; ZnO - 24.0-35.0; SiO2 - 0.5-5.0; AlO3 - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-zinc catalyst having high strength and thermal stability.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the production process of synthetic gas by hydrocarbon conversion, and namely to processes of oxidative conversion. The synthetic gas is produced at the combustion of a hydrocarbon stock with an oxidiser with the oxidiser excess coefficient less than 1 at a temperature less than 1400 K inside a cavity formed partially or completely by a three-dimensional matrix permeable for the mixture of the gas and oxidiser. Input of the hydrocarbon stock with the oxidiser is made through a permeable bottom of the cavity or through permeable walls and bottom of the cavity, while the output of combustion products is made through the upper cross-section of the cavity. Before input to the cavity the mixture of the gas and oxidiser or one gas of the mixture partially or completely is heated by heat produced by combustion products. The matrix is heated additionally by heat radiation reflected from the screen placed in the matrix cavity and permeable for the combustion products.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to the increased output of the synthetic gas at the usage of hydrocarbon mixtures with the high content of non-combustible products having a low calorific value.
2 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding of raw gas mix into a set of pipes containing the catalyst into reforming-furnaces, execution of reforming reaction for formation of the reformat containing H2, CO, CH4 and H2O, withdrawal of reformat, burning of fuel with heated gas oxidiser in the reforming-furnace combustion chamber unit, for obtaining of a gaseous combustion product and generation of heat for the purpose of power supply of raw gas mix reaction in pipes, combustion product withdrawal, heating of gas oxidiser by heat exchange with the combustion product, with obtaining of heated gas oxidiser, cooling of the combustion product, heating of the first feeding water flow by heat exchange with the combustion product, with combustion product cooling. Before this from the combustion product the heat is withdrawn for gas oxidiser heating, heating of the second feeding water flow by heat exchange with reformat, supply of the first and second feeding water flows into the deaerator, separation of dissolved gases from flows in the deaerator, withdrawal of the ventilating flow from the deaerator, withdrawal of flow of water feeding the boiler from the deaerator, formation of hydrogenous product from the reformat after heating by reformat of the second feeding water flow, and formation of steam product from part of the flow of water feeding the boiler.
EFFECT: increased amount of withdrawn steam.
17 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pulse barrier-free ozone generator is related to ozone generating systems intended to produce ozone for its usage in water treatment and disinfection technologies. In pulse barrier-free ozone generator comprised of a metal body and electrode system with discharge elements mounted in the above body each of discharge elements consists of low- and high-voltage electrodes connected to high-voltage pulse generator; the body contains two dielectric plates set opposite each other. At one of the above plates there is high-voltage electrode represented as a single-layer winding of non-insulated wire with diameter bigger than distance between the plates, at that winding pitch is at least 2 more than distance of electrical breakdown. Low-voltage electrode is made in similar way and is installed at the other plate. The electrodes are shifted relative to each other per a half of winding pitch.
EFFECT: assembly is characterised by improved efficiency of ozone production, simple design and small dimensions.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in the method of protection of the ozone generator against fire the ozone generator electrodes are switched off from the power source and the supply of oxygen to the ozone generator is stopped. Simultaneously the inner cavity of the ozone generator is filled with non-combustible gas under high pressure, displacing oxygen with the products of combustion from it and stopping the burning process.
EFFECT: complete displacement in a short period of time of oxygen with the products of combustion from the inner cavity of the ozone generator with gas which does not support combustion.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: ozone system contains HV HF power source and connected to it impulse capacity, and connected via the switch and made in form of a multigap spark arrester of the ozone generator. At that HV power source is HV DC power source, and multigap spark arrester is made with fixed electrodes. Each pair of fixed electrodes makes gap and is installed with possibility to create the spark discharge using the initiating electrodes installed in the rotating disk located in the discharge gaps. At that the initiating electrodes are installed uniformly on the rotating disk such that when two oppositely installed on disk initiating electrodes are in the discharge gaps of two pairs of fixed electrodes all other electrodes are beyond the discharge gaps of other fixed electrodes. The fixed electrodes at one side of the disk with the initiating electrodes are connected to the power source via the impulse capacity and impedance, and fixed electrodes at other side of the disk with the initiating electrodes are connected to ozone generator via the bridge circuit.
