Method for production of porous granular ammonium nitrate
SUBSTANCE: method involves the introduction of a stabilizing additive into the ammonium nitrate solution with simultaneous neutralization with ammonia. Further, the solution is evaporated to form a melt and a dispersant and a pore-forming additive are added to the resulting melt. Granulation of the melt is carried out by dispersing in the cooling air flow and conditioning of the resulting granules. Nitrogen gas is used as the pore-forming additive.
EFFECT: increased absorbing and retaining capacity of ammonium nitrate granules in relation to diesel fuel, increased static strength, increased thermal stability of granules.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosives of mixed type. Explosive contains borohydrides of lithium, aluminium, lithium-aluminium, silicon, beryllium, diborane or tetraborane and hydrides of lithium, aluminium, lithium-aluminium, silicon or beryllium as fuel, and ammonium dinitramide, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen pentoxide or boron nitrate.
EFFECT: claimed versions provide increase of pressure on shock wave front by separation of mainly hydrogen, as well as regulation of reaction rate.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive substances, in particular to mixed explosive and its versions. Explosive contains silicon borohydride and one of the following compounds: water-free ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, nitrogen pentoxide, boron nitrate, and beryllium nitrate or nitrogen hexoxide. To balance reaction third component - disilane can be added. Components are taken in specified ratio. All versions of explosive ensure high speed of fragments and pressure of shock wave due to high reaction power and obtaining released gases with small average molecular weight - hydrogen and water. Regulation of reaction speed can be provided due to variation of composition components and their ratio.
EFFECT: group of inventions is directed at extension of technical means arsenal.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocket fuel, which releases hydrogen when burning, and its versions. Rocket fuel contains silicon borohydride and one of the following compounds: water-free ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, nitrogen pentoxide, boron nitrate, beryllium nitrate, nitric acid or nitrogen hexoxide. To balance reaction third component - disilane can be added. Components are taken in specified ratio. Regulation of reaction speed is possible by variation of composition compounds and their ratio.
EFFECT: all versions of rocket fuel ensure high speed of reactive jet due to increased reaction power and obtaining released gases with small average molecular weight - hydrogen and water.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to propellant explosive, such as mixed gunpowder, and to its versions. Propellant explosive contains silicon borohydride and one of the following compounds: water-free ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, nitrogen pentoxide, boron nitrate, and beryllium nitrate or nitrogen hexoxide. To balance reaction third component - disilane can be added. Components are taken in specified ratio. All versions of propellant explosive ensure high basic speed of missiles and bullets due to high reaction power and release of mainly hydrogen. Regulation of charge burning speed can be provided due to selection of components and their content in composition.
EFFECT: group of inventions is directed at extension of technical means arsenal.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an explosive substance. The explosive substance contains a nitro compound, particularly trinitromethane (nitroform). The trinitromethane is present in a bonded compound with unsaturated hydrocarbons, for example, via a Michael reaction. A method of preparing such a substance employs radiation polymerisation with heat removal to form a copolymer with another component, which can be nitroethylene, and additionally contains decaborane. The explosive substance can be a mixture in which nitroform is in a liquid ammonia-soluble form, wherein the ammonia is a hot substance, and diborane and pentaborane can be added to the explosive substance.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of the substance.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: explosive comprises ammonium nitrate and the explosive decomposition catalyst added into the melt. At that it comprises the catalyst as a binary mixture with dispersion of 0.15-0.2 mm consisting of potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of ore breaking, significant simplification of production technology and cheapening of the explosive with simultaneous imparting it with the physical stability, reduction of its capacity in increasing the detonation capability, which enables to implement wide industrial introduction of this explosive.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of safe water-resistant emulsion explosives. The water-resistant emulsion explosive contains, wt %: oil-in-water emulsion 80.00-30.00, ammonia nitrate 18.60-65.70, gas-generating agent in the form of a gasification solution 0.20-0.10 and petroleum products 1.20-4.20. The petroleum products used are diesel fuel; the oil-in-water emulsion is based on aqueous ammonium or sodium nitrate and includes 70% acetic acid, thiourea as a catalyst and 40% sodium hydroxide. The emulsion explosive includes granular ammonium nitrate which is mechanically mixed with said emulsion.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at improving stability of operational and explosive properties and improving effectiveness of the explosive effect.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of energetic condensed systems, namely to oxidisers of solid fuel systems based on ammonium nitrate (AN). Method includes mixing salts of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride, heating mixture in water medium to complete dissolution, reduction of temperature to crystal formation without mixing, after which mixture is intensively mixed until equilibrium is established, filtration of formed crystals and drying. Potassium chloride is dosed into initial mixture in amount making it possible to obtain its content in solid phase not less than 3%. In obtained oxidiser thermal decomposition of AN changes - explosive nature of exoeffect is observed, heat release increases sharply. Effect is achieved due to formation as a result of ion-exchange at nanolevel of equilibrium solid phase with complex composition, possessing novel physical-chemical properties.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain AN-based oxidiser, which does not have phase conversions in the interval of temperatures from -50 to +100°C.
