Method for determining position of front part of glacier from spacecraft (sc) on near-circular orbit
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining the position of the front part of a glacier from a near-circular orbit includes determining the current orbital parameters, surveying the glacier and stationary indicative ground points from the SC at the moments taken in a given time interval, and determining the speed of the front part of the glacier from the images obtained. In addition, the SC orbit is adjusted, changing its height in the selected limits to a value based on the value of the latitude argument us of the orbit subsolar point at the beginning of the glacier's ablation season. Since the beginning of the glacier ablation season, the glacier and stationary indicative points around the glacier are surveyed at the moments, taken in the specified time interval, selected from the determination condition of displacement of the glacier front part based on the obtained images. Then the survey of the glacier and stationary indicative points around the glacier is performed in regular intervals, counted off from the moment of the previous survey of the glacier and starting with the current time, forecast based on the obtained images and in which the front part of the glacier will move by the distance, equal to the angular resolution of the SC survey system, multiplied by the height of the orbit, and ending with the current time, forecast based on the obtained images, until the front part of the glacier reaches the specified ground point, reduced by the specified time for preparatory operations before the front part of the glacier reaches it. The obtained images determine the distance from the indicative ground points to the front part of the glacier, based on which the speed, acceleration and the acceleration derivative of the front part of the glacier are determined.
EFFECT: formation of a near-circular orbit of the spacecraft to determine the parameters of the glacier's displacement, starting from the beginning of the glacier's ablation season.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining a position of mechanisms in a working face in underground mining is provided, comprising the following steps: a video camera is mounted in a roof timber area of a roof support with the viewing direction mainly in the direction of an air flow, or opposite it, the camera is oriented so that the vanishing point of the image from the camera is in the area of the right or the left upper corner of the image from the camera, illuminated markings are provided on the mechanisms along the working face in the area of the image from the camera and they are operated, as well as the positions of the mechanisms are determined by means of electronic processing of the markings located on the camera image. Also a system and a video camera for implementing the method are proposed.
EFFECT: providing the opportunity of simultaneous monitoring of the straightness of the working face, recording of a vertical and horizontal deflection of roof supports and the conveyors, controlling automatically the stroke of the roof supports, or to monitor the mining machine.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of contactless measurements of geometric parameters of an object in space. During realisation of the method on the surface of the object they identify one and/or more separate areas, for which one may in advance make several different simplified mathematical parametric models on the basis of previously known geometric laws of the investigated object, which characterise shape, position, movement, deformation. Markers are applied onto the object surface, grouping by separate areas into separate groups. Then they register images of central projection of the specified markers. And on their basis with account of previously known geometric laws of the investigated object and using methods of multidimensional minimisation of differences they determine sought for geometric parameters of the object.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of measurements of geometric parameters of an object when using one chamber, especially under conditions of restricted surrounding space and limited optical access.
4 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to information satellite systems (ISS) for various purposes, the tasks of which generally come down to scanning (continuously or periodically) a planet, particularly the Earth. In the disclosed ISS, satellites for scanning a region of a given latitude band with lower latitudes are taken to orbits with an inclination which is less than the inclination of the orbit to which satellites for scanning a region with higher latitudes are taken. High-latitude satellites also scan regions with said lower latitudes. Such an ISS design is preferable because scanning bands along adjacent satellite paths approach and overlap as the latitude rises. Satellite orbits can be selected close to circular with an average altitude which is different for high-latitude and low-latitude satellites. The essential condition of the ISS design is the equality between the regression velocities of the orbital nodal line for all satellites. This condition enables to maintain the structure of the ISS (given diversity of orbital planes on the longitude of the ascending node). Thus, the required number of satellites in the ISS and/or width of the scanning band is reduced. For a given number of satellites in the ISS and a fixed width of the scanning band, observation characteristics are improved (reduced scanning frequency, high accuracy of the navigation field etc.).
EFFECT: high efficiency of the ISS due to reduced non-uniformity on the width of conditions for scanning the surface of a planet with satellites.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Method for determination of geographic position of observed area of observation equipment being moved relative to SC includes navigational measurements of SC movement, determination of centre of mass position and SC orientation, determination of observation equipment spatial position. Additionally, control commands are generated for emitting pulse ultrasonic signals by at least three emitters located in spaced points on observation equipment freely moved relative to SC, emitted pulse ultrasonic signals are received by at least three ultrasonic receivers located in spaced points on SC. Ultrasonic signal delay time is measured on the basis of emitted and received ultrasonic signals. Synchronisation of pulse ultrasonic signal emission and receive times is performed via radio channel. Temperature measurement is performed at locations of ultrasonic emitters and at locations of ultrasonic receivers. On the basis of ultrasonic signal receive delay times and measured temperatures the distances form ultrasonic emitters to ultrasonic receivers are determined. Geographic position of observation area is determined on the basis of SC centre of mass position relative to planet, SC orientation relative to planet and spatial position of observation equipment relative to SC calculated from distances from ultrasonic emitters to ultrasonic receivers. System for determination of geographic position of observed area of observation equipment being moved relative to SC includes SC centre of mass position determination unit, SC orientation determination unit, observed area geographic position determination unit. Additionally, following devices are introduced: at least three ultrasonic emitters and at least one temperature sensor installed on observation equipment, at least three ultrasonic receivers and at least one temperature sensor installed on SC, emitter control command generation unit, controllers, radio transceivers, signal amplifier, automatic gain control unit, multichannel analogue-to-digital converter, signal delay time measurement unit, synchroniser, unit for determination of observation equipment spatial position relative to SC. Device for emitters arrangement on observation equipment contains detachable connection one of detachable parts of which is rigidly connected with observation equipment. Additionally, at least three pillars are introduced on each one of which ultrasonic emitters are installed. The pillars are rigidly connected with the other detachable part of detachable connection. Emission axes of ultrasonic emitters are parallel to observation equipment sensing axis. Distances from ultrasonic emitters to observation equipment sensing axis are selected by proposed formula depending on dimensions of observation equipment lens and SC window through which observations are performed and on minimum distance from observation equipment to the window.
EFFECT: highly precise determination of geographic position of area being observed through observation equipment freely moved in zero gravity conditions relative to SC and having no mechanical connection with SC, while providing possibility to use various exchangeable observation devices.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: based on multispectral satellite images obtained from public sources, preliminary geobothanical mapping is carried out with creation of maps of stock of separate groups of vegetable feeds of deer farms. The archival satellite images are collected and analysed to identify climatogenic and weather effects on vegetation in the considered years or series of years. The field studies of the territory are carried out on the model sites allocated in the process of preliminary geobotanic mapping. The said field studies include description of the flora and selection of the dominant classes of vegetation, soil within natural and disturbed communities of rangelands of the territory under area, aerial visual interpretation of landscape units and geobotanic borders in course of helicopter routes, identifying disturbed areas and successionally changing phytocenoses. The accuracy of classification is evaluated, made in the process of geo-botanical mapping, comparing it with the materials of the field studies. A single topographic basis for plan-mapping materials, archival data and the results of geobotanical mapping and fieldwork is created. The single topographic base is created in the form of separate vector layers and raster maps based on the hydrographic network, topographic contours, height (digital model of the relief), production facilities and infrastructure. Then these materials are integrated into a single geographic information system and produce a polygonal structure of economic and geobotanical contours of the rangelands of deer farms. The final phased classification of vegetation in program packages is carried out with raster satellite image processing. The geobotanic mapping of the territories of rangelands of deer farms is carried out while making an assessment of matrix of the data convergence between the selected vegetation classes based on satellite images materials and field research data. As a result of the above, the updated geobotanic maps with the estimated statistically significant level of convergence