EFFECT: improved power supply circuit of the ozone generator of the ozone system, increased operation stability of the ozone system.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of industrial safety and gas analytical instrument making in part of production of instruments and devices used to perform periodical verification and calibration of gas control instruments to test availability of toxic and explosive gases in air of the production zone of industrial enterprises. An electric discharge imitator of calibration gas mixtures comprises a discharge chamber with inlet and outlet holes, inside of which there are high-voltage electrodes placed. Besides, outside the chamber there is a source of high voltage pulses connected to electrodes and an exciter of atmospheric air flow via the discharge chamber. At the same time the device is placed in a portable screened body, in the cavity of which there is a source of power supply for a spark low-frequency discharge rigidly placed, and an exciter of gas flow. Besides, in the cavity of the body there is a discharge chamber, having a shape of a T-shaped tube, via the long side of which atmospheric air is pumped via the long side by the gas flow exciter. At the same time in its middle on the inner side in the hole with the diameter of D2=3 mm formed by another short tube, joined perpendicularly to the first one, a spark discharge is periodically ignited between the central strand and the body of the chamber connected to the armature of a coaxial cable RK-50, inserted tightly into a short tube with an inner diameter D2 for the distance of L2 aflush with the inner surface of the long tube with inner diameter D1, connected via a silicon tube reaching out from the body of the imitator with length of 800 mm with the inner diameter 4 mm with an inlet nozzle of the inspected gas detector, via a chamber of sensors of which the gas and air mix is pumped, being sampled from the zone of discharge, in the space of which excited atoms, molecules and ions arise, action of which at gas sensitive sensors NO, NO2, Cl2, CO, C3 and others is equivalent to action of gas mixtures of these gases of fixed concentrations in air or other neutral dissolving gas in respect to the sensor, produced in generators of calibration gas mixtures, or action of calibration gas mixtures standardised according to GOST in high pressure vessels.
EFFECT: mobility of a portable device and increased efficiency of calibration and adjustment of gas detectors both under conditions of commercial production and in case of periodical maintenance of gas detectors under conditions of technical services, and in organisations that purchase gas detectors to ensure safety of production with availability of toxic substances in air of a production zone.
SUBSTANCE: raw material consumption used is ozone concentration and the signal used is the amount of electric charge in the ozone-ion air mixture fed by the ozoniser, which is measured over a period of time set by a control unit, and transmitted to a differentiating link which determines the rate of change of charge in cycles, which is further generated in the form of a digital or analogue voltage signal and compared with the value of voltage across electrodes of the ozoniser, set by the control unit. Upon deviation of the signal value, a voltage controller generates a signal which inversely varies voltage across the electrodes of the ozoniser. The device for carrying out the method has an ozone output sensor installed in front of the ozoniser output, a coulometer connected to the differentiating link with a control unit, which consists of series-connected signal counter, signal amplifier and a device for controlling the cyclic process of measuring the rate of change of charge, connected to the signal counter and the coulometer. The output of the signal amplifier is connected to the voltage controller and the power supply is connected to the device for controlling the cyclic process of measuring the rate of change of charge and to the signal amplifier. The sensor is in the form of a thin metal plate, and the high-voltage electrode of the ozoniser is in the form of a disc coil.
EFFECT: stabilising ozoniser output.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: product consumption used is ozone concentration and the signal used is the amount of electric charge in an ozone-ion air mixture, which is measured over a period of time set by a control unit. The signal is then transmitted to a differentiating section which determines the rate of change of charge in cycles and generates a digital or analogue signal in form of electric voltage. The signals arriving at a counter in cycles are summed and the ozoniser is turned off if the resultant signal reaches a given voltage value. The apparatus includes an ozone output sensor 7 installed in front the output of the ozoniser 4, and has a coulometer 9 connected to the differentiating section 5 and the control unit, which consists of series-connected signal counter 10, signal amplifier 11 and a device for controlling the cyclic process of measuring the rate of change of charge 12. The output of the signal amplifier 11 is connected to a voltage controller 6. The sensor is in form of a thin metal plate, and the high-voltage electrode of the ozoniser is in form of a flat coil.
