FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device for intensification of extraction process in the liquid-liquid system includes a body of the membrane extractor, an inner network partition with a membrane, circulation pumps, hydrodynamic ultrasonic radiators, an inlet branch pipe with a cock for liquid with extractable component, an outlet branch pipe with a cock for liquid after extraction of extracted component therefrom and diversion of branch pipe to supply liquid for circulation, an inlet branch pipe with a cock for extractant, an outlet branch pipe with a cock for extractant with extraction and diversion of branch pipe to supply the extractant for circulation.
EFFECT: acceleration of membrane extraction process.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment plant of a combined heat and power plant includes water pre-cleaning unit I, reverse osmosis unit II, ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation and a unit for obtaining chemically treated make-up water IV for a heat network. The first deaerator 8 is connected to high-pressure steam boiler 9. Water pre-cleaning unit I includes in-series connected clarifier 2, coagulated water tank 3, mechanical filter 4, as well as washing solution tank 20. Reverse osmosis unit II includes reverse osmosis plant 5. Ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation includes in-series connected filter 6 for H-ionisation and filter 7 for OH-ionisation, as well as neutralising tank 17. Unit IV for obtaining chemically treated make-up water for the heat network includes in-series connected tank 18 for chemically cleaned water and the second deaerator 25. Clarifier 2 is connected to FeCl3 solution tank 27 and to NaOH solution tank 28.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing consumption of reagents and salt content of chemically treated water, as well as simplifying a process flow diagram.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to food industry. Milk raw materials lactose is hydrolysed. One performs the first nanofiltration of hydrolysed milk raw materials for separation of protein into the first nanofiltration retentate and sugars and mineral substances- into the first nanolfiltration permeate. One performs the second nanofiltration of the first nanofiltration permeate for separation of sugars into the second nanofiltration retentate and mineral substances - into the second nanofiltration permeate. The low-lactose or lactose-free milk product manufacture method involves manufacture of a lactose-free or low-lactose milk product with the desirable composition; such product contains the first nanofiltration retentate and the second nanofiltration permeate produced by the proposed method. The product can by concentrated till formation of a concentrate or powder.
EFFECT: inventions group ensures an efficient method for separation of proteins, sugars and mineral substances contained in milk without calcium and protein losses.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 17 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to food industry. The low-lactose and lactose-free milk product manufacture method involves lactose hydrolysis in milk raw materials, hydrolysed milk raw materials ultrafiltration to concentrate proteins in UF-retentate and obtain UF-permeate containing sugar, nanofiltration (NF) of UF-permeate for separation of sugar into NF- retentate and minerals - into NF-permeate and manufacture of a lactose-free or low-lactose milk product with the preset composition and sweetness containing UF-permeate obtained at Stage b) and NF-permeate obtained at Stage c) essentially without addition of water and without addition of a lactase enzyme into the manufactured milk product for hydrolysis of the remaining lactose in the product. The product obtained at Stage b) can be concentrated to produce a concentrate or powder. Additionally, lactose-free or low-lactose product versions are proposed.
EFFECT: inventions group ensures manufacture of a product without organoleptic flaws in terms of taste and structure in comparison with equivalent products conventional in view of the technology level and related to lactose content reduction; all the initial milk components including calcium are preserved in the product.
14 cl, 15 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing nanocrystalline cellulose used in industry. The disclosed method includes hydrolysis of bleached pulp with sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid, followed by separation of nanocrystalline cellulose and separation of liquid wastes into a monosaccharide fraction and an oligosaccharide fraction using a pair of selective membranes.
EFFECT: novel efficient and cheap method of producing nanocrystalline cellulose, which enables to produce other valuable carbohydrates and recycle acid used in production of nanocrystalline cellulose.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding a first portion a stream of furnace gas for cleaning to a carbon dioxide absorption trapping step, simultaneously feeding a second portion of furnace gas along the entrance surface of a membrane, feeding a stream of blow-out gas, usually air, along the exit surface, and then returning the blow-out gas with the penetrating substance to the furnace chamber.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient cleaning of furnace gases.
23 cl, 6 dwg, 8 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment plants. Proposed BBC plant comprises prefiltering unit 1, primary cleaning unit 2, decontamination unit and control unit. Additionally, this plant comprises water accumulator connected with prefiltering unit and water feed unit connected with primary cleaning unit and decontamination unit. Said primary cleaning unit 2 is composed by nanofiltration and hyperfiltration devices.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of filtration.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of water purification from dissolved organic substances and can be applied for purification of natural waters and sewages. Method includes catalytic oxidation of water solution components in membrane reactor in presence of dissolved gases-oxidants, with processed solution before membrane reactor being preliminarily kept in saturator under work pressure of transmembrane filtering until total gas-saturation of solution. As catalysts catalytically active membranes, dissolved homogenous catalysts and/or dispersions of heterogeneous catalysts can be applied.