are obtained. Then the projective coverage of selected plant communities within the individual household geobotanic contours of rangelands of deer farms is calculated. The quantitative characteristics of the stock of feed units selected from the group are evaluated: lichenous and green shrubby feed, green herbal feed, using the decomposition method of spectral mixtures. This is based on the fact that the proportion of feed units is taken in proportion to their area in the projection on the Earth's surface. Assessment of individual parts of feed units is carried out. The spatially organised database is created, comprising polygonal structures of economic-geobotanic contours of rangelands of deer farms and attribute data connected with them through the personal identifier on the area of individual classes of vegetation inside the areas of deer farms, water surfaces, open grounds, soils of the disturbed areas, on average stock of feed units of the areas of deer farms. The economic maps of stock of feed units of deer farms are created and the project of development of rangelands of deer farms is formed.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and operational efficiency of resource assessment of the rangelands of reindeers.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of fault locations are determined based on coordinates of points of thermal images with high temperature. In a differential mode of a satellite radio navigation system, directional cosines of vectors from points of the centre and corners of the thermal image to the centre of the camera lens of the thermal imager are calculated in a coordinate system linked with an aircraft based on values of the viewing angles of the camera of the thermal imager; directional cosines of these vectors are determined in a topocentric coordinate system based on the measured spatial orientation angles of the aircraft and a rotation matrix, expressed through Euler angles; distance from the points of the thermal image to the centre of the camera lens of the thermal imager is determined based on information on the height of the diagnosed object above the earth, the altitude of the aircraft, measured by an altimeter.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: globe has a toroidal body which is a chamber made from one or more components made from elastic material. The chamber can be filled with working medium and has inlet and outlet elements on its side walls. A flat cover with a picture of the globe has a shape which corresponds to the shape of the toroidal chamber and is attached to the chamber on the perimetre.
EFFECT: ensuring compactness of the globe during transportation, easier installation at a location and possibility of easily changing the image on the surface of the globe.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of making tidal charts involves determination of tidal height from a harmonic wave component bounded on the periphery of the water body, given by amplitude, position angle and period, and further processing, wherein the tidal height is determined taking into account angular velocity of the harmonic wave component, where real plane coordinates of points of the water body directed east and north, respectively, are determined, and tidal height values of the harmonic wave component at a fixed moment in time are determined through the projection of a point on a phase circle corresponding to said sea level, parameters of which are determined taking into account location of inner points of the water body and its periphery, and the oscillation amplitude of the harmonic wave component is determined from tidal height values at points with real plane coordinates for a sequential set of discrete time values, from the value of which the time for maximum tidal height is determined. Formation of observation rows in the disclosed method is carried out through decomposition of the oscillation spectrum at non-overlapping intervals and decomposition of the original row into components for each frequency interval, and harmonic constant estimation is carried out for each separate glow, wherein further estimation of stability of harmonic constants is performed, non-periodic tidal oscillations are determined, when constructing isolines, a proximity measure between two systems of isolines is determined, by constructing a Hausdorff metric, the time and spatial variability of the age of the tide between amphidromic points on the isolines is determined.
EFFECT: easier tidal chart plotting and high reliability of said charts.
SUBSTANCE: method of estimating distribution and reserves of resources and endangered species of plants in large territories involves making route field observations using GPS/GLONASS navigation receivers to determine areas where the investigated plant populations are growing, selecting and processing satellite imaging materials, detecting a link between spectral characteristics of the determined areas and field measurement results, modelling distribution and reserves, followed by checking the obtained results and estimating reserves of resources and endangered plant species.
EFFECT: method which enables to estimate density of cenopopulations and reserves of phytomass on large territories based on field investigation data and analysis of high-resolution spectrozonal satellite images Landsat, and the method also enables to forecast reserves of plant material for part of the territory.
SUBSTANCE: method for detection of crushed rock grain size composition in mines includes application of photoplanogram of crushed rock surface and detection of grain size composition by means of classification into size grades. On surface of fallen rock mass dump in mine in any available space an intentionally oriented scaling rectangle is placed with intentionally selected lengths of sides. Then photographed at any angle, photoplanogram is introduced into computer to form a quadrangular design contour of intentional size, which is not related to dimensions and location of scaling rectangle. Areas of rock pieces are contoured, size grades are set within the limits of design contour, using software, grain size composition of crushed rock is determined by size grades of rock pieces areas ratio to area of design contour.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of grain size composition detection and reduced labour intensiveness of photoplanograms processing.
FIELD: digital cartography and symbolic circuits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming matrix for transforming image or objects coordinates distortion matrix on certain digital plans and symbolic circuits relatively to true geographic coordinates received for tracked objects via navigation devices of users, by combining plans or symbolic circuits with precise terrain chart. Distortion matrix is included in contour of displaying objects on plans and circuits, on basis of true geographic coordinates of tracked objects, sent in by users. A layer of plan or circuit of terrain transformed according to matrix is formed, on which tracked objects are marked by certain graphic symbols. Data, received on circuit, for example, route and movement speed of each tracked object, is relayed to certain users with visualization of symbolic circuit on indication device of each user. Device for realization of method has digital terrain chart, received information processing device, information indication device, n components of subscribers complex. Each component has device for determining coordinates on terrain connected by its input to output of controlling device, directly or through encoder/decoder. Outputs of control device are connected to inputs of information indication device and to device for connecting to radio channel. Device for connecting each subscriber component to radio channel is connected by its input to output of control device and is connected to group device for connecting to radio channel belonging to base portion of device for receiving digital cartographic material. Another input and output of group device for connecting to radio channel are connected directly to output and input of coordinates transforming and controlling device or respectively to output and input of second encoder/decoder, connected by other its input and output respectively to output and input of device for coordinates transformation and control. Another input of coordinates transformation and control device is connected to output of distortion matrix storage device. Next input and output of coordinates transformation and control device are connected respectively to output and input of block, containing digital terrain charts and to output and input of block, containing symbolic circuits or plans of same terrain.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation, higher effectiveness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes field area examination, visualization of digital map on screen of video-control device of first computer complex placed under stationary conditions. Second computer complex is deployed under field conditions. Data files with data concerning the area, received under field conditions, are formed. These files are converted to encoded texts, adapted to remote transfer in mode close to real time scale. Information from first and second computer complexes is combined via remote transfer means. Contents of changes and additions files formed during field area examination are outputted to screen of stationary complex. Level of data trustworthiness is determined during editing of digital are map. Files with lists of required corrections are formed and this data is sent to second computer complex, in accordance to which route of field area examination is corrected. Device for realization of above-said method has two computer complexes, one of which is stationary, and another is for field use. Each of these is provided with input block for contents of digital area map, video-control device with screen for visualization of data, means for controlling image on screen and means for forming data files, formed during actualization of digital area map, block for data files conversion, which files were formed during map actualization, into encoded texts, adapted to remote transfer in time scale close to real and backwards, means for remote transfer of these texts in scale close to real time. Complexes are made with possible autonomous operation.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness and trustworthiness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement of coordinates of objects located in liquid.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes recording image of object from several positions, identification of image points and calculation of their spatial coordinates. Three reference contrast points are placed on surface of liquid at fixed distance between them; then, image of reference points and object is recorded through surface of liquid, coordinates of reference points and points of object are measured in coordinate system of image, external parameters of orientation of image relative to surface of liquid are calculated, coordinates of points of object are calculated in objective coordinate system on basis of photos taking into account refracting factors of liquid.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement due to taking into account refracting properties of liquid.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises obtaining data base on the local relief by aerospace means with a high spatial resolution, dividing the matrix for the local area into fragments by 3x3 pixels, calculating finite differences of the first order from the coordinates with respect to the central pixel, and determining the are of the relief by a numerical method.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of determining.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for cadastre metering of terrain with complicated shape. Massifs of digital models of terrain are achieved by aerospace means providing high spatial resolution. Array of digital models of terrain is divided to fragments to get 2x2 adjacent pixels window. Window is divided to triangles by diagonal. Shape is presented in form of array of inscribed triangles which have vertexes to be adjacent pixels of digital model of terrain. Area of any triangle is calculated by means of Pythagorean Theorem and Geron formula. Areas of all the windows are summed.
