Method for producing water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles from shungit
SUBSTANCE: first the shungite rock is chopped. The obtained shungite powder is poured with water at a ratio of the weight of the shungite powder to the mass of water of 1: 2 and left to stand for three days, after which it is filtered. The remaining powder of shungite is dried and dispersed in water using grinding bodies with a diameter of 1-3 mm at a ratio of the mass of the shungite powder to the mass of water and the mass of grinding bodies 1: 4: 3 for 60 minutes. Then the mixture is filtered, the shungite powder is dried. Then dispersing and filtering the shungite powder is carried out in water by ultrasound in the ratio of the mass of the shungite powder to the mass of water 1:20, a frequency of 22 kHz and power of 1000 W for 35 minutes. The resulting water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles is centrifuged for 15 minutes at 10000 rpm.
EFFECT: increasing the stability of water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles during storage.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of reforming with application of catalyst. Described is method of reforming hydrocarbons with water vapour, including contact of supplied gas in reactor of catalytic partial oxidation or installation for autothermal reforming. Reactor operates at temperature 800-1600°C and pressure of 20-100 bar. Egg shell type catalyst, consisting of active compound in form of alloy of nickel and one metal from iridium and ruthenium, on supporter, containing aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide or their combinations. Catalyst has cylindrical shape and has one or several through holes, where distance from centre to external catalyst surface constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, catalyst height constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, with diameter of one or several through holes constituting from 3 to 30 mm. At least 90 wt % of iridium or ruthenium in catalyst are located in external envelope which has depth up to 10% of external catalyst surface or to 10% of periphery of one or several through holes of catalyst.
EFFECT: realisation of method of catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming at reduced drop of pressure in catalyst layer without reduction of catalyst activity.
12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of petrochemistry and more specifically to a method of producing synthesis gas which is used as the feedstock, for example, for the synthesis of methanol, dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch method. The method of producing synthesis gas comprises oxidative conversion of methane-containing gas at a temperature more than 650°C in through-flow riser, using as oxidant the microspherical or crushed catalyst based on metal oxides, capable of multiple redox transitions, at that the catalyst is continuously passed through the riser upwards in the methane-containing gas flow with a residence time of the feedstock in the reaction zone of 0.1-10 s, separating the catalyst passing from the reactor from the product and regeneration of the catalyst by oxidation with carbon dioxide in the regenerator from which the regenerated catalyst enters the reactor. The oxidative conversion of methane-containing feedstock and regeneration of regenerated catalyst is carried out simultaneously and continuously.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the removal rate of the product, to reduce energy consumptions for transportation of oxygen-containing agent, to reduce the risk of explosion and ignition, as well as to adjust the composition of the synthesis gas.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining hydrogen from reagents, including liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and/or oxygen-containing compounds, including those, obtained from biomass, and their mixture. In order to obtain hydrogen used are: section of reagents heating; section of catalytic partial oxidation with short contact time, in which synthesis-gas is obtained; section of heat recuperation; section of converting carbon monoxide, present in synthesis-gas, into carbon dioxide by reaction of water gas conversion; section of said carbon dioxide removal; section of condensate cooling and removal.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain H2 and CO2 of high purity and purge gas with average heat-generating ability, which can be used in combustion processed and/or introduced into installation fuel supply system.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst for heterogeneous reactions, which includes copper, chromium, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional component is disclosed. The catalyst contains, as the additional component, 0.5-5 wt % of a silicon compound with respect to the oxide and the catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components, and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO 50.0-57.0; Cr2O3 11.0-16.0; ZnO 9.5-13.0; SiO2 0.5-5.0; aluminium oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst having high strength, thermal stability and which can be used in different chemical processes.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a system for hydrogen development and a method for controlled hydrogen development. A method consists in carrying out a reaction of a metal agent selected in alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys and mixtures consisting of alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys consisting of at least one alkali metal, and at least one alkali earth metal with water for producing hydrogen and a residual product of reaction in the form of metal hydroxide specified in alkali hydroxides and alkali earth hydroxides; the metal agent is condensed by heating in vacuum; the liquid metal agent is supplied into a homogeneous reactor by extrusion by means of feed units, and water is simultaneously supplied to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of water in accordance with an amount of the liquid metal agent; the hydrogen and residual product are transported into the separation units and separated; separated hydrogen is transported into a hydrogen receiver; the residual reaction product is transported into a metal hydroxide receiver; the oxygen ingress into the metal agent feed units, water feed system, reactor, separators and hydrogen receiver by the selective use of vacuum.
EFFECT: developing the method for controlled hydrogen development.
22 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a copper-zinc catalyst, which includes copper, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional silicon compound. The catalyst contains 0.5-5.0 wt % of a silicon compound, with respect to the oxide, which is mixed with copper and zinc oxides. The catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO - 40.0-55.0; ZnO - 24.0-35.0; SiO2 - 0.5-5.0; AlO3 - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-zinc catalyst having high strength and thermal stability.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the production process of synthetic gas by hydrocarbon conversion, and namely to processes of oxidative conversion. The synthetic gas is produced at the combustion of a hydrocarbon stock with an oxidiser with the oxidiser excess coefficient less than 1 at a temperature less than 1400 K inside a cavity formed partially or completely by a three-dimensional matrix permeable for the mixture of the gas and oxidiser. Input of the hydrocarbon stock with the oxidiser is made through a permeable bottom of the cavity or through permeable walls and bottom of the cavity, while the output of combustion products is made through the upper cross-section of the cavity. Before input to the cavity the mixture of the gas and oxidiser or one gas of the mixture partially or completely is heated by heat produced by combustion products. The matrix is heated additionally by heat radiation reflected from the screen placed in the matrix cavity and permeable for the combustion products.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to the increased output of the synthetic gas at the usage of hydrocarbon mixtures with the high content of non-combustible products having a low calorific value.
2 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding of raw gas mix into a set of pipes containing the catalyst into reforming-furnaces, execution of reforming reaction for formation of the reformat containing H2, CO, CH4 and H2O, withdrawal of reformat, burning of fuel with heated gas oxidiser in the reforming-furnace combustion chamber unit, for obtaining of a gaseous combustion product and generation of heat for the purpose of power supply of raw gas mix reaction in pipes, combustion product withdrawal, heating of gas oxidiser by heat exchange with the combustion product, with obtaining of heated gas oxidiser, cooling of the combustion product, heating of the first feeding water flow by heat exchange with the combustion product, with combustion product cooling. Before this from the combustion product the heat is withdrawn for gas oxidiser heating, heating of the second feeding water flow by heat exchange with reformat, supply of the first and second feeding water flows into the deaerator, separation of dissolved gases from flows in the deaerator, withdrawal of the ventilating flow from the deaerator, withdrawal of flow of water feeding the boiler from the deaerator, formation of hydrogenous product from the reformat after heating by reformat of the second feeding water flow, and formation of steam product from part of the flow of water feeding the boiler.
EFFECT: increased amount of withdrawn steam.
17 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for producing carbon dioxide granules comprises a liquid carbon dioxide sprayer, a chain formed by plates that are pivotally interconnected with spacing, supporting driving wheels, rollers which are mounted with spacing from each other to compress snow transported by the chain, a partition wall which can rise and descent to adjust the thickness of snow when forming granules, a supporting-unloading wheel and a tray.
EFFECT: obtaining solid particles of a given size.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of a fulleride of a metal nano-cluster and to a material containing a fulleride of a metal nano-cluster. The method for synthesis of a fulleride of a metal nano-cluster includes mechanically alloying metal nano-clusters with particle size between 5 nm and 60 nm with fullerene-type clusters by milling in a planetary mill, wherein fullerene molecules in the fulleride of a metal nano-cluster are preserved. The material obtained using said method contains a fulleride of a metal nano-cluster.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain nano-blocks with improved mechanical properties, having high hardness, wherein metal nano-clusters are preserved during sintering.
12 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nanoaggregates of water-soluble fullerene derivatives, which can be used for reducing toxicity and enhancing therapeutic action of drugs for oncologic diseases. There are presented nanoaggregates of water-soluble fullerene derivatives of general formula [C2i(R)mXl]k, wherein k=3-1,000,000,000; wherein the values i, l, m, X and R are described by the following formulas: i=30, m=5, X=H, l=1, while R is a residue of thioic acid of formula -S(CnH2n)COOH, n=2 in the form of potassium salt; i=30, m=5, a X=H, l=1, R is a phosphonate residue of P(O)(OR4) (OR4') (OR4''), wherein R4, R4',R4'' are ethyl radical; i=30, m=5, X=Cl, l=1, while R is an aryl residue of formula -C6H4(CnH2n)COOH, wherein n=3, which can be presented in the form of potassium salt; i=35, m=8, l=0, while R is an aryl residue of formula -C6H4(CnH2n)COOH, wherein n=2, in the form of potassium salt.
EFFECT: there are presented new nanoaggregates, which can be effective in treating the oncologic diseases.
2 cl, 9 ex, 1 tbl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of nanotechnology and nanoelectronics. The method of forming the nanosized film of tungsten carbide comprises application on the semiconductor or dielectric substrate in the process of pulsed-plasma deposition on the dual channel unit of pulsed deposition electroerosion arc plasma of two-layer structure of coating with a total thickness of 5 nm, consisting of a film of tungsten and the carbon film, and carbothermic synthesis in vacuum with the pressure not greater than 5·10-4 Pa and the temperature of not more than 450°C for not more than 10 minutes with heating and cooling rate of not less than 25 deg/min with a ratio of the thicknesses of tungsten and carbon films of 5:1 and 3.5:1.
EFFECT: invention provides the ability of formation of films of tungsten carbide in the technology of silicon integrated circuit as diffusion barriers and superhard coatings.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology, namely the material and method of production of spherical conglomerates containing nanoparticles (NP) of metal, particularly copper, in the shell of another substance or organic polymer. At that the NP is obtained in the individual state or in the form of component parts of the nanocomposites, including polymer-containing. The invention relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting of homogeneous spherical conglomerates with a diameter of 50-200 nm of the polymer with spherical copper nanoparticles embedded in it with a diameter of 5-10 nm. The invention also relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting in thermal decomposition of the precursor of the composite at 450°C in the inert atmosphere.
EFFECT: obtaining the composite of uniform spherical conglomerates comprising a plurality of nanoparticles of copper embedded in the polymer matrix, with a narrow area of distribution in size.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: carbon nanostructure surface is modified with (2,4,5-triiodophenyl)-methanol; the modified carbon nanostructures are analysed to measure a iodine amount; the prepared modified carbon nanostructures are administered into an experimental animal's body to take organs and tissues thereafter, to homogenise them in a 0.5-2 M NaOH solution, to sample a homogenate, to dilute with water, to expose the diluted sample to ultrasound to a temperature of 40-70°C, to determine a iodine amount in the prepared sample by mass spectrometry with inductively bound plasma and to calculate the carbon nanostructure content in the sample as shown by a difference of the iodine amount in the sample prior to administration of the modified carbon nanostructures and after administration thereof into the body and to re-calculate this iodine amount into the carbon nanostructure content in the sample with the use of the initial iodine content in the modified carbon nanostructure.
EFFECT: method provides monitoring in vivo of the carbon nanostructure distribution in the body.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the filming technology and relates to structures comprising molecular structures with a high aspect ratio (HARM structures) and method of their manufacturing. The nanocarbon film structure comprising HARM structures, where the structure comprises a substantially planar network of randomly oriented HARM structures and the substrate in contact with the network. The substrate has an opening, at that in the peripheral area of the said opening the network is in contact with the substrate so that the middle part of the network is not fixed on the substrate. The method comprises the stages of manufacturing the flat network of HARM structures on the prepared substrate near or in contact with the substrate having an opening, by applying the HARM structures on the prepared substrate and the opening of the substrate, and removal of the prepared substrate from the network.
EFFECT: invention provides creation of the new types of structures comprising HARM structures.
9 cl, 12 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing azafullerene C48N12, where a suspension of β-naphthol in water is nitrated with nitric acid with concentration of 5-6% at temperature of 96-98°C on a water bath for 2-2.5 hours in the presence of acetic acid in amount of 25-30 ml/l with respect to glacial acetic acid; the formed reaction mass is filtered, ground, washed with water from nitric acid to a neutral medium and dried at temperature of 70-80°C; to obtain azafullerene C48N12 with purity of 96-98%, selective washing is carried out in a Soxhlet apparatus, after which the azafullerene is recrystallised, washed and dried at temperature of 70-80°C.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain said azafullerene via low-temperature liquid-phase synthesis.
10 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of metal-carbon-bearing bodies. Said bodies include ferromagnetic metal particles encapsulated with graphite carbon plies. This method comprises impregnation of cellulose, cellulose-like or carbohydrate boy or bodies produced by hydrothermal treatment with aqueous solution of at least one metal compound. Said metal or metals are selected from ferromagnetic metals or alloys. Then, impregnated bodies are subjected to thermal carbonisation by heating said bodies in inert atmosphere deprived, practically of oxygen at temperature over about 700°C. Now, the portion of at least one metal compound is reduced to appropriate metal or metal alloy.
EFFECT: production of catalytically active bodies.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves physical vacuum sputtering of a target with an ion beam, transferring vapour to the growing surface of substrates and growing coatings of a given composition and defined structure. The method is characterised by that the target sputtered by ions is made of a fullerene mixture 0.8 C60, 0.15 C70, 0.04 higher fullerenes and 0.01 oxides C60O and C70O with fractional weight content of the corresponding dopant element 0.02 Fe, 0.01 Na, 0.01 B, 0.003 Gd or 0.01 Se.
EFFECT: use of the disclosed method improves efficiency of the process owing to a new approach for producing coatings containing fullerenes and impurity elements, reduces power consumption and increases output.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.