EFFECT: result consists in simplification and increase of reliability of catalytic oxidation in membrane reactors, for instance, in the process of polluted water purification.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to membrane technology, particularly, to production of antibacterial polymer membranes to be used in water and aqueous solution treatment in food and pharmaceutical industries, and medicine. Proposed method comprises making polymer solution, forming of polymer membrane and processing with antibacterial substance. Produced membrane is dried, rinsed with water and subjected to final drying. Said antibacterial substance represents composition containing the following components in wt %: 5-10 of poorly soluble or insoluble slats of silver, 2-25 of formic acid an 65-93 of water.
EFFECT: prolonged antibacterial properties.
SUBSTANCE: method includes steps (a) of treating water with an effective amount of one or more water-soluble cationic polymers, amphoteric polymers, zwitterionic polymers or combinations thereof; (b) passing the treated water through a membrane separation system; and (c) optionally passing filtrate from step (b) through an additional membrane separation system.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simplification of the process.
16 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cleaning and separation of helium-bearing fuel gases including natural and associated oil gases. Proposed method comprises creating the flow of dried green gas cleaned of carbon dioxide and sulfuric compounds, cryogenic processing with removal and derivation of methane product fractions and heavy hydrocarbon fractions, and processing aimed at helium extraction and helium concentrate flow production. Processing with extraction of helium till cryogenic processing is carried out by diaphragm gas separation with feed of compressed green gas to high-pressure inlet of the primary diaphragm gas separation unit and forcing of said green gas along diaphragm helium-permeable surface. Gas flow penetrated through diaphragm is discharged as low-pressure helium concentrate while high-pressure gas not penetrated the diaphragm is fed to cryogenic processing.
EFFECT: lower costs, higher yield, simplified process.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: collagen-containing raw materials are frozen to a temperature no higher than minus 10°C and no lower than18°C. The raw materials are milled till sides size is equal to 2-7 mm, dehydrated and defatted with dimethyl ether under a pressure by way of raw materials placement in the extractor. The extractor filling coefficient is to be no more than 70% of the extractor volume. Raw materials are vacuumised in the extractor at vacuum depth no less than 0.1 atm; then dimethyl ether is pumped into the extractor for creation of pressure in the system no less than 1 atm and no more than 10 atm. Extraction lasts 60-120 minutes. Then one removes dimethyl ether, drains fat and water that are delivered for separation for components dividing. The defatted and dehydrated raw materials remaining in the extractor are steamed during 30-70 minutes with 105-115°C acute steam. After steaming completion the raw material temperature is not to be more than 40°C. Then the defatted and dehydrated raw materials are delivered for milling till powdery condition.
EFFECT: obtainment of protein and fat from the collagen-containing raw materials where the produced protein composition without foreign smells, with smell and colour specific to such kinds of products, has high values of moisture-binding and fat-retentive capability; during hydration and further thermal treatment stable and steady gels are formed.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-exchange compositions, used in cooling systems and heat-transmitting devices. Heat-exchange composition includes, at least, approximately 45 wt % of trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R-1234ze(E)), to approximately 10 wt % of carbon dioxide (R-744) and from approximately 2 to approximately 50 wt % of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a).
EFFECT: combination of required properties of good cold productivity; low combustibility, low greenhouse potential value WGP with improved miscibility with lubricating materials (lubricants) in comparison with existing refrigerants, such as R-134a and R-1234yf.
59 cl, 1 dwg, 30 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions, methods and systems, used in many fields, including in particular heat transmission systems, for instance, cooling systems, foam generators, foam compositions, foams and products, including foam or made of foam, methods of obtaining foams, including single-component ones, aerosols, propellents, cleaning compositions. Compositions, used for said systems, contain, at least, about 5 wt % of 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (HFCO-1233zd) and 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze).
EFFECT: claimed compositions have advantages for wide spectrum of applications and are free of disadvantages of known compositions.