EFFECT: improved precision; improved truth of data.
FIELD: land-surveying, particularly photogrammetry or photographic surveying.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining coordinates of boundary points of territory under investigation on the base of prior in-situ geodetic measurements; mathematically formulating boundary line in the form or value table including latitudes and longitudes of above boundary points or in the form of analytic relation between latitudes and longitudes of above points; calculating area of above territory in complementary coordinate system; determining coordinates of geometrical territory center as a single point lying on any line connecting two opposite boundary points and dividing territory into two equal parts; recalculating geometrical center coordinates determined in complementary coordinate system into coordinates of the main coordinate system; marking the determined point in territory by any known geodesic method and forming sign in above point.
EFFECT: increased accuracy.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: monitoring technology; investigating on-route and adjacent objects.
SUBSTANCE: on-route objects are shot on photo camera or video recorder once every three years. Defects and destructive changes are detected. Repair process charts or photomaps are compiled. Kind of repairs and repair intervals for objects are assigned. Post-repair photography is made. Repair work is checked for comprehensiveness and quality.
EFFECT: reduced cost and time, enhanced quality of repaired objects and their safety in operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of remote inspection of electric circuits consists of the following procedures: 1) filming of power line by thermal imaging scanner and digital camera, 2) storage of data in computer memory, 3) calculation of geographic and cartographic coordinates of pixels of scanner photograph, 4) geometric transformation of scanner image to cartographic projection, 5) receiving of new scanner image and recording it to computer memory. On the first frame and on new scanner image like objects are found and their mutual correlation functions are defined; arguments of the functions characterize location of objects. Errors in location of like objects are minimized and first frame with high spatial resolution is received and stored. The last portion of operation is repeated for ant subsequent frame of digital camera till putting the last frame of set into coincidence and set of frames is combined into one two-layered image with high spatial resolution at known temperature of objects presented on it.
EFFECT: color two-layered image with high spatial resolution.
FIELD: localization of dangerous from the point of view of bombardment by snipers of the territorial points.
SUBSTANCE: the GPS-coordinates of the adjoining territory are calculated. Then, digital panoramic photographing territory is performed with a quantity of pictures ensuring its complete overlapping, and the photographing parameters are fixed. According to the photographings taken and the parameters of photographing, stereophotogrammetric reconnaissance of the adjoining territory is performed. According to the results of the reconnaissance, broken continuous horizontal lines outlining the remoteness of separate points located on the territory adjoining the guided object are applied on the obtained panoramic photographs. The adjoining territory is divided into the zones of reach of various firing means that are fit for bombardment of the guarded objective. In each zone of reach the points preferable for installation of the respective firing means for bombardment are divided. Data on remoteness and azimuth of any point of bombardment are revealed. According to GPS-coordinates of the adjoining territory, the GPS-coordinates of the points of bombardment. At least, the revealed points of bombardment and the data on their localization in the computer center of the guarded object are registered.
EFFECT: enhanced completeness and operativeness of reconnaissance.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: computer science, namely, engineering of devices for producing images, specifically meant for photogrammetry.
SUBSTANCE: photogrammetric workplace contains standard personal computer in base configuration, consisting of system block, monitor, keyboard, mouse-type graphical information manipulator and printer, and stereoscopic video control device, consisting of color monitor, coordinate joystick, parallax joystick, light-valve goggles and monitor adapter, first inputs-outputs of which are connected to system block of personal computer, first output - to input of color monitor, and second output - to input of light-valve goggles.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities, decreased dimensions, increased reliability of photogrammetric workplace.
3 dwg, 1 tbl