4 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains ammonium nitrate brand ZhV, dinitramide guanidinium salt, orthocarborane, di-N-oxide-1,3-dinitrile-2,4,6-triethylbenzene, mixture of microdisperse powder of aluminium brand ASD-6 and ultradisperse aluminium powder, methylpolyvinyltetrazole and mixture plasticiser of methylpolyvinyltetrazole, consisting of 1-ethyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole and 2-ethyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole.
EFFECT: increase of burning velocity, specific impulse and stability of physic-mechanical characteristics of composition, reduction of dependence of its burning velocity on pressure.
SUBSTANCE: oxidant in the form of ammonium nitrate is dissolved in a mixture of water and acetonitrile using a magnetic mixer at 55-65°C for not less than 30 minutes. A fuel-binder is dissolved in the obtained solution at the same temperature for not less than 60 minutes. The solvent is stripped for not less than 3 hours while stirring at temperature of 55-65°C and pressure of not more than 0.03 MPa. The fuel-binder used is methylpolyvinyl tetrazole which is plasticised with a nitramino-nitrotriazole plasticiser. Metallic fuel is mechanically placed in the obtained mixture of oxidant and fuel-binder, said metallic fuel being in the form of a mixture of micro- and nanopowder of aluminium, guanyl-urea salt of dinitramide and a curing agent in the form of di-N-oxide-1,3-dinitrile-2,4,6-triethylbenzene. The obtained mixture is evacuated, moulded and polymerised at room temperature to obtain a high-energy composite. Fine crystalline ammonium nitrate can be used with particle size of 2-10 mcm.
EFFECT: high stability of physical-mechanical properties, rate of combustion, improved inflammability, low sensitivity to mechanical action and reduced dependency of the rate of combustion of the composite on pressure changes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing ammonium nitrate. A method of producing ammonium nitrate includes exposing gaseous raw material to oxidation apparatus conditions, said material substantially consisting of at least ammonia, steam and an oxidising gas, as a result of which ammonia is oxidised to obtain a reaction mixture which includes nitrogen monoxide and steam, followed by cooling the reaction mixture in a heat exchanger, as a result of which nitrogen monoxide is oxidised and the steam is condensed; the nitrogen monoxide oxidation products react with the condensed water and absorbed by said water; and substantially all the nitrogen monoxide in the reaction mixture is converted is converted to nitric acid, followed by reacting the nitric acid stream with an ammonia stream to form ammonium nitrate.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain ammonium nitrate without using an absorption column.
26 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and in production of explosives. The method of producing water-resistant ammonium nitrate includes simultaneously grinding and mixing ammonium nitrate with a mixture of water repellents containing iron (III) oxide in amount of not less than 0.03% and stearates in amount of not less than 0.1% of the weight of the product, and drying. The stearate contained in the water repellent is lithium stearate or magnesium stearate or a mixture thereof. The water repellent additionally contains oleates of group IIA metals or mixtures thereof, taken in amount of 0.1-1.0% of the weight of the product, with the ratio of stearates to oleates of group IIA metals of 1:1.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain ammonium nitrate with high water-resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry when processing phosphogypsum - a wet-process phosphoric acid production waste. Highly pure calcium carbonate and nitrogen-sulphate fertiliser are obtained by converting phosphogypsum with ammonium carbonate solution to obtain ammonium sulphate solution and phosphochalk. The phosphochalk is dissolved in nitric acid and the insoluble residue is filtered off from the calcium nitrate solution. Further, the calcium nitrate solution is reacted with ammonium carbonate to obtain a product pulp of calcium carbonate in ammonium nitrate solution, followed by deposition of highly pure calcium carbonate therefrom and processing the ammonium nitrate solution into nitrogen-sulphate fertiliser. The product pulp is divided into two parts, one of which is taken for filtration to separate the residue of highly pure calcium carbonate, and the other is taken for premixing with ammonium carbonate solution until concentration of ammonium carbonate in the liquid phase is equal to 4.0-8.0%. During deposition of highly pure calcium carbonate, temperature is kept at 40-45°C and concentration of excess ammonium carbonate in the liquid phase of the pulp is kept at 0.5-1.0%. Ammonium nitrate solution obtained after separating the calcium carbonate residue is mixed with ammonium sulphate solution obtained after converting phosphogypsum. The mixture is evaporated, granulated and dried.
EFFECT: invention increases effectiveness of complex treatment of phosphogypsum, efficiency of filtering at the step of depositing highly pure calcium carbonate, output of ammonium nitrate into the liquid phase.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry and can be used in production of industrial explosives and prolonged-action fertilisers. Ammonium nitrate is ground while simultaneously mixing with water-repellent agents - stearates in amount of not less than 0.1 wt % and iron (III) compounds in amount of not less than 0.03 wt % with respect to iron. The stearates used are sodium stearate or ammonium stearate or zinc stearate or calcium stearate or a mixture thereof. The iron (III) compounds used are iron-ammonium alums or iron chloride or iron sulphate or iron oxide.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-resistant ammonium nitrate which meets GOST 14702-79 requirements, and reduces power consumption and duration of the process.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely, to production of ammonium nitrate using neutralisation heat apparatuses (NHA) exploiting heat released in mixing nitric acid with gaseous ammonium. Proposed plant comprises NHA apparatus 1 with inner barrel 4, mixing pumping circuit , acid and gas feed and finished product discharge pipelines 19, 20, 21. NHA apparatus bottom is communicated with pumping circuit suction pipeline 9 while inner barrel 4 is communicated with delivery pipeline 10. Inner barrel 4 is arranged at apparatus bottom without face clearance. External tubular mixers 12, 13 are arranged in delivery pipeline 10 of circulation pump 11 upstream of apparatus 1 to mix reaction components. Ammonium suction pipeline 20 is connected to mixer 12 while nitric acid suction pipeline 19 is connected to mixer 13. Mixers 12, 13 may be replaced by integral injector double-suction mixer. Finished product is discharged via pipeline 21 connected to delivery pipeline 10 upstream of mixers 12, 13. Inner barrel 4 extends beyond apparatus 1 and is provided with deevaporation plate arranged at its top edge.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, reduced content of acid and nitrate in off vapors.
12 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes mixing solutions of ammonium nitrate and sulfate at the ratio that provides for the specified content of sulfate sulphur in a fertiliser, introduction of a modifying additive, steaming of the mixed solution at the finished temperature of the produced suspension that does not exceed 155°C, granulation of suspension. The suspension prior to granulation is soaked during mixing for at least 30 minutes and steamed at the finished temperature of 186-198°C. Granulation is carried out by prilling method.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce a fertiliser that does not become caked when stored even without treatment of granules with amino-oil mix.
4 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing mineral fertiliser. The method of producing anti-caking ammonium nitrate involves treatment with powdered additives. The anti-caking additive used is a mixture of metal fluorides and aerosol in amount of not less than 0.1% of the weight of ammonium nitrate.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain anti-caking ammonium nitrate for producing industrial explosives.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing water-resistant ammonium nitrate involves its treatment with a water-repellent agent. Treatment is carried out by mixing ammonium nitrate with a hydrophobic additive in amount of not less than 0.1% of the mass of the product, where the hydrophobic additive used is a mixture of sodium or potassium silicates, metal fluorides or surfactants. The ammonium nitrate is dried at temperature 18-32°C in not less than 10 minutes.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain ammonium nitrate with high water resistance.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing granular ammonium nitrate which involves neutralisation of nitric acid with gaseous ammonia, evaporation of the obtained solution until obtaining a highly concentrated melt which contains ammonium nitrate in amount of not less than 99.5%, spraying the melt into a granulation tower having at least one vibrogranulator, while feeding air in a counterflow at a rate of 7.0-7.8 t/h per m2 of the cross-section of the tower and output of the obtained granules in amount of 1.0-1.2 t/h per m2 of the cross-section of the tower, cooling the obtained granules with air in fluidised bed apparatus, where after cooling the granules to temperature not over 45°C, spent air at temperature 60 - 70°C comes out of the fluidised bed apparatus into the bottom part of the granulation tower, where it mixes with air sucked from the atmosphere in volume ratio of 1:1, spent air and juice vapour from the neutralisation and evaporation steps are mixed with spent air from the granulation tower, the vapour-air mixture formed is washed in a gas cleaner, while sprinkling the trays of the gas cleaner with a circulating ammonium nitrate solution and further filtered through a multilayer fibrous non-woven material which contains ultrafine fibre, while sprinkling the front layer of the material with condensate of the juice vapour.
EFFECT: invention enables to intensify the process while improving the quality of the end product and reducing harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves neutralisation of nitric acid with ammonia gas, evaporation of ammonium nitrate solution to a state of high-concentration melt in an air current, granulation of the melt in a tower, two-step purification of the air mixture in the tower with secondary steam from the neutraliser and gas-vapour mixture from the evaporation apparatus from ammonium nitrate and ammonia impurities, involving washing with a weak ammonium nitrate solution at the first step and fine purification via filtration through material made from superfine fibre at the second step. During filtration, the purified mixture goes through several layers of filter fabric which are distinguished by their characteristics on material, thickness and density. The first layer of filter fabric is constantly or periodically sprayed by a mixture of condensate of secondary and fresh vapour. The spraying condensate which is rich in ammonium nitrate comes out of the filters and directed for feeding the cycle of the washing solution at the fist step of purifying the mixture, for washing the secondary vapour at the outlet of the reactor-neutraliser, after-purification of the gas-vapour mixture from the evaporation apparatus and from after-neutralisation apparatus.
EFFECT: method and filter element enable fine purification of air from ammonium nitrate up to 15-3- mg/m3 and ammonia not more than 5 mg/m3.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical and petrochemical industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with a method to decrease of a density of ammonium nitrate in products. The method includes production of a gasifying agent in the form of a water-insoluble solid carbonaceous compound capable to help evolution of a gas at a chemical reaction, and production of a product out of ammonium nitrate. The water-insoluble solid substance having the average diameter of particles of no less than 40 micron is introduced in the ammonium nitrate product having the acid. At that the value of pH is between 2 and 5. At production of granules (pellets) from the ammonium nitrate product a granular product of an ammonium nitrate with the lowered density is formed. The invention also is dealt with granular products out of ammonium nitrate produced by this method and an explosive composition a containing a granular product out of the ammonium nitrate produced by this method. The offered method ensures an increase of volume of self-contained pores and accordingly a decrease of the volumetric bulk density.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of volume of self-contained pores and accordingly a decrease of the volumetric bulk density.
20 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl