Composition of water-soluble coating for protecting nuclear fuel core surface
SUBSTANCE: composition contains a polymeric resin based on methacrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate. The composition is a polymer resin containing 52-62 wt % of methacrylic acid, 34-42 wt % of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 0.01-12 wt % of methyl methacrylate.
EFFECT: production of the film coating having high strength and wear resistance that can be easily removed by washing with water.
7 cl, 12 dwg, 8 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: shell is fully or partially made of a composite material with a ceramic matrix containing fibres of silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement of the matrix and a phase-to-phase layer between the matrix and fibres. The matrix contains at least one carbide selected from titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC) or triple carbide of titanium-silicon (Ti3SiC2). The method to manufacture a shell of nuclear fuel includes, in particular, manufacturing of a fibre pre-mould, application of a phase-to-phase layer on it with chemical steam infiltration, application of the matrix.
EFFECT: reliable mechanical retention of products of nuclear fuel fission inside a shell during radiation, at the same time optimal transfer of heat energy to coolant is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: tubular shell comprises an outer layer from the first zirconium-based alloy and has an inner layer metallurgically attached to it from the second zirconium-based alloy. The inner layer protects the tubular shell against corrosion cracking under stress. The second zirconium-based alloy contains tin as an alloying material, and each zirconium-based alloy contains at least 96 wt percent of zirconium. The first zirconium-based alloy contains at least 0.1 wt percent of niobium. The second alloy contains 0.02-0.03 wt percent of iron. The inner layer thickness makes 5-40% of the tubular shell thickness. The method to manufacture the tubular shell includes a stage of joint extrusion of two tubes from different zirconium-based alloys to produce a tubular shell.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to develop a corrosion-resistant tubular shell of a water reactor fuel element.
24 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: fuel core includes assembly of coaxially arranged fuel pellets (1) made from fissile material, and heat-conducting gaskets (2). Each gasket (2) is installed between adjacent fuel pellets (1). Gaskets are also installed on end surfaces of the first and the last fuel pellet (1) of assembly. Thickness of fuel pellets is less than their diametre. Thickness of gaskets is less than thickness of fuel gaskets. Fuel pellets and gaskets can have the same diametre. Diametre of heat-conducting gaskets can exceed diametre of fuel pellets at least by the value of radial gap between surface of fuel pellet and inner surface of cover (3) of fuel cell. Gaskets are made from alloy on the basis of molybdenum enriched at least with one of isotopes: Mo92, Mo94, Mo98, Mo100, or from chrome alloy.
EFFECT: improving reliability, safety and power efficiency of fuel cores of fuel cells and nuclear reactor as a whole.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: physics, nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of nuclear power engineering and may be used in ultrahigh-temperature space reactors. Minute fuel element comprises microsphere of oxygen-free uranium fuel and four-layer protective coating, in which the third layer from microsphere is made of zirconium carbide or niobium carbide, and there is layer of zirconium nitride. The first protective coating layer from microsphere is made of zirconium nitride with columnar structure oriented in radial direction. The second and fourth layers are made from composition zirconium carbon-carbide with content of carbon phase that monotonously changes by radius within the limits of (5-10) wt % - (90-95) wt %. Carbon phase content makes (5-10) wt % at the borders of the second and fourth layers with the third layer.
EFFECT: improved corrosion resistance of power coats from zirconium or niobium carbides, which provides for prolongation of operation resource both in stationary radiation conditions and in heat cycling conditions with forced energy release.
FIELD: physics, nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: method of nuclear reactor operation involves loading active zone with assemblies containing nuclear fuel rods. At least one nuclear fuel rod includes: shell and nuclear fuel pellets based on uranium oxide. Shell is made of completely recrystallised zirconium-based alloy. Weight content of the alloy includes from 0.8 to 1.3% of niobium and from 1000 to 1700 parts per million of oxygen, from 0 to 35 parts per million of sulfur, from 0 to 7000 parts per million of iron and chrome and/or vanadium together, from 0 to 2% of tin, from 0 to 70 parts per million of nickel, from 0 to 100 parts per million of carbon, and from 0 to 50 parts per million of silicon. The rest is zirconium, not including inevitable impurities. Pellets are loaded to the shell in column pattern. Reactor operation is controlled by following method: during power transition linear power density of nuclear fuel rod remain lower than boundary linear power density. Boundary linear power density is over 430 W/cm. Linear power density adjustment of nuclear fuel rod remains lower boundary change value. Boundary adjustment exceeds 180 W/cm.
EFFECT: reduced risk of fuel rod shell disruption and enhanced flexibility of reactor operation.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of steels for main equipment of nuclear power plants and provides low-activated radiation-resistant steel comprising, wt %: carbon 0.13-0.22, silicon 0.15-0.35, manganese 0,17-0,60, chromium 2.00-3.30, vanadium 0,05-0,45, tungsten 0.50-2.00, aluminum 0.01-0.05, sodium 0.001-0.005, calcium 0.001-0.005, iron and impurities - the balance.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of resistance against thermal and radiation embitterment resulting in operation reliability, safety, and operation resource of nuclear power plant reactors.
4 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: it is proposed a fast reactor fuel element the can of which is fabricated from a ferritic martensitic steel. The structure of the steel in the can height consists at any rate of two zones. The steel structure in the upper zone of the fuel element can ensured its increased high-temperature strength, and in its lower zone-increased resistance to low-temperature radiation embrittlement at the following ratio of components (mass %):C 0.10-0.21; Si 0.1-0.8; Mn 0.5-2.0; Cr 10.0-13.5; W 0.8-2.5; V 0.05-0.4; Ti 0.03-0.3; B 0.001-0.008; Ce and/or Yt 0.001-0.10; Zn 0.05-0.2; Ta 0.005-0.2; N 0.02-0.15; Fe the rests at the ratio of the total content of V, Ti, Zr and Ta to the total content of C and N in the range from 2 to 9.
EFFECT: the result of invention is creation of the fuel element and can for its fabrication from the steel with low level of induced radioactivity and its more last decrease after neutron irradiation high level of the embrittlement resistance in the temperature range of 270-400°C under conditions of neutron irradiation and high level of high-temperature strength at temperatures to 700°C.
6 cl, 4 tbl
FIELD: nuclear engineering; pressurized water reactors.
SUBSTANCE: zirconium base alloy used for manufacturing fuel-assembly elements has in its composition 0.02 - 1 mass percent of iron, 0.8 - 2.3 mass percent of niobium, less than 2000 parts by million of tin, less than 2000 parts by million of oxygen, less than 100 parts by million of carbon, 5 35 parts by million of sulfur, and 0.01 - 0.25 mass percent of chromium and/or vanadium as a whole, as well as inevitable impurities. Ratio R between content of niobium minus 0.5 mass percent and that of iron not necessarily added by chromium and/or vanadium is higher than 2.5. Sealing tube and rolled sheets for reactor fuel rods are manufactured from this alloy in re-crystallized state. Method for manufacturing tubes designed to form entire can of fuel rod or its external part, or to produce fuel-assembly guide tube involves manufacture of zirconium base alloy bar. This bar is heated to 1000 - 1200 °C followed by its abrupt cooling down with water whereupon it is heated to 600 800 °C, and workpiece obtained in the process is extruded. This workpiece is subjected to cold rolling and in the process it undergoes heat treatment at 560 - 620 °C and then final heat treatment at 560 - 620 °C.
EFFECT: facilitated manufacture, enhanced quality of fuel elements.
11 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: nuclear engineering; pressurized water reactors.