86 cl, 14 tbl, 54 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sewage disposal plants. Proposed device comprises cylindrical housing 1 with cover 5 and bottom 6 incorporating the process activator 4. Housing top part accommodates effluent feed pipe and fouled extractant discharge pipe while housing bottom is provided with purified water discharge pipe and pure extractant feed pipe. Process activator is composed of inert nozzle made up of cylindrical ring with two hemispherical surface secured thereto in opposition so that diametral planes of hemispheres are aligned with top and bottom bases of cylindrical ring. Peaks of said hemispherical surfaces are located at ring axis and directed toward each other.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water treatment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of inhibiting polymerisation of vinyl aromatic compounds during extractive distillation includes the following steps: a) providing a mixture containing styrene; b) adding one 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) inhibitor to the mixture; and c) performing extractive distillation of the mixture after step b) to of separate styrene; d) forming less than 200 ppmw of a polymer from the styrene.
EFFECT: minimum polymer formation.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises extraction, filtration, evaporation, and is characterised in that extraction is carried out in two stages with 30% aqueous solution of ethanol at a temperature 70°C of each stage, with the exposure of 1 hour, the extract is purified by an alcohol method at a temperature of 4°C, then the resulting product is filtered from the pectin precipitate and the filtrate is evaporated to dry residue.
EFFECT: improved method.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. The method is based on extracting WF6 from a (WF6:HF) mixture with benzene (C6H6). The extraction process is carried out with ratio of benzene to the mixture of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride ranging from 7:1 to 2:1, at temperature of 300-303 K for 15 minutes with mechanical mixing. The mixture is then cooled to 278-283 K and the obtained solution is transferred to a dividing device. The purification process is carried out in liquid phase without using solid sorbents.
EFFECT: invention enables to separate an azeotropic mixture of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride.
SUBSTANCE: method of extracting theobromine from aqueous solutions involves preparation of an aqueous salt solution of theobromine via dissolution thereof in a saturated solution of a salting-out agent, extraction and analysis of the equilibrium aqueous phase, where theobromine is extracted with a solution of a solvotropic reagent, specifically dioctyl phthalate in an ethyl acetate/chloroform mixture (0.2:0.8 mole fractions, respectively) with concentration of 0.85-0.90 mol/dm3 for 7-10 minutes from the aqueous salt solution of theobromine, having pH 4.3±0.5. The ratio of the volume of the aqueous salt solution of theobromine to that of the extractant is equal to 10:1; the salting-out agent used is ammonium sulphate solution. Further, the water-salt phase is separated from the organic phase and analysis is carried out via UV spectrophotometry at wavelength of 272 nm; concentration of theobromine in the analysed aqueous solution is determined from a calibration curve, and the distribution coefficient (D) and degree of extraction of theobromine (R, %) are calculated using formulae.
EFFECT: method of extracting theobromine from aqueous solutions is characterised by rapidness and enables to achieve virtually full extraction of theobromine from an aqueous salt solution.
SUBSTANCE: saccharose and phenylalanine solutions are prepared in a small volume of water, put into a measuring flask and brought up to the volume with a saturated solution of a salting-out agent in form of ammonium sulphate; saccharose and phenylalanine are then extracted by adding acetone to the obtained aqueous salt solution of saccharose and phenylalanine with the volume ratio of the aqueous salt solution of saccharose and phenylalanine to acetone of 20:1; extraction is carried out for 7-10 minutes; after demixing of the system, the aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase; content of saccharose in the aqueous phase is determined from a reaction with potassium dichromate in the presence of sulphuric acid; a photoelectric colorimeter is used to measure optical density of the coloured solution at wavelength 590 nm (thickness of the light-absorbing layer of 1 cm); a calibration curve of optical density of the solution versus concentration of saccharose is plotted; the calibration curve is used to determine concentration of saccharose in the aqueous phase; the organic phase is quantitatively transferred into a cell for potentiometric titration and titrated with 0.01 mol/l KOH solution in anhydrous ethyl alcohol; the indicator electrode is a glass electrode; the comparison electrode used is a silver chloride electrode filled with saturated KCl solution in ethyl alcohol; the electromotive force of the solution is measured on a high-resistance potentiometer; there is a maximum on the differential curve of potentiometric titration which corresponds to content of phenylalanine in the extract.
EFFECT: easier, more reliable and safer analysis.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extraction of substances with organic extractants from aqueous solutions, particularly a method of obtaining samarium (III) cations from impoverished or industrial material using a liquid extraction technique. The method of extracting samarium (III) cations involves liquid extraction using an extractant - isooctyl alcohol and an organic diluent in form of sodium dodecylsuphate in a concentration which corresponds to stoichiometry. Extraction is carried out at pH=3.0-6.0.
EFFECT: invention enables to achieve 90% extraction of samarium (III) cations in aqueous solutions of salts thereof.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex