Apparatus for explosion protection of explosive objects
FIELD: security facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety devices used in explosive and radioactive facilities, such as easy detachable panels and roof, blast guards and shields, excessive pressure valves. Technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the apparatus for explosion protection of explosive objects, made in the form of an anti-explosion panel designed to discharge excess pressure, which is made in form of a metal armored frame with armored metal plating and filler in form of air-lead disperse system, wherein the frame is fixed by at least three support rods with leaf stops in the upper part which are fixed in the object to be protected and are telescopically inserted into the stationary support sleeves, placed in the anti-explosion panel of the safety device, support rods, telescopically inserted into the stationary support sleeves of the safety device, are tied to each other through the leaf stops by resilient damping elements placed in an additional damping plate, in which a central opening for placing sensors of the initial emergency phase alert system is made.
EFFECT: technical result – increased reliability of explosion-protection devices in case of an explosion at the site and providing the return of these structures into their initial positions after the explosion.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: explosion-proof panel comprises a metal armoured frame with metal armoured plating and the filler, has in the ends four fixed pipe supports. In the plating of the explosive object four support rods are tightly sealed, which are telescopically inserted in the fixed pipe supports of the panel. The filler is made in the form of a dispersion system air-lead in the form of crumbs. The support rods are made elastic. The explosion-proof panel additionally comprises elastic-dampened collapsing disposable elements that are attached to the sheets-stops by means of the damping base by the screws. The sleeve in the form of a truncated cone is rigidly attached to the base. The lower base of the truncated cone is connected to the base. The disposable element abuts to the upper base of the truncated cone, made in the form of a sleeve from collapsing material, which is clamped from below by the sleeve-type clamping element for fixing the elastic part of the collapsing element, made in the form of a conical spring. The lower base of the conical spring is fixed in the grooves of the damping base by cast polyurethane. Fixing of the clamping element is carried out by means of latches. The disposable element is made in the form of a coil spring from collapsing material.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of triggering of explosion-proof devices and ensure the return of these structures in the initial position after the explosion.
SUBSTANCE: in a protective damageable structure of fencing containing reinforced-concrete slabs with dimensions of 6000×1800 mm, a slab consists of damageable and non-damageable parts. A non-damageable part is made in the form of load-carrying ribs arranged along the contour of the damageable part, and the damageable part is made in the form of at least two coaxially located cavities in the building wall, one of which is external and formed with planes of a regular quadrangular flattened pyramid with a rectangular base, and the other one is internal and represents two inclined surfaces connected by means of a rib with formation of a slot; with that, wall thickness from the rib to the external surface of the building fencing shall be at least δ=20 mm. At action of blast explosion load, this section of the wall can be divided into separate parts, and opposite the damageable part, on the outer side of the building fencing there located is a protective screen from material of increased strength, for example antiarmour material that is fixed on at least three horizontally located pins that are perpendicular to the building fencing, on the ends of which there fixed are disks and which pass through holes in the protective screen. Disks located on the right side of the pins are buried in the building fencing, and elastic members supporting the protective screen to the building fencing are borne against disks on the left side of the pins.
EFFECT: improving reliable actuation of damageable explosion-proof devices at emergency explosion at the site.
SUBSTANCE: in a shock absorber of single action, which includes a housing, elastic and damping elements, there additionally contained is an elastic damping destructible element that is attached on support pins to plates-stops by means of a damping base with screws, and a sleeve of single action, which is made from brittle damageable material, for example porcelain, is attached by means of a flange with screws to the damping base coaxially to the pin. The elastic part of the shock absorber is made in the form of at least three plate springs facing with their convex part to the side of the pin axis, on which there is a threaded section with a small pitch for attachment of a clamping element of a sleeve type with grooves for fixation of one of the ends of plate springs, the other end of which is fixed in the damping base by means of cast polyurethane.
EFFECT: improving reliable actuation of explosion-proof devices at emergency explosion at the site.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: explosion proof panel for on-board safe LNG fuelling system is installed in ceiling of the engine room. The panel comprises metal armour-plated frame with metal armour plating and lead as filler. At butt ends there are four fixed supporting tubes. In coating of an explosive object there are four rigidly fixed supporting rods inserted telescopically into the fixed supporting tubes. To butt ends of the supporting rods additional elements damping blast effect are fixed.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability of explosion proof devices at accidental detonation at the object and ensured return of these structures into initial position upon detonation.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in an explosion resistant panel containing an armoured metal frame with an armoured metal cover and a lead filler, provided in end faces with four fixed supporting branch pipes, and in the covering of the explosive object there rigidly fixed are four supporting bars that are telescopically inserted into fixed supporting branch pipes of the panel, the filler is made in the form of an air-lead disperse system; with that, lead is made in the form of chips, and supporting rods are elastic, to end faces of the supporting bars on the side facing to the metal frame, to which additional members are attached, which damp the action of impact wave, which are made from elastomer, for example polyurethane, or combined, for example elastic damping, and as an elastic member of combined additional members damping the action of impact wave there used is a conical spring, the lower base of which is borne against thrust plates and fixed on them by means of polyurethane filling, and the upper base faces to the side of the armoured metal cover.