SUBSTANCE: zirconium base alloy used for producing fuel-assembly elements has in its composition 0.02 - 1 mass percent of iron, 0.08 - 2.3 mass percent of niobium, less than 2000 parts by million of tin, less than 2000 parts by million of oxygen, less than 100 parts by million of carbon, 5 - 35 parts by million of sulfur, and less than 0.25 mass percent of chromium and/or vanadium as a whole, as well as inevitable impurities. Ratio R of niobium content minus 0.5 mass percent and iron content with chromium and/or vanadium added, if necessary, is below 3. Sealing tube and rolled sheets for reactor fuel rods are made of this alloy in re-crystallized state. Method for producing tubes designed to form entire fuel-rod can or its external part, or to produce fuel-assembly guide tube involves manufacture of zirconium base alloy bar. This bar is heated to 1000 - 1200 °C followed by abrupt cooling down with water, and workpiece obtained is drawn upon heating to 600 - 800 °C. Then workpiece is subjected to cold rolling and intermediate heat treatment at 560 - 620 °C, to final heat treatment at 560 - 620 °C. All these heat treatment procedures are conducted in inert atmosphere or in vacuum.
EFFECT: facilitated manufacture, enhanced quality of fuel elements.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering; fuel rods for water-moderated water-cooled reactors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel rod designed for use in water-cooled water-moderated power reactors such as type VVER-1000 reactor has fuel core disposed in cylindrical can. Outer diameter of fuel rod is chosen between 7.00 . 10-3 and 8.79 . 10-3m and fuel core diameter is between 5.82 . 10-3 and 7.32 . 10-3m and mass, between 0.93 and 1.52 kg, fuel core to fuel rod length ratio being between 0.9145 and 0.9483.
EFFECT: reduced linear heat loads and fuel rod depressurization probability, enlarged variation range of reactor power, optimal fuel utilization.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a thermosetting composition of a coating powder, suitable for hardening at a temperature of 60-130°C. The composition includes a thermal initiation system and a resin system, in which a reaction ability of the thermal initiation system is such that the thermal initiation system ensures gelation time 2.5-1000 minutes at 60°C in butanedyol-dimethacrylate with determination in accordance with DIN 16945 with application of 1 wt % of the thermal initiation system in 99 wt % of butanedyol-dimethacrylate, and in which the quantity of the thermal initiation system is selected in such a way that when the composition of the coating powder is applied on a substrate and hardens at a temperature of 130°C for 20 min, the obtained coating sustains, at least, 50 double steps with abrasion in acetone. The resin system includes resin and a common cross-linking agent, in which resin contains reactionable nonsaturation, and in which the said reactionable nonsaturation represents double carbon-carbon bonds, bound directly to an electron-acceptor group. The common cross-linking agent is selected from a group of acrylates, methacrylates, vinyl esters, vinyl ethers, vinylamides, alkyne ethers, alkyne esters, alkyne amides, alkyne amines, propargyl ethers, propargyl esters, itaconates, enamines and their mixtures. Weight per the double bond in the resin system constitutes 100-1000 g/mol by determination with application of 1H NMR, weight per nonsaturation in the common cross-linking agent constitutes 150-870 g/mol by determination with application of 1H NMR. The composition of the coating powder is a single-component system. Also described is a method of obtaining the coating powder, a method of a substrate coating, the substrate and application of the coating powder composition for coating the thermosensitive substrate.
EFFECT: coating powder compositions by the invention combine an ability to hardening at a low temperature with good processability in an extruder without gel formation.
43 cl, 12 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in producing integrated microcircuits and other electronic devices which use a planar manufacturing technique based on photolithographic processes. The composition for photoactivated etching of silicon dioxide films includes a polymer base - polymethyl methacrylate, a photosensitive component - ammonium fluoride in trifluoroacetic acid solution, a solvent - acetone, a protophilic agent - diphenylamine.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the process of producing a photoetched pattern on a silicon layer, increases the rate of photoetching and significantly reduces defects in the obtained articles.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a novel photopolymer acrylic oligomer-oligomer composition consisting of a bifunctional oligomer, an oligomer with functionality higher than 2, a monomer, a methyl methacrylate oligomer with molecular weight 20000-70000 and a polymerisation initiator, with the following ratio of components in pts.wt: acrylic bifunctional oligomer 15-95; acrylic oligomer with functionality higher than 2 15-70; acrylic monomer 0-25; methyl methacrylate oligomer with molecular weight 20000-70000 5-20; photopolymerisation initiator 0.1-1.0. Disclosed is a wear-resistant coating on organic glass, obtained via photochemically initiated three-dimensional radical polymerisation of the disclosed composition. Disclosed is a method of producing a wear-resistant coating on organic glass, involving a step for preparing a photopolymeric acrylic oligomer-oligomer composition and a step for curing thereof. The technical result is endowing resistance to formation of microcracks during ablation (silver resistance), low shrinkage and high adhesion to a coated substrate obtained via photopolymerisation of acrylic oligomer-oligomer compositions.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain wear-resistant protective coatings on organic glass with surface hardness close to that of sapphire crystals.
7 cl, 6 tbl, 19 ex
SUBSTANCE: acrylic lacquer contains an acrylic copolymer dispersion Primal AC-4800ER, a coalescent additive Nexcoat NX-795, a wax additive Aquacer 502, Orotan 681 dispersant, a polyurethane thickener Acrisol RM-2020, a neutraliser - 20% aqueous ammonia solution, an antifoaming agent Nopko NXZ, a preservative Kathon LXE and water.
EFFECT: with the given combination of components, the acrylic lacquer is characterised by good working characteristics and forms a high-lustre transparent coating on wooden articles.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: acrylic paint composition in the first version contains an acrylic film-forming - acrylic organosoluble copolymer Polyform and a copolymer of p-butylmethacrylate with methylmethacrylate, silica filler, thickener - benton or pangel, plasticiser - phthalic ester, pigment and organic solvent. In the second version the acrylic paint composition contains an acrylic film-forming - acrylic organosoluble copolymer Polyform and a copolymer of p-butylmethacrylate with methylmethacrylate and additionally a polyorganosiloxane resin, silica filler, thickener - benton or pangel, plasticiser - phthalic ester, pigment and organic solvent.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adhesive lacquer for polyvinylchloride and can be used for depositing images on polyvinylchloride with subsequent deposition of coating varnish. The adhesive lacquer contains a synthetic resin - copolymer of methylmethacrylate with Tglass=124 °C and dynamic viscosity of the solution in toluene equal to 1500 mPa s, a volatile solvent - methyl ethylketone and toluene and an antistatic additive EFKA 6780 ("EFKA" Degussa).
EFFECT: reduced stickiness and increased binding power.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to water-base lacquer coating materials, meant for depositing on metallic and non-metallic structures in construction, aviation technology and other industries. Description is given of the lacquer coating composition, which contains water-base aryl copolymer "ОЛД-04С" - a product of cohydrolysis of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate and calcium (meth)acrylate in quantity of 100 wt %, pigments 50-205.1 wt %, silicone fluid 0.3-0.7 wt %, water 450-550 wt %. The pigments used in the proposed composition are in form of titanium dioxide, blue phthalocyanine pigments, blue anthraquinone, green phthalocyanine, yellow light resistant, red iron oxide, coloured refractory pigments, carbon black and or their mixture. The composition can also contain filler in form of talc, kaolin, modified nano-silicate and or their mixture in quantity of 7-93 wt %, and melamine phosphate in quantity of 1-5 wt % as a fire retarding agent.
EFFECT: proposed lacquer coating composition provides for good rheological properties, in particular good opaqueness, high water resistance and freeze resistance with retention of adhesive and physical and mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed coating includes a lower layer of an aluminum alloy anodic oxide coating and an upper layer representing a thermo regulating paint coat comprising acrylate holmium-containing vanish "АКГ-1,2" (42-38 percent by weight) and oxide-modified zirconium (IV), 7-4 (58-62 percent by weight). The coating features low solar radiation absorption factor values (As ≤ 0,10-0,11) and high radiation factors (ε≥0,92-0,94). This allows reducing the radiator-emitter area which is particularly important in development of promising spacecrafts. Availability of two thermoregulating coatings, i.e. the anodic oxide and paint coatings allows a notable increase in service life of the said radiators and producing the said coatings on the surface of products made from aluminum or its alloys with lower As/ε parameter values and without drawbacks inherent in silicate coatings.
EFFECT: antirust protection of complicated-design structures and provision of preset thermal-and-radiation characteristics.
