Method and system for lignin processing
SUBSTANCE: method of separating lignin from lignin-containing medium, such as liquid made in the method of processing biomass, for example, from a black alkaline solution produced in the enterprise of recycling of pulp, and processing the separated lignin, includes: the precipitation of lignin from lignin-containing liquid medium, followed by exposure of lignin hydrothermal carbonization in the wet state and the removal of carbonaceous material derived from lignin as a result of the carbonization after the implementation of the hydrothermal carbonization, the method further includes: the regulation of the particle size of the carbonaceous material by bringing the pH value of lignin in the wet state before the hydrothermal carbonization to a value exceeding 7, preferably exceeding 8. The system, a carbon-containing product and the application of the product are also declared.
EFFECT: obtaining a hydrocarbon product with a controlled particle size and increasing the profitability of the process.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and an apparatus for processing black liquor of a pulp mill for recovering energy and chemicals therefrom. A method of processing black liquor of a pulp mill for recovering chemicals and energy contained therein includes steps of feeding black liquor into a pyrolysis reactor having a substantially oxygen-free chamber, wherein temperature in the pyrolysis reactor is maintained in the range of 400 to 600°C, feeding into the pyrolysis reactor causticising material which consists of sodium oxide (Na2O) and a metal oxide (MxOy) comprising at least one of the following metal oxides: titanium oxide (TiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3) and manganese oxide (Mn2O3),where said causticising material is heated in a furnace unit where temperature is maintained in the range of 600 to 1000°C, leading to gasification of black liquor and formation of gaseous components and a residual solid substance, feeding the gaseous components formed in the pyrolysis reactor for further recycling, transporting the solid substance formed in the pyrolysis reactor into the furnace unit, where fuel contained therein is burnt using oxygen contained in air fed into the furnace unit, leading causticising material consisting of sodium oxide (Na2O) and a metal oxide (MxOy), returning part of the causticising material formed in the furnace unit into the pyrolysis reactor and transporting part of it into a dissolving tank, where water is added, to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and a metal oxide (MxOy), returning the formed sodium hydroxide (NaOH) into the pulping process and at least the main part of the remaining metal oxide (MxOy) into the furnace where it forms causticising material with sodium oxide (Na2O). The apparatus for processing black liquor of a pulp mill for recovering chemicals and energy contained therein includes a furnace unit, a pyrolysis reactor into which black liquor is fed and where the black liquor undergoes pyrolysis in a chamber which is substantially oxygen-free, and forms gaseous components and a solid substance, wherein temperature in the pyrolysis reactor ranges from 400 to 600°C, an apparatus for feeding gaseous components formed in the pyrolysis reactor for recycling, an apparatus for transporting solid substances formed in the pyrolysis reactor into the furnace unit, wherein temperature in the furnace unit ranges from 600 to 1000°C, where combustible material burns to form furnace gas, and caustic material forms, which consists of sodium oxide (Na2O) and a metal oxide (MxOy), an apparatus for feeding part of the causticising material heated in the furnace unit into the pyrolysis reactor and feeding part into the dissolving tank to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and a metal oxide (MxOy) comprising at least one of the following metal oxide: titanium oxide (TiO2), iron oxide (Fe2O3) and manganese oxide (Mn2O3), and an apparatus for transporting sodium hydroxide (NaOH) back into the pulping process and at least one main part of the remaining metal oxide (MxOy) into the furnace unit, where it forms causticising material with sodium oxide (Na2O).
EFFECT: use of the method and apparatus can avoid the use of an exhaust-heat boiler in the whole process.
18 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing nanocrystalline cellulose used in industry. The disclosed method includes hydrolysis of bleached pulp with sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid, followed by separation of nanocrystalline cellulose and separation of liquid wastes into a monosaccharide fraction and an oligosaccharide fraction using a pair of selective membranes.
EFFECT: novel efficient and cheap method of producing nanocrystalline cellulose, which enables to produce other valuable carbohydrates and recycle acid used in production of nanocrystalline cellulose.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an integrated method of producing cellulose and at least one reusable low-molecular weight material. The method comprises preparing starting material containing lignocellulose and pulping using an alkaline treatment medium; from the pulped material, separating a cellulose-rich fraction and a cellulose-depleted fraction; subjecting the cellulose-depleted fraction to treatment using a method selected from a group comprising depolymerisation, hydrocracking, decarboxylation and a combination thereof; obtaining at least one reusable (secondary) low-molecular weight material selected from a group including, for example, hydrogen, aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic hydrocarbons and mixtures thereof, aromatic alcohols, aromatic aldehydes and mixtures thereof.
EFFECT: invention enables optimum integration of production of said end products, including additional reusable materials when producing cellulose.
31 cl, 6 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing bleached pulp comprises contacting the mixture of brown stock with a first circulating filtrate to obtain a first mass mixture having the first consistency; bleaching the first mass mixture to obtain the first bleached pulp mixture; squeezing or dewatering the first bleached pulp mixture to obtain the first mixture of bleached pulp and the second filtrate; direction of part of the second filtrate into second place of the first contour of recycling filtrate; contact of the first mixture of the squeezed bleached pulp with the second circulating filtrate obtained from the third place of the first contour of recycling filtrate to obtain a second mass mixture having a second consistency, and the second consistency is higher than the first consistency; bleaching the second mass mixture to obtain the second bleached pulp mixture; squeezing or dewatering the second bleached pulp mixture to obtain the second bleached pulp mixture and the third filtrate; direction of part of the third filtrate into the fourth place of the first contour of recycling filtrate; recycling at least a part of the third filtrate in the first contour of recycling filtrate to the first place; to obtain the bleached pulp. At that the first, second, third and fourth places of the first contour are in fluid communication and downstream relative to each other.
EFFECT: increased strength properties and brightness of pulp is provided.
68 cl, 1 tbl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for pulp processing using cold caustic extraction includes: delignifying organic materials in a digester and treating the resulting brown pulp to obtain semi-purified pulp for use in producing soluble pulp; extracting the semi-purified pulp with a caustic solution during a cold caustic extraction process; washing the purified pulp and collecting the obtained spent wash liquid by separating the hemicellulose-containing solution from the purified pulp; combining the spent wash liquid and the hemicellulose-containing solution to obtain an alkaline filtrate; concentrating the alkaline filtrate and using at least a portion of the concentrated alkaline filtrate in said digester to obtain a soluble pulp.
EFFECT: high content of alpha cellulose in soluble cellulose and high efficiency of using the filtrate.
50 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention describes a method of producing hydrocarbon raw material for synthesis of biofuel from lignin. The method involves hydrotreatment of lignin-containing raw material to obtain raw material for biofuel. The lignin-containing raw material contains lignin which is separated from black liquor from a pulping method. The lignin is separated from black liquor from a pulping method by injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The lignin-containing raw material further contains still residues from an oil refining plant.
EFFECT: as a result of hydrotreatment of lignin contained in raw material for biofuel, oxygen content and average molecular weight of the latter decreases compared to lignin.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: versions of the present invention can be implemented on-site an oil refinery or pulp and paper mill. Versions of the present invention may employ separate lignin or an entire solution of black liquor.
EFFECT: invention reduces the content of oxygen and average molecular weight in lignin.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding raw materials into a boiling pot and its compaction. Supply of boiling liquid, increased temperature and pressure to working parameters. Soaking the pot content at the specified temperature. Blowing the mass into a blowing reservoir. Removal of boiling vapours and discharge of non-condensed gases by ejection. Removal of boiling vapours during blowing is carried out via a three-stage system of condensation in a counterflow mode. Upstream the three-stage system of condensation, the boiling vapours are mixed with spent alkali in a mixing condenser, and the mixture is heated up to 80-90°C. The heated spent alkali is supplied to a boiling pot arranged at the charging stage for preliminary heating of the process chips.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs due to recuperation of blowing vapours heat in the mixing condenser and using this heat for heating of alkali, which makes it possible to considerably reduce the required surface of condensation in the heat exchanger.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves saturating cellulose with polysulphide liquor taken in amount of more than 75% of the alkali dose required for the pulping process. At the first pulping step, virtually all the polysulphide completely reacts with lignocellulose material. A first amount of the pulping liquor with relatively high concentration of effective alkali (EA) is removed from the pulping vessel. At the end of the first step, a second amount of pulping liquor with relatively low concentration of EA is added. Contents of the boiling vessel are heated to pulping temperature. The second amount of pulping liquor is removed after reaching maximum pulping temperature. The first amount of pulping liquor is optionally added to the boiling vessel the pulping step where concentration of EA is relatively low. Versions of this method are also disclosed.
EFFECT: maximum output of product.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 3 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves evaporation of black liquor and obtaining a solution of soda, sodium sulphide and sulphate. Before evaporation, lignin is extracted from the black liquor. The lignin mother solution undergoes polythermal evaporation to 200-300 g H2O/100 g of dry sodium salts at temperature 60-150°C to obtain a soda-sulphate mixture, where a portion of sodium sulphate is reduced to sodium sulphide.
EFFECT: high production efficiency based on lowering power consumption on obtaining cellulose and eliminating the environmental hazard of the process of regenerating alkalis by removing the recovery boiler from the process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.
EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).
EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.
20 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).
EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation, pre-heating and tempering of source oil stock, at the same time moist oil stock is exposed to grinding to fraction of 0-25 mm, dried by internal smoke gases with rated speed of 60-90 m/sec and temperature of 350-400°C in the suspended layer with fountain-like circulation of coke particles to 0.5-2% of moisture content, exposed to cyclone separation with provision of trap ratio of more than 97% and with sifting of dust-like particles with fraction from 0 to less than 2 mm, which is treated with greasing agent with consumption of 0.5-1.0 wt %, per 1 one of coke, and stabilised hot coke with T-60-90°C of fraction more than 2-25 mm is tempered in a rotary drum furnace.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase productivity of tempering furnaces, to stabilise process mode of coke tempering, to improve quality of oil coke, to reduce specific power inputs, to produce commercial product, to reduce anthropogenic emissions into environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.
EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.
57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.
EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.
FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.
EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for manufacture of multiple products from aquatic plant species biomass. Biomass is obtained, destroyed and separated to produce juice and solid phase; the juice is filtered and clarified. Protein is coagulated from the clarified juice to produce broth including a wet protein concentrate. The said concentrate is separated from broth. The wet protein concentrate is dried to obtain dry protein concentrate. The solid phase is used for wet biological raw materials production. The said biological raw materials are dried to produce at least one product selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates. At least 50% of protein in the multiple products is present in dry protein concentration.
EFFECT: method is environmentally friendly and allows production of multiple products selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates.
35 cl, 39 dwg, 7 tbl, 25 ex