EFFECT: improving reliable actuation of explosion protective devices at emergency explosion at the site and providing return of the same structures to initial position after explosion.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: shock absorber for explosion-proof objects comprises a metal armoured frame with a metal armoured shell and the filler which is made in the form of a dispersion system air-lead. Lead is shaped in the form of crumb. The frame has fixed support tubes in the ends. In the coating of the explosive object three support rods are rigidly embedded with sheet-abutments in the upper part, which are telescopically inserted in the fixed support tubes in the metal armoured frame. In the upper part of the support rods the elastic-damping elements are fixed, one end of which is rigidly connected with its base to the sheet-abutments and the other is located freely. Each of the elastic-damping elements is fixed by screws on its base, designed in the form of a circular disc made of rigid vibration damping material such as Agate, on sheet-abutments rigidly connected to the rods. The base of the elastic-damping element is connected to the sleeve of elastomer, having a central hole through which the rod passes. The sleeve has three openings coaxial with the rod, in which the elastic elements are located, such as cylindrical coil springs, the upper end of which is connected by fasteners to the base, and the lower is in pressed condition and protrudes beyond the lower face of the sleeve. The movable plate rests against the lower ends of the elastic elements, which is pivotally connected with three elastic elements, e.g., compression springs, the second ends of which are pivotally connected to the friction sleeve covering the rod with tension.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve reliability of actuation of explosion-proof devices in case of emergency explosion.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: device for selection of the hole size for easy detachable element of construction and its mass, designed to protect buildings and structures from explosions comprises an explosive chamber, in the upper base of which there is a hole overlapped by the easy detachable element. The hole area can vary by screwing the removable rings. The detachable element overlaps the hole in the ring, over which a protective shield is fixed. The second hole is overlapped by the valve which is pressed against the hole by means of an electromagnet and opens by the spring during opening of the contacts. The pressing force of the valve and compressing the spring is set so as the total force to be equal to the allowed pressure multiplied by the area of the valve hole, i.e. ΔF=Fe.m - Fpr=ΔPdm Scl, where Fe.m is the force of the electromagnet pressing the valve to the hole, N/m2; Fpr is force of compressing the spring, opening the valve, H:Fpr=(10÷15) gm, where g = 9.81 m/s2; m is mass of the electromagnet core with the valve, kg; ΔRdm is allowable pressure drop for the model plant; Scl is the area of opening the valve, m2. The easy detachable comprises a metal armoured frame with metal armoured coating and filler - lead having at the ends four fixed support tubes. In coating of the explosive object four support rods are rigidly embedded, which are telescopically inserted in the fixed support tubes of the panel. The filler is made in the form of the dispersion system air-lead, at that the lead is made in the form of crumbs, and the support rods are made elastic. Additionally, it comprises elastic-damping collapsing elements of single action, which are mounted on the support rods to the sheet-abutments through the damping base with the screws. A sleeve of single action is attached by the flange with the screws to the base coaxially to the rod, made of fragile, collapsible material such as porcelain. The space between the sleeve and the elastic part of the collapsible element is filled with construction foam, which connects the leaf springs with the sleeve of single action, forming a three-dimensional damper, which contributes to reliable fastening of the leaf springs and receives the first shock pulse.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of protection against explosions.
SUBSTANCE: this structure comprises reinforced concrete 6000x1800 mm panels. This panel consists of destructible and non-destructible parts. Note here that the latter is composed of load-bearing ribs arranged in contour of destructible part. The latter is composed of at least two coaxial recesses in building wall. One, outer recess is composed by sides of the right quadrangular truncated pyramid with rectangular base. Another one, inner recess is composed by two inclined surfaces connected by ribs to make a slit. Note here that wall thickness from said rib to building guard should make at least δ=20 mm. At impact or explosive loads said wall section can be divided into separate parts. At least three horizontal rods with shielded screen secured thereat are attached to load-bearing ribs in outline of purposefully destructible structure. Said screen is locked by springs at said rods arranged between thrusts rigidly jointed with ribs and shielded screen. To collect of fragments of destructed structure a trough is secured to rods located at lower part.
EFFECT: higher reliability of blast-proof devices.
SUBSTANCE: explosion-proof panel contains a metal armor framework with a metal armor coating and lead filler, four fixed supporting branch pipes in end faces, and in the coating of an explosion-hazard object four bearing rods are rigidly fixed, which are inserted telescopically into fixed supporting branch pipes of the panel, and the filler is designed as air-lead disperse system, and lead is designed as crumb, and the bearing rods are made elastic, and in addition the elastic damping collapsing single-acting elements are provisioned which are fastened on bearing rods to stop sheets by means of the damping base with screws, and to the base, coaxially with the rod, the truncated cone bushing is rigidly fixed, and its lower truncated cone base is connected with the base, and the single-acting element rests against the top truncated cone base, this element is made as a bushing from fragile collapsing material, for example porcelain, which is pressed from below by the tightening element of bushing type with grooves for fixing of the elastic part of the collapsing element designed as the conic spring facing with the top base towards the tightening element of bushing type, and the lower base of the conic spring is fixed in grooves of the damping base by means of moulding polyurethane, and fixing of the tightening element of bushing type is performed by means of latches installed on the rod surface. The single-acting element is designed as at least three rods from the fragile collapsing material placed between stop sheets and the tightening element of bushing type with grooves for fixing of elastic part of the collapsing element, and one end of each rod by means of hinges is fixed on stop sheets, and the rods are located with an inclination about 15°÷25° from the elastic dampening collapsing single-acting element aside.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of action of explosion-proof devices at accident explosion on a site and providing of recovery of these structure into initial state after explosion.
SUBSTANCE: explosionproof panel for emergency protection of industrial buildings and structures contains explosion-proof elements which are designed as an explosion-proof plate containing a metal armor framework with a metal armor coating and a lead filler which has four fixed supporting branch pipes in end faces, and in the building coating four bearing rods are rigidly fixed which are telescopically inserted into fixed supporting branch pipes of the panel, and the filler is designed as the disperse system air-lead, and lead is designed as crumb, and the bearing rods are made elastic, and to the end faces of bearing rods, from the side facing to the metal framework, the additional elements damping the shock wave are fixed, which are made of elastomer, for example, polyurethane, the additional elements are made combined, for example elastic damping, designed as an elastic element, for example a spring, filled with polyurethane. The additional elements are designed as a package of dish-shaped elastic elements, each of which contains a round base which by means of at least two pins is freely placed on a stop. One end of the pin is rigidly fixed on the stop, and another one - fits with a gap the hole made in the base and fixes it by the nut, to the lower part of the base, rigidly and coaxially to it the cylindrical barrel with a cavity and a hole is fixed, through the hole of which with a gap a rod passes one end of which is rigidly fixed on a stop, and another one - in an object coating, the rod freely fits inside the bushing one end of which is rigidly fixed on the stop, and another one - is freely moves, with a gap in the cavity of the cylindrical barrel. The package of dish-shaped elastic elements is placed with small preload, between the stop and the round base.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of work of the personnel in explosion-hazardous rooms.
FIELD: building material and unit production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying layer of fibrous vegetable material having predetermined thickness and width under press; pressing thereof and reinforcing the layer with wire ties; forming building member having dimensions of 4-5×25-30×50-60 cm3; laying thereof in forming tank lined with heat-resistance film material and slowly filling the tank with molten composite mixture heated up to 90-95°C, wherein the composite mixture includes solid hydrocarbons of paraffin series having 75-80°C melting temperature. The tank is filled with molten composite mixture up to level exceeding building member thickness for 1-1.5 cm.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of people protection in living, service and industrial rooms against neutron irradiation along with improved heat-insulation and heat accumulation in the room.
FIELD: construction, particularly to prevent damage caused by inner or outer explosion of vehicle or building objects and structures.
SUBSTANCE: explosion-protected case has load-bearing frame assemblies and members secured in-between. The members may be opened under the action of excessive pressure. The openable members have sliding panels connected with resilient members having other ends cooperating with support structure. Support structure is fastened to load-bearing frame assemblies. Air-tight seal and guiding means extend along each openable member perimeter.
EFFECT: increased reliability, integrity and simplicity of case structure to be protected against damage caused by inner or outer explosions.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly means to protect building against radon and other ground gases, for instance multilayered building blocks used for radon-protective foundation base and wall panel production.
SUBSTANCE: vented building block comprises box member and porous filler arranged on box member bottom. The filler has air-discharge orifices. The box is monolithic and is formed of concrete material mainly based on rigid cement mixes. Box interior is filled with porous filler. Two one-way valve assemblies are built in main box face layer so that the valve assemblies permit air passage inside the box provided with porous filler. One one-way valve assembly opens valves in the case of increased ambient air pressure, another one opens valves in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. Radon-protective system is also disclosed.
EFFECT: provision of load-bearing capabilities and ground gas discharge from basement into atmosphere.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building structure includes two faceplates where the said two faceplates are placed on each side of solid-state composition which contains solid particles in amounts of 90 to 96% of overall solid-state composition mass and 10 to 4% of asphaltenes mass containing binding substance which includes 15 to 95% of asphaltenes mass from binding substance total amount. The asphaltenes contain not less than 60% of aromatic carbon mass and 5 to 85% of other carbons mass from binding substance total amount. The said binding substance has penetration below 15 dmm measured at 25°C. Also structural pre-fabricated panel with two faceplates is defined.
EFFECT: structural strength and high impact toughness.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to protective devices used in highly explosive and radioactive objects: easy-drop roofs, anti-explosion gates, valves of excessive pressure relief, etc. Anti-explosion panel includes metallic armoured frame with metallic armoured paneling and lead-filler, which has four immovable support nozzles in the ends, where four support rods are telescopically inserted and sealed outside in object covering.
EFFECT: improvement of protective devices operation reliability in case of emergency explosion in the object.
SUBSTANCE: contamination protector contains fine particles of nitrogen dioxide, aqueous solvent containing alcohol dispersing specified particles of nitrogen dioxide, surface-active substance and splash modifier chosen among alkali metal compound, alkaline-earth metal compound, phosphorus compound, clay mineral and mixtures thereof. Specified contamination protector enters into the composition of specified aqueous solvent. It can be applied onto building board coating.
EFFECT: contamination protector and its adhesion to building board coating are enhanced.
3 cl, 30 dwg, 3 tbl, 30 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to radiation protection of biological objects, namely to construction or finishing of residential and administrative-production premises, having complex heat insulation, heat accumulating, neutron-moderating and absorbing properties. Method for erection of construction element for protection of biological objects against neutron radiation by means of protective layer creation in construction element, for instance in building wall, having heat insulation and accumulating properties and high radiation protection. Protective layer is made of layerwise laid cylindrical reservoirs, for instances polyethylene bottles, filled by 85-90% of reservoir volume with concentrated water solution of salt. Besides space between reservoirs is filled with construction mortar, containing sand, cement and natural materials, for instance wastes of spent ore, slag, containing chemical elements with increased section of neutron capture at the following ratio of components, wt %: sand - 10-20, cement - 30-60, natural materials -10-15, water - the rest.
EFFECT: provision of protection against neutron radiation and improved ecological conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of buildings and structures protection against radon penetration in premises and may be used in construction on radon-hazardous territories. Method of protection against radon penetration into building premises comprises arrangement of screed on cement binder. At the same time screed is applied onto unset additional protective layer of gypsum or gypsum-containing substance laid on soil with creation of additional amount of calcium hydrosulfoaluminate near interface between gypsum and screed.
EFFECT: increased extent of buildings protection against radioactive gas radon, reduced cost and labour intensiveness of radon protection system arrangement.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: blast resistant panel comprises a metal armoured frame with a metal armoured lining and a filler - lead, and in ends it has four fixed nozzle supports, and in the coating of a highly explosive facility there are four rigidly installed support rods, which are telescopically inserted into fixed nozzle supports of the panel. The filler is arranged in the form of a disperse air-lead system, moreover, lead is shaped as grit, and support rods are elastic.
EFFECT: higher reliability of explosion-protective devices actuation in case of emergency explosion at a facility and provision of these structures return into an initial position after an explosion.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for protection of buildings and structures with the help of damaged structure elements comprises an explosive chamber, in the upper base of which there is a hole covered with an easily removed element. The hole area may vary by screwing of replaceable rings, and the removed element covers the hole in the ring, above which the protective screen is fixed. The second hole is closed with a valve, which is pressed to the hole with the help of an electromagnet and is opened with a spring as contacts open, and the force of valve pressing and spring compression is set so that the total force is equal to the pressure permitted multiplied by the area of the valve hole.
EFFECT: higher efficiency in protection of buildings, structures, process equipment against explosions by increasing performance and reliability of actuation with the help of damaged elements of structures and assessment of efficiency of easily removed barrier blast resistant devices in emergency mode on a facility and provision of such structures return into initial position after an explosion.
2 cl, 3 dwg