FIELD: paint and varnish materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a composition used in decorative finishing and comprising the following components, wt.-%: 20% solution of polymethylmethacrylate in dichloroethane as a film-forming agent, 20.5-23.25; aromatic solvent, 70.5-74.5, and aluminum powder modified with an organic dye by grinding, 4.25-5.0, taken in the ratio = 1:(0.005-0.008). The proposed composition provides decorative effect of cover mimic to mother-of-pearl with good adhesion of the composition on plastics of different chemical nature. Invention can be used in coloring plastics with imitation of mother-of-pearl, in particular, for national consumption goods.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of composition.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; polygraphy; methods of the stencil printing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the paint suitable for the stencil printing inside the pressurized castings. The invention describes the paint suitable for the printing films made out of the transparent thermoplastic, consisting predominantly of: a) one or several pigments; b) the binding in the solution in c) the organic solvent or in the mixture of the organic solvents, d) the routine auxiliary materials, if it is desirable, at that as the binding use the copolymer of the poly-(metha)-acrylate containing (м1) from 50 up to 90 % to the mass of alkylmethacrtlate having from 1 up to 6 atoms of carbon in the ethereal radical; (м2) from 5 up to 25 % to the mass, at least, one vinylaromatic compound; (м3) from 1 up to 25 % to the mass of maleic anhydride, and if it is desirable, (м4) from 0 up to 5 % to the mass of the alkylacrylate having from 1 up to 6 atoms of carbon in the ethereal radical or the copolymer of the poly-(metha)-acrylamide containing polymethylmethacrylate with the degree of imidization from 65 up to 80 %, to 1 up to 15 mass % of methacrylic acid and from 1 up to 15 mass % of methacrylic anhydrade. At that the indicated copolymer has the softening temperature by VIKA (ISO 306 B) at least of 115°С. As the dissolvents use aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, phenoles or their mixtures. The invention also describes the film made out of the thermoplastic printed by the above described paint; the pressurized casting consisting of the film made out of the thermoplastic printed on the opposite side with the above described paint and supplied on this side with the layer of the thermoplastic coating. At that the indicated layer is applied by the operation of pressure die casting on the inside and at that the film and-or the plastic material for operation of the pressure die casting on the inside represents the copolymer of polymethylmethacrylate; and the method of production of the pressurized castings includes the following stages: a) stencil printing of the thermoplastic films by the above described method, b) the film molding, c) the pressurized castings on the inside on the stencil printed film side in the casting mould with the thermoplastic, and d) removal of the pressurized casting from the casting mould. The technical result of the invention: the paint is resistant to the action of the high pressures and temperatures during the operation of the pressurized casting on the inside, the image stencil printed by the paint has the stable color after long-term action of the atmospheric conditions.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the paint is resistant to the action of the high pressures and temperatures during the operation of the pressurized casting on the inside, the image stencil printed by the paint has the stable color after the long-term action of the atmospheric conditions.
6 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to paint materials, particularly water dispersion paints based on a copolymeric acrylate dispersion with addition of pigments, filler and auxiliary substances. The water dispersion paint is intended primarily for external painting of buildings and structures and contains as a pigment a mixture of titanium dioxide and titanium slag, which is an industrial waste, formed with formation of titanium dioxide in rutile form during industrial high-temperature treatment of titanium and alloys thereof, ground to a fraction of minus 60 mcm. The water dispersion paint includes a pigment - mixture of titanium dioxide and titanium slag, filler - chalk and calcite, film-forming agent - styrene-acrylate dispersion A-10, a dispersant, a thickener, an anti-foaming agent, a preservative, a coalescent and water, with the following ratio of components, wt %: pigment 10-30, filler 34-50, film-forming agent 12-19, dispersant 0.4-0.6, thickener 0.8-0.85, anti-foaming agent 0.2-0.3, preservative 0.2-0.3, coalescent 0.5-0.6, water - the balance.
EFFECT: paint formulation provides improved physical and mechanical and operational properties, particularly high water resistance, weather resistance and frost resistance.