Method of increasing carrying capacity of ice cover
SUBSTANCE: carrying capacity of the ice cover is increased by means of steel pipes lowered vertically to the basin bottom via through openings formed in the ice cover along both edges of the crossing along its entire length. The bottom end of the pipe is made welded, and its upper end projects above the ice surface. The pipes are made in the form of telescopic supports. The section of the movable element of the telescopic support at the point of its connection with the immovable one is made with inhomogeneities in the form, for example, of the variability of the pipes wall thickness. The section length should exceed the maximum possible level of water fluctuations in the basin. At the upper end projecting from under the ice, a generator is installed, exciting longitudinal oscillations in the supports, and it is supplied with feedback sensor, which enables it to be configured on its own frequency transverse vibrations occurring as a result of a transformation brought by longitudinal waves in transverse field inhomogeneities in waveguides, i.e. on pipe portions with variable thickness. In the upper parts of the pipes, heat-insulating plugs are installed.
EFFECT: increased carrying capacity.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises the ice crossing in which the holes are made throughout the intended route of cargo transportation on its both sides, through which the reinforced concrete units are lowered under ice by means of cables. Discs are fixed to the upper ends of cables. The length of cables is selected in such a way that the ice doesn't rise above the initial position relative to the bottom when flexural-gravity waves occur. The distance between the openings along the crossing is equal to the length of resonant flexural-gravity waves λp. The discs are also installed in the middle between them at a distance from them equal to λp/2, under the ice. On either sides of the crossing all disks are rigidly connected with strong horizontal beams by means of racks.
EFFECT: hardening of ice crossing.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to build the ice crossing on natural ice. Method for building the ice crossing includes arrangement of vessels with variable buoyancy before the formation of natural ice on water basin. Each vessel is fixed at the bottom by wrapping cable with hose around the shaft fixed in the supports and filled with gas under pressure. Then, the ice covering is reinforced by disposal of the reinforcing material on its surface and subsequent freezing of ice layer on its surface. After formation of frozen layer, the vessels are lifted, and the value of buoyant force, which counteracts the load, generated by transport vehicles and moved by cargo, is determined by formula: , where: Vk - displacement of one vessel, m3; B - width of ice crossing, m; a”к” - width of one vessel to the width of ice crossing, m; b“к” - length of one vessel in the direction of ice crossing, m; ρw - water density, kg/m3; ρair - air density, kg/m3; h“пл” - thickness of ice above the water surface, m; ρi - ice density, kg/m3; P“к” - weight of vessel in the air, n; l - length of hoses to one vessel, m; S“тш” - cross-section area of the hose, m2; ρ“мк” - density of the vessel material, kg/m3; g - acceleration of gravity, m/s2. During summer vessels are used as pontoon ferry.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises channel-section beams welded in jointed surfaces of hulls being jointed with thrusts secured in pairs to said beams that have braces and thrusts with mating bores welded thereto. Note here that beams with thrusts makes a guide structure for displacement of wedge retainer to lock the brace of one hull in coupling bore of the other one. Wedge retainer comprises wedge displacing downward into inclined slots composed of thrust inner surface with hole and brace surface, and base locked at lower position.
EFFECT: higher reliability of joint at high dynamic loads, easier assembly and disassembly.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transfer-bridge facilities, i.e. to pontoon bridges. A pontoon belt bridge with three traffic lines includes collapsible river and coastal links joined to each other in longitudinal and transverse direction by means of joint units, and the links comprise hingedly connected pontoons equipped with traffic areas built into decks. Height of pontoons of the middle traffic line is 1.4…2 times higher than the height of pontoons of the extreme traffic lines. Width of the traffic part of the middle traffic line is equal to 15.3…16 m, and width of the traffic part of each extreme traffic line is equal to 6.5…7 m.
EFFECT: using proposed technical solution will make it possible to increase load capacity and throughput capacity of a pontoon belt bridge approximately twice due to increase of its longitudinal strength and expansion of traffic parts of extreme traffic lines.
SUBSTANCE: pontoon bridge comprises ramp bays with gangways, interior bays, access ramps, end sections. All sections and bays are connected to each other by jointing units made in the form of a fork with a closing mechanism and an ear and installed in pairs on adjacent transoms of all types of sections and bays. The pontoon bridge comprises two coastal ferries and a river ferry. The coastal ferry is assembled from a ramp bay with transoms, interior bays of the coastal ferry and access ramps. The river ferry is assembled from interior bays of the river ferry assembled from separate pontoons. Two end sections are fixed to the transom of the interior bay, and access ramps and the interior bay of the coastal ferry are connected to the other transom of each end section. The traffic area of each end section is made at the angle of 6°, and in the upper part of its transom facing the interior bay of the coastal ferry, there are seats of access ramp installation, which with their lower part are installed on the traffic area of the interior bay of the coastal ferry.
EFFECT: increased length of a pontoon bridge and throughput capacity of a bridge.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in ice massif, at certain distance L from crack edge an inclined cut is made at angle more than 45 degrees towards crack and at edges of this inclined cut vertical cuts are made perpendicular to crack propagation direction so that ice slab cut in this way slips under gravity along inclined surface and closes the crack. After crack closure depression formed at surface of ice structure is filled with snow and compacted until it acquired required strength.
EFFECT: crack closure method allows reliable blocking of the crack upper part, smoothening of formed depression by snow filling and compaction and ensuring strength characteristics for damaged surface area of the ice structure.
SUBSTANCE: sea bridge is made of giant balls-floats from stiff foam plastic in a strong shell and ropes stretching via their middle with tubular elements of an overbridge on strainers and bearings, making it possible for the floats to rotate around the overbridge.
EFFECT: possibility to use a bridge for transportation of cargo and passengers via bays, channels, where ordinary bridges may not operate.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pontoon bridge comprises floating metal supports and a traffic area laid onto a beam metal span of the bridge. Floating supports are hollow waterproof metal vessels, which are trapezoid-shaped when looked at from the side above the deep-water line and ellipsoid-shaped under the deep-water line. Supports are connected in pairs at the level of the deep-water line with transversely aligned hinged joints and two longitudinal ropes that are common for the bridge and strength via foci of large axes of vessel ellipsoids, with a metal sheet on top overlapping above a rubber sheet at the bottom in the upper part of adjacent vessels coupled with hinged joints. Longitudinal ropes stretching via foci of large axes of vessel ellipsoids may be fixed with their ends via lanyards to the beam metal bridge span or to anchor devices on the shore. A rope conductor for each longitudinal rope may be a cylinder that connects two appropriate boards of vessel ellipsoids at the technologically justified level without damage to water tightness of the metal vessel.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing bridge service life and carrying capacity.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes freezing of previously stretched steel springs at both sides of the crossing along its length. After its freezing the stretching forces are removed. For freezing of springs into their ice cover they are heated to the temperature above the ice melting temperature by means of electric current sending through ropes. After their submersion into the ice cover for the depth of more than the diameter of the spring, the electric current supply is stopped. The surface of the ice crossing prepared by this surface is exposed to low atmospheric temperatures t<0°C to total freezing of water in grooves that occurred during ice melting.
EFFECT: increased load-lifting capacity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates crossing appliances, namely to ferries and pontoon bridges. Proposed appliance consists of identical individual or interconnected ferries. Every ferry includes folding pontoon links composed of articulated two extreme and two central pontoons with built-in roadways and transom joints. Propulsors are arranged between said folding links. Displacement folding links are arranged on ends of every ferry with decks arranged on part of their length and inclined to transoms equipped with articulated triangular gang boards furnished with two-way roadways and lifted above water surface by gantry. Ends of extreme pontoon gang boards are furnished with paired fixed thrusts. Said ferries are jointed by transom joint links of extreme displacement folding links. Gang boards of said links are arranged and secured on pontoon deck inclined sections. Clearance between said paired thrusts makes 4-6 mm.
EFFECT: easier and faster deployment.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice crossing construction method refers to ice-technology industry, and can be used when designing ice crossing meant for load transportation. Snow shall be removed from ice surface, and the latter shall be covered with air-tight film. Space between ice surface and film is ventilated with fan cold ambient air. Cold air flow intensifies heat exchange on ice surface and provides its fast cooling, and thickness increase.
EFFECT: fast putting into operation of ice crossing.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.