EFFECT: monitoring output of ozonisers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ozoniser has an alternating high-voltage source in form of insulated wires (electrodes) coated with a dielectric material, wound on a cone-shaped base.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simple design.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has, inside a sealed housing, high-voltage and earthed plate electrodes having centre holes and capable of being cooled with a coolant, coated on the outside with a dielectric and alternating with each other, a power supply whose terminals are connected to the electrodes, nozzles for feeding an oxygen-containing working gas and coolant and nozzles for removing the coolant and the gas/ozone mixture. The electrodes are made from airtight-connected parallel plates which form an inner cavity which holds crosspieces arranged perpendicular to the inner surfaces of the electrode plates and rigidly connecting the plates to each other, and nozzles for feeding the coolant to the electrodes and removing the coolant from the electrodes. The electrode plates have parts which protrude beyond the active zone. The first inner crosspiece and all odd crosspieces are rigidly attached to one electrode plate, and all even support crosspieces are rigidly attached to another plate. On the outer edge of the annular plates there are semi-cylindrical cavities for passage of locking rods which, by passing through holes in the support crosspieces, connect the annular plates and provide a rigid electrode structure. Three rods, lying at an angle of 120° to each other, go beyond the outer edge of the electrode and are elements for mounting the electrode to support posts, having holes for insertion of electrode mounting rods, lying at a certain distance from each other.
EFFECT: improved purification.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in chemical industry. Active power of gas-discharge unit with gas-discharge space between glass plates, productivity, and internal temperature of ozonised apartments are determined. Diagrams of productivity dependence on active power at different humidity of premises are built, after which volume of gas-discharge unit with taking into account thickness of glass plates from 2.5 to 4.5 mm and their area from 0.1 to 1 m2 with constant distance between them. Diagrams of dependence of active power of gas-discharge unit on its capacity and dependence of gas-discharge unit on area of glass plates at their different width are built. Nomogram from previously built diagrams is composed. Geometrical buildings are realised in the following way: productivity of ozoniser on output from installation is found on axis of productivity at given temperature and marked by point 1. Straight line is drawn from it to crossing with curve of electroozoniser productivity dependence on its active power at specified air humidity in premises and point 2 is marked. Straight line is dropped down to crossing with curve of dependence of active power of gas-discharge unit on its volume and point 3 is marked. Perpendicular to crossing with curve of dependence of gas-discharge unit volume on area of galls plates at specified width to line, corresponding to glass width, is drawn. Point 4 is obtained and perpendicular is drawn up to crossing with axis of area of glass plates, on which point 5, which is determined constructive parameter of ozoniser, is marked.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to select dimensions of gas-discharge unit of electroozoniser without application of special equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma engineering and technology of producing ozone, disinfecting air and decontaminating water and can be used in medicine, chemical and other industries, as well as for removing microbial contamination from underground and surface water. In the disclosed method of producing ozone, which involves applying voltage between electrodes, the cathode used is technical water - electrolyte; electric discharge is triggered by applying a voltage U=28-75 kV between a solid anode and the electrolytic cathode with pulse frequency fp=40-100 MHz, with electrode spacing 2≤L≤20 mm, where U is the discharge voltage, L is the distance between the solid anode and the electrolytic cathode, fp is the pulse frequency.
EFFECT: simple method of obtaining ozone during a microwave discharge between an electrolytic cathode and a solid anode.
SUBSTANCE: method for purification of gas emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benz(a)pyrene involves the gas emission exposure to electrical-discharge ultraviolet light in the working wavelength domain at average luminous density 10-3-3·10-1 J/cm2. The gas emission exposure to electrical-discharge ultraviolet light is conducted in the presence of ozone and water in the form of liquid and vapour at gas emission temperature 0°C-250°C with ozone generated by exposing an air flow supplied into a pre-exposure chamber; the gas emission exposure in a gas pipe of the system is conducted by alternating greater 3·10-1 J/cm2 and lesser 10-3 J/cm2 average luminous densities; the gas emission exposure to electrical-discharge ultraviolet light is conducted in the spectral wavelength domain of 310-410 nm.
EFFECT: invention enables increasing a degree of purity of industrial emissions of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reducing an acid corrosion of the gas pipe of the system.