Systems and methods for protection of electrolyser side walls
SUBSTANCE: electrolyser comprises the following: an anode, a cathode spaced from the anode, a molten electrolyzing bath in fluid communication with the anode and cathode. The molten electrolyzing bath has a chemical composition of a bath comprising at least one bath component, a housing having a bottom and at least one side wall surrounding the bottom. Herein the electrolyser housing is designed to hold the molten electrolyzing bath. The side wall essentially consists of said at least one component of the bath, wherein the side wall further comprises the following: the first side wall part adapted to be mounted on a heat insulating lining of the side wall and holding the electrolyte and the second side wall part formed protruding upward from the bottom of the electrolyser housing. Wherein the second side wall part is longitudinally spaced from the first side wall part, so that the first side wall part, the second side wall part and the base between the first part and the second part form a trough. The trough is configured to receive and hold a protective precipitate separately from the electrolyser bottom. The protective precipitate can dissolve from the trough into the molten electrolyzing bath so that the molten electrolyzing bath has a level of said at least one bath component that is sufficient to maintain the first side wall part and the second side wall part in the molten electrolyzing bath.
EFFECT: elements of the electrolyser side wall allow protecting the side wall from the electrolyzing bath.
33 cl, 1 ex, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the nonferrous-metals industry, in particular to the electrolyser for electrochemical extraction of metals mainly, gold, silver, zinc from complex and strong materials. The electrolyser contains a casing, anode made in form of the rods installed along the casing perimeter and connected in parallel, cathode and agitator in the center of the electrolyser, at that the cathode is made in form of the rods installed coaxially and connected in parallel, and near each anode rod the cathode rod is located. At that the cathode surface is made smaller than anode surface.
EFFECT: increased degree and intensity of metals extraction during electric extraction, and reduction of power consumption during the electric extraction.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: electrolyser for obtaining magnesium and chlorine contains a bath with longitudinal and butt end walls, lined from inside with a fireproof material, a barrier, which separates the bath into an assembly cell and one or several electrolytic sections. In the electrolytic section cathodes and anodes, connected in anode blocks, are placed. Under a current lead angle profiles are rigidly fastened by a vertical side to the anode units from two sides. Armature is rigidly fastened to a horizontal side of the angular profile from the bottom and a fireproof bar is installed. The width of the upper wall of the fireproof bar is equal to the horizontal side of the angular profile. Covering of the assembly cell is made along its entire length in the form of two L- shaped profiles, rigidly connected to a metal coupler, under which placed is the fireproof material with the height equal to the height of the vertical side of the profile. The horizontal side of the L-shaped profiles of the covering is placed from one side on the longitudinal wall of the assembly cell, and from the other - on the partition. The covering of the assembly cell can be separated into three parts.
EFFECT: reduction of air penetration into an electrolyser and reduction of the mud formation.
8 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed bath tank comprises lengthwise and end vertical walls that form the bath lined with refractory material and divided by baffle into tray cell and electrolytic compartment. Said baffle has bypass V-like channel with ledge. Electrolytic compartment houses alternating anodes and cathodes with shields and bars in the bath lengthwise wall. Bath lengthwise wall top part features variable cross-section composed by ledges with width increasing downward towards cathode bars. Top ledge has overlap with gas discharge branch pipe while bottom ledge is inclined. Cathode top end on baffle side has Z-like shear while cathode bottom edge has shear inclined towards electrolytic compartment. Baffle V-like bypass channel ledge is arranged opposite the shear of Z-like cathode.
EFFECT: higher operating reliability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises lined cathode bath on support with drain hole and heater, anode bowl from dielectric, dielectric tube with wireway, and electric heaters. One third of bath height, from bath top, represents a reversed truncated cone. Cover with central through hole is arranged on the bath. Disc-like anode mixer is arranged inside anode bowl. Foam breaker composed of disc with through hole and rectangular blades is arranged at bath top cylindrical section. Bearing assembly with wireway is rigidly recurred atop bath cover and composed of cylindrical barrel with cover and through holes in bottom and cover. Bearings with graphite fillers are arranged inside said barrel rigidly secured by four posts atop bath cover supporting gas discharge branch pipe to exhaust gas in direction opposite motor rotation. Encased thermal sensor is arranged atop the cover and at bath top while float-type level meter is arranged at bath bottom, level meter being composed of hollow ball with rod passing through bath cover.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, decreased pollution of working area.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves anodic dissolution of tin and lead in a molten electrolyte of zinc, potassium and sodium chlorides, and depositing lead and tin on the wall of the cathode bath. The process is carried out while blowing the starting alloy with air and periodically adding ammonium chloride into the electrolyte by ejection feeding. The electrolysis cell has a lined heated cathode bath in which there is an anode cup with an insulated graphite current lead. The graphite current lead is hollow and has a nozzle with a channel for feeding air to the bottom of the anode cup. The graphite current lead has in its lower part a disc with air distribution channels.
EFFECT: reduced sludge formation, easier maintenance and high quality of the product.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrolytic cell comprises heated cathode and anode baths separated by porous diaphragms impregnated with electrolyte. The cylinder of the cathode bath is arranged as perforated, and a diaphragm from quartz fabric is fixed on it with a yoke above the perforation level. The cathode bath is vertically submerged into the melt of the initial alloy of the anode bath equipped with a mixer. Inside the cathode bath a cup is installed onto the bottom from the diaphragm and fixed on the cathode current conductor. At the same time the cathode bath cylinder is submerged into the alloy melt in the anode bath at the perforation height. The cup fixed on the cathode current conductor is installed below the cylinder perforation level. On the cylinder of the cathode bath there are two layers of the diaphragm fixed from quartz fabric.
EFFECT: higher stability of operation, higher extent of indium extraction with higher extent of separation from electric positive metals.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the electrolyser used to produce metallic lithium containing a metal case, cathodes, anodes, devices for loading lithium chloride and removal of anode gases, the electrolyser case is shaped like an inverted truncated cone fitted outside with a solid box equipped with a pumping system with an adjustable air flow for cooling the electrolyser case, which at the same time is an emergency collector of melt electrolyte, and the electrode group is displaced from the axis of the electrolyser conical body to its rear part, and a device for loading lithium chloride located in the interelectrode space of the electrolyser.
EFFECT: improved quality of metallic lithium while reducing its fire safety and explosion safety, increased operational safety, increased service life, improved operational characteristics of the electrolyser.
SUBSTANCE: autonomous electrochemical complex for treatment of solutions is equipped with an additional separating partition (17), installed in a central hole of an internal anode (3) at the level of a non-current-conducting horizontal partition (18), which is impermeable for the solution, comprising the first barrier (19) at the side of the first part of interelectrode space formed by the internal anode (3) and a volume-porous cathode (5), and the second barrier (20) - at the side of the second part of the interelectrode space. On top, at the side of the first part of the interelectrode space, an electrolytic cell is equipped with the third barrier (21), at the same time the central hole of the internal anode (3) is on top connected with a unit of solution pumping (2), and at the bottom it is connected to a hollow non-current-conducting support (22), equipped with the fourth barrier (23) at the outer side and connected by its base to holes in the base of a prefabricated chamber (14), which comprises the fifth barrier (24) at the side of the interelectrode space formed by the external anode (4) and the volume-porous cathode (5), besides, along the whole length of the side wall of the internal anode (3) there are holes made directed towards one side along the tangent to the surface of the volume-porous cathode (5). All barriers are made of non-current-conducting material and as an open cavity closed as a ring and not filled with the solution.
EFFECT: elimination of conditions for metal residue growing in holes for solution supply into interelectrode spaces and prevention of anodes short circuit with the volume-porous cathode.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a housing with pipes for inlet and outlet of liquid phase with dispersed metal particles and lying in the housing and connected to a current source by electrodes, a circulating pump connected by the output to the liquid phase input pipe and by the input to the liquid phase outlet pipe, and apparatus for outlet of the liquid phase with nanodispersed metal particles. The electrides are in form of plates with bevelled areas on the edges of the plates and a middle part with wavy surface formed by longitudinal channels with depth of 0.07-0.08 times the width of the wavy area of the electrode, and the length of the wavy area is equal to 0.7-0.8 times the length of the electrode. The electrodes are fitted in the housing opposite each other with the wavy areas to form beveled edges of electrodes of inlet converging and outlet diverging channels for liquid medium with dispersed metal particles. The electrodes are meshed and the ratio of the total surface area of openings to the surface area of the electrode is equal to 0.1-0.9. The circulation loop of the device is provided with an ultrasonic generator for generating ultrasound with frequency 10-20 kHz.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of producing nanodispersed metals in liquid phase.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists of electrolysis at continuous feed of electrolyte with oxide of magnesium and fluoride salts with withdrawal of carbon dioxide through system of out-gassing. Also, electrolysis is carried out in a bi-polar electrolyser with stationary cathode and bi-polar electrodes suspended in electrolyte set off to the stationary cathode for maintaining constant between-poles distances at consumption of anode parts of bi-polar electrodes. Oxide of magnesium and fluoride salts are supplied with compressed air for continuous feed of electrolyte. They are uniformly distributed on surface of electrolyte with extraction of liquid magnesium on a cathode side of the bi-polar electrode. Liquid magnesium is withdrawn into a collecting cell of the bi-polar electrolyser.
EFFECT: raised efficiency, reduced specific power output due to reduced dimensions of electrolyser, raised current output owing to reduced interaction between carbon dioxide and magnesium.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of obtaining of an electrolyser cathode pack for aluminium production. The method includes preparation of initial materials containing coke and powder of solid material such as, for example TiB2, and also, if necessary, carboniferous material, mixing of initial materials, formation of the cathode pack, carbonisation, graphitisation and cooling, note that graphitisation is performed at temperatures from 2300 up to 3000°C, in particular from 2400 to 2900°, and the second layer made with the thickness amounting from 10 up to 50%, in particular from 15 up to 45% of the total thickness of the cathode pack.
EFFECT: high wear resistance with reference to aluminium and cryolith, and decrease in energy consumption are provided.
SUBSTANCE: method includes charging of the powdered material in the cathode casing of the electrolyser, its levelling using rack, coverage of the charged material by dust isolating film and compaction performed by two stages: preliminary static and final dynamic action by means of the successive movement of the work organs of the static and dynamic compaction along the longitudinal axis of the cathode of the aluminium electrolyser via the resilient gasket made out of at least two layers: bottom preventing extrusion of the powdered material in front along the movement , and top ensuring gasket engagement with the work organ of the static compaction, at that the dynamic action is performed by vibration unit connected with the static treatment unit by means of the resilient elements with possibility of simultaneous movement relatively to the horizontal and vertical axes.
EFFECT: reduced expenses for lining materials and reduced labour costs during their installation.
7 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrolysis unit consists of the following: cathode device with a pool with carbon bottom, the pool is formed by carbon blocks enclosed in metallic casing with flame proof and heat-insulating materials arranged between metallic casing and carbon blocks; anode device including carbon anodes connected to anode bus, the anodes are arranged in upper part of bath and absorbed in fused electrolyte; on the carbon hearth along the anode perimeter the pedestals, or the floats resistant to destruction in cryolite aluminous fusions and liquid aluminium are located. The top surface of a pedestal or a float acts higher than a level of cathodic aluminium and a pedestal or floats can be moved and/or replaced if necessary. Pedestals or floats are made of carbon, carbide of silicon, their combination. The top surface of the pedestal or the float is flat, convex, concave, or inclined to the horizon.
EFFECT: decrease of specific power consumption due to reduction of interpolar gap, ohmic resistance and voltage drop in interpolar gap, increase of current output due to increase of hydrodynamic resistance to movement of fusion near the aluminium-electrolyte interface along the anode perimeter and decrease of mixing of fusion and counter reactions of metal with anode gases.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a carbon article which is produced by burning a mixture at least containing coke. The coke has low graphitisability. Also disclosed is a method of producing a carbon article, which includes mixing anthracite, graphite and/or low-graphitisability coke or mixtures thereof with at least one binding material selected from a group of oil- or carbon-based binding materials, as well as binding materials based on synthetic polymers and any mixtures of said binding materials and optional additives, endowing the mixture with a given shape, firing the moulded mixture and optional graphitisation of the fired moulded article. The invention discloses use of the carbon article as a cathode block of an aluminium electrolysis cell and a blast-furnace brick.
EFFECT: longer service life of the article, particularly a cathode block.
SUBSTANCE: lining comprises a bottom and current-carrying elements made of aluminium, liquid in the upper part contacting melted aluminium and solid in the lower part, and installed so that they pass through the bottom vertically. The bottom is made from taller bottom blocks having projections and shorter bottom blocks, at that the shorter bottom blocks are mounted at the ends of the bottom. The shorter bottom blocks alternate with the taller bottom blocks having projections. Vertical channels are provided in the projections of the blocks over the entire thickness of the block for the mounting of current-carrying elements. The current-carrying elements are attached in the lower part to a current-carrying collector shaped as a plate which extends horizontally out of the ends of the bottom blocks and longitudinal sides of the cathode casing. The current-carrying elements are L- or T-shaped. The bottom blocks are made of high-aluminous concrete annealed up to 1200°C or comprised of several layers: a working layer, made of high-aluminous concrete with the thickness equal to 0.4-0.6 of the bottom block thickness, and the secondary layer, made of fireclay castable concrete - the remaining part. Interconnection of the bottom blocks is made of high-aluminous concrete with reduced viscosity or by means of a gluing or cementing composite with the joint thickness of 5-20 mm.
EFFECT: decreased labour intensity at mounting, reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability of the electrolyser.
4 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cathode shell comprises longitudinal and end walls with vertical reinforcement ribs, a bottom, frames, which cover the walls and bottom and flanged sheet. Flanged sheet is fixed rigidly to intermediate ribs installed between frames at longitudinal walls of the shell by means of detachable joints through horizontal pads. The intermediate ribs are made of sheet metal with thickness from 0.3 up to 1 time of the shell wall thickness.
EFFECT: longer service life of the electrolysis unit.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cathode pack for an aluminium electrolytic cell. The cathode pack comprises a layer of composite containing graphite and solid material such TiB2, present with single mode granulometric composition, while d50 amounts to 10 - 20 mcm, in particular to 12 - 18 mcm, preferably to 14 - 16 mcm. Method for the production of a cathode pack with the said characteristics is described as well.
EFFECT: improved wear resistance of a cathode pack and simple manufacturing.
16 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cathode's top is turned towards the electrolytic bath, and the bottom has contacts for current input. Top and bottom parts, at least, on some sections are connected to each other in disconnectable manner using the protective interlayer.
EFFECT: lowering of the cathode cost and optimisation of the cathode operation.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: partitions and/or grids, and/or aluminium-moistened open-pore cellular structures from material lass electrically conductive than aluminium are placed under each anode on the bottom surface, perpendicular and/or at angle 45-90° to bottom plane, perpendicular and/or at angle 45-90° to longitudinal axis of cathode rods, which completely of partially prevent horizontal components of cathode current from flowing in aluminium layer.
EFFECT: reduction of horizontal components of currents in melt layer, uniform distribution of current, reduction of inter-pole distance and reduction of electric energy consumption for aluminium production or increase of output by current.
15 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves immersing mounted samples of silicon carbide blocks into an electrolyte at aluminium electrolysis temperature and bubbling the electrolyte with carbon dioxide, air or a mixture thereof, moving the samples and comparing the obtained samples with the original samples. After immersion, the samples are held in the electrolyte which is in contact with aluminium at electrolysis temperature, with the controlled area of the sample in the electrolyte. The samples are then raised and held with the controlled area of the sample in a gas phase for not more than 20 minutes. The samples are then moved in the vertical plane while alternately holding the controlled area in the electrolyte and in the gas phase for not more than 10 minutes and the degree of wear thereof is determined from change in the volume of the samples.
EFFECT: shorter time for testing samples of blocks and obtaining visible reduction in cross dimensions of samples of said blocks owing to intensification of the wear process by increasing the rate of wear.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical method of obtaining copper acetylenides. Acetylenides of general formula R-C≡C-Cu, where R-alkyl (C6-C8), aryl is obtained by electrolysis of solution, which consists of alkyne of general formula R-C≡CH, where R-alkyl (C6-C8), aryl, anhydrous salt of alkaline-earth metal of general formula MX2, where M=Mg, Ca; X=Cl, Br, I and bipolar aprotic solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, H,N-dimethylacetamide) in molar ratio alkyne : MX2 : solvent - 1:3:15 on copper electrodes and controlled potential E=2.4 V.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to exclude toxic and expensive reagents, extend base of raw material, and